Reproductive System
Chapter 16
Male Reproduction
anatomy
sperm
Female Reproduction
anatomy
ovarian cycle
menstrual cycle
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Male Reproductive System
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 16.1
Male Reproductive Organs and Glands
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 16.1
Male Reproductive System: Produces and
Delivers Sperm
 Testes produce sperm
 Site: seminiferous tubules
 Reproductive tubules: epididymis, ductus
(vas) deferens, ejaculatory duct, penis
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Male Reproductive System: Accessory
Glands
 Seminal vesicles
 Secrete fructose, seminal fluid
 Prostate gland
 Secretes watery alkaline fluid
 Bulbourethral gland
 Secretes lubricating mucus
 Cleanses urethra
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sperm Production
 Several cell divisions of mitosis and
meiosis
 Purpose
 Produce a large number of sperm with
half the number of chromosomes of
somatic cells (haploid)
 Sequence
 Primary spermatocyte, secondary
spermatocyte, spermatids, sperm
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Blood Testosterone Concentration and
Sperm Production
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 16.3
Regulation of Male Reproductive Activity
 Hormones
 Testosterone
 Source: Leydig cells in seminiferous
tubules
 Function: controls growth and function of
male reproductive tissues, stimulates
aggression and sexual behavior, and
secondary sexual characteristics
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Regulation of Male Reproductive Activity
 Hormones (continued)
 Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH)
 LH stimulates production of testosterone
 FSH may enhance sperm formation with
Sertoli cells
 Inhibin
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Female Reproductive System
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 16.4a
Female Reproductive System
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 16.2
Female Reproductive System: Produces
Eggs and Supports Pregnancy
 Ovaries
 Release oocytes and secrete the hormones
estrogen and progesterone
 Oviduct (fallopian tube)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Female Reproductive System: Produces
Eggs and Supports Pregnancy (cont.)
 Uterus: the hollow, pear-shaped organ
where fertilized egg grows and develops
 Layers
 Endometrium: supports fertilized egg, part of
it sloughs off during menstrual flow
 Myometrium: smooth muscle, expands
during pregnancy, constricts during labor
 Cervix: the narrow opening in the lower part
of the uterus that permits sperm to enter the
uterus and allows the fetus to exit during
birth
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ovarian Cycle
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 16.6
Menstrual Cycle: Uterine Cycle
 Uterine cycle prepares uterus for
pregnancy
 Menstrual phase
 Days 1–5
 Estrogen and progesterone decrease
 Endometrial lining degenerates
 Menstruation occurs
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Menstrual Cycle: Uterine Cycle
 Uterine cycle prepares uterus for
pregnancy (cont.)
 Proliferative phase
 Days 6–14
 Estrogen and progesterone increase
 Endometrial lining proliferates
 Ovulation
 Day 14
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Menstrual Cycle: Uterine Cycle
 Uterine cycle prepares uterus for
pregnancy (cont.)
 Secretory phase
 Days 15–28
 Corpus luteum produces progesterone
and estrogen
 Endometrium continues to proliferate
 Uterine glands mature
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Menstrual Cycle
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 16.7
Regulation of the Menstrual Cycle
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 16.8
Regulation of Menstrual Cycle
 Cycles of hormones of pituitary and
reproductive structures
 Positive feedback
 In proliferative phase, increasing estrogen
causes surge in LH
 Negative feedback
 In secretory phase, steady levels of
estrogen and progesterone inhibit LH and
FSH release
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Contraceptive Methods: Failure Rates
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 16.3
Birth Control Methods
 Abstinence
 Surgical sterilization: vasectomy, tubal
ligation
 Hormonal methods: pills, injections,
patches, rings
 IUDs: small plastic or metal piece inserted
into uterus
 Diaphragms and cervical caps: block the
cervix
 Chemical spermicides: kill sperm cells
PLAY
Animation—Ovulation & Hormonal Birth Control Methods
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Birth Control Methods (cont.)
 Condoms: trap ejaculated sperm
 Natural alternatives: rhythm method,
withdrawal
 Morning-after pills: prevent pregnancy
from continuing
 Abortion: terminate pregnancy
 The future: male birth control pill; vaccines
for women
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Infertility: Inability to Conceive
 Many causes of infertility
 Number and quality of sperm
 Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
 Endometriosis
 Miscarriage
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Infertility: Inability to Conceive
 Enhancing fertility
 Artificial insemination
 In vitro fertilization
 GIFT
 ZIFT
 Fertility-enhancing drugs
 Surrogate mothers
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs):
Worldwide Problem
 Bacterial
 Gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia
 Viral
 HIV, hepatitis B, genital herpes, HPV
 Other
 Yeasts (Candida), protozoan (Trichomonas),
arthropod (pubic lice)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs):
Worldwide Problem
 Prevention strategies
 Choose partner wisely
 Communicate
 Use suitable barriers
 Get tested and treated
 Get vaccinated
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Download
Related flashcards

Reproduction

20 cards

Horse breeds

33 cards

Men

14 cards

Men

14 cards

Create Flashcards