Chapter 2 - canesbio

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Active Lecture Questions for
BIOLOGY, Eighth Edition
Neil Campbell & Jane Reece
Chapter 22
Descent with Modification: A
Darwinian View of Life
Questions prepared by
Janet Lanza,
University of Arkansas at Little Rock
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Lamarck’s Hypothesis of Evolution
Which of the following statements about Lamarck
are accurate?
a) Lamarck thought evolution had occurred.
b) Lamarck proposed a mechanism for evolution.
c) Lamarck thought organisms became more complex
because of an inner drive for complexity.
d) Lamarck was wholly wrong.
e) Lamarck published his ideas only after Darwin
published his.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Darwin’s Knowledge
Which of the following statements about Darwin is
incorrect?
a) Darwin thought individuals varied.
b) Darwin thought the Earth was a few thousand years
old.
c) Darwin thought fossils in a given area were similar
to the animals that were still living there.
d) Darwin thought organisms produced many offspring.
e) Darwin thought most offspring of a pair survived.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
The Unity and Diversity of Life
Which of the following statements can be associated
with the concept of the “unity of life” and which can be
associated with the concept of the “diversity of life”?
a) The amino acid sequences of cytochrome c (an enzyme in
mitochondria) differ between humans and chimps by one
amino acid.
b) If the gene for human insulin is inserted into bacteria, the
bacteria can make human insulin.
c) Medium ground finches (Geospiza fortis) have beaks that are
similar in shape but smaller than large ground finches
(Geospiza magnirostris).
d) The basic forelimb structure of horses and moles is similar.
e) Scientists interested in curing human cancer may study cell
division in yeasts.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Adaptation
If an adaptation is defined as a trait that promotes
survival or reproduction, which of the following traits
would qualify as adaptations?
a) Hemoglobin is one color (bright red) when oxygenated and
another color (purple-blue) when unoxygenated.
b) Humans have a “tailbone” (coccyx).
c) Young oak trees, growing in shade, have large leaves
compared to older plants, growing in sun, that have smaller
leaves.
d) Male elephant seals are enormous and have ferocious battles
over the opportunity to mate with females.
e) The presence of sickle cell hemoglobin allele helps the holder
survive malaria.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Descent with Modification
Which of the following conclusions could you
correctly draw after studying Figure 22.8 in the textbook?
a) Barytherium is an ancestor of Platybelodon but not
of the manatees and relatives.
b) Loxodonta cylotis is more closely related to
Loxodonta africana than to Elephas maximus.
c) Mammut shares a more recent common ancestor
with Stegodon than with Elephas maximus.
d) Manatees are more closely related to the living
elephant species than hyraxes are.
e) Elephas maximus is an ancestor of both Loxodonta
species.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Action of Natural Selection
Imagine a species of bird in which females prefer to mate
with brightly colored males. However, males with bright
backs are more often preyed upon by hawks. Assuming that a
wide variety of genetic variation exists in the species, which
do you think is the most likely evolutionary outcome?
a) Males will be selected to be brightly colored.
b) Females will be selected to choose drab males.
c) Males will be selected to have bright chests and dull backs.
d) Females will not mate.
e) The species will go extinct because the hawks catch all the
males.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Evidence for Evolution
Which of the following statements could challenge the
evolutionary view of the history of life on Earth? Be
prepared to explain your answer.
a) New mammal fossils are discovered in the oldest rocks on
Earth.
b) Coal deposits are found in Antarctica.
c) The mitochondrial DNA of the medium ground finch in the
Galápagos is identical to a bird in Europe.
d) Both sugar gliders (Australia) and flying squirrels (North
America) use flaps of skin to help them glide from one tree to
another.
e) Horse fossils occur in North America even though there were
no wild horses in North America in 1492.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Homologies and “Tree Thinking”
Imagine that a phylogeny was developed for a group of
mammals based on bone structure. Which of the following
statements would be a reasonable prediction about a
phylogeny for the same group of species based on
similarities and differences in the structure of a particular
enzyme?
a) The same phylogeny would be predicted.
b) The same phylogeny would be unlikely.
c) No prediction could be made.
d) The amino acid sequence would be identical in all
species.
e) The new phylogeny would be different.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Homologies and “Tree Thinking”
Imagine two species that are thought to have a recent
common ancestor. If this idea is correct, these two
species most likely have
a) no morphological similarities.
b) few biochemical similarities.
c) identical amino acid sequences.
d) very different habits.
e) similar embryological development.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Evolution of Adaptations
Imagine that you have discovered a new lizard that lives
in a foggy desert in southwestern South America. As fog
rolls in, this lizard stands on its head and lets water
condense on its back and roll in grooves to its mouth.
This trait is an example of which of the following?
a) convergent evolution
b) inheritance of acquired characteristics
c) homology
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
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