v3_07_cereals

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Back to the Future of Cereals
Current Issues in Biology, Volume 3
Scientific American
PowerPoint® Lectures
Lectures by Greg Podgorski, Utah State University
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Concept Review
• Cereal crops include rice, wheat, corn, millet, barley,
sorghum, and barley.
• Cereal crops supply the bulk of our food.
• Crop yield must be increased 1.5% per year to keep up
with population growth.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Concept Review
• Our ancestors created the crops we know by artificial
selection of desirable traits; this process has been refined
by modern plant breeders.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Concept Review
• Selective breeding has profound effects.
Corn and its wild relative, teosinte.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Concept Review
• Conventional plant breeding may not be enough to
continue necessary increased yields.
• New methods based on modern genetics give hope for
the future.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Concept Review
• Modern crops have little genetic diversity.
• Improvements in modern crops may come from tapping
into the genetic wealth of their wild ancestors.
• Alleles from wild varieties produce dramatic and often
unexpected changes in modern crop varieties.
• For example, alleles from a green wild tomato introduced
into a pale red commercial variety created a redder hybrid.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Concept Review
• Marker-assisted breeding is a new method that allows
introducing select alleles into modern crops.
Marker-assisted breeding.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Concept Review
Marker-assisted breeding.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Concept Review
• One success of marker assisted breeding is a 17%
increase in rice yield by introducing alleles from a wild rice
relative into a modern crop variety.
• Marker-assisted breeding and other techniques made
possible by modern genetics may be the best hope for
continuing needed increases in crop yield.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Testing Your Comprehension
In comparison to their wild relatives, modern crop plants
have
a) low yields.
b) low genetic diversity.
c) more genes.
d) few genetic markers.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Testing Your Comprehension
In comparison to their wild relatives, modern crop plants
have
b) low genetic diversity.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Testing Your Comprehension
To feed the world’s growing population, crop yields must
be increased ______ percent each year.
a) 0.01
b) 0.1
c) 1.5
d) 6.7
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Testing Your Comprehension
To feed the world’s growing population, crop yields must
be increased ______ percent each year.
c) 1.5
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Testing Your Comprehension
The method that allows researchers to tailor crops so
they contain only desired alleles is
a) trait mapping.
b) homology searching.
c) expression profiling.
d) marker-assisted breeding.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Testing Your Comprehension
The method that allows researchers to tailor crops so
they contain only desired alleles is
d) marker-assisted breeding.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Biology and Society
Instead of working to increase crop production by
developing ever more specialized crop varieties, we
should simply use more of our current crops for food
instead of for animal feed and industrial products.
Strongly
Agree
A.
B.
C.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
D.
E.
Strongly
Disagree
Back to the Future of Cereals
Biology and Society
The development of more genetically engineered crops is
essential if we are to feed a hungry world.
Strongly
Agree
A.
B.
C.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
D.
E.
Strongly
Disagree
Back to the Future of Cereals
Biology and Society
The kinds of plants developed from marker-assisted plant
breeding are no more threatening than crops developed
by conventional methods of plant breeding.
Strongly
Agree
A.
B.
C.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
D.
E.
Strongly
Disagree
Back to the Future of Cereals
Thinking About Science
Synteny is the sharing of genes and gene organization
between different species. How does the high degree of
synteny between rice, wheat and corn benefit plant
breeders striving to improve these crops?
a) It provides a large number of genes for breeders to use
for crop improvement.
b) It allows genetic insights gained in one crop to be easily
applied to another.
c) It reduces the number of generations required for
successful marker-assisted breeding.
d) It provides many genetic markers for efficient markerassisted breeding.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Thinking About Science
Synteny is the sharing of genes and gene organization
between different species. How does the high degree of
synteny between rice, wheat and corn benefit plant
breeders striving to improve these crops?
b) It allows genetic insights gained in one crop to be easily
applied to another.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Interpreting Data and Graphs
Roughly how much more is the projected required corn yield for 2050
than the yield in year 2000?
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Back to the Future of Cereals
Interpreting Data and Graphs
The projected required corn yield for 2050 is roughly 2.2 times greater
than the yield in year 2000 (9,000 kg/hectare in 2050 vs. 4,000
kg/hectare in 2000).
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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