Chapter 2 - Forensicconsultation.org

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Chapter 2: Introduction
Module 1
The Start of Life
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
EARLIEST DEVELOPMENT
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Beginning of Life
• Gametes from male and female join
– Ovum and sperm
• Fused gametes create zygote
34
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
The Code of Life
• Genes
– DNA
• Chromosomes
– Rod-shaped DNA
portions in 23 pairs
– Contain genetic
blueprint for
individuals
– Replicate through
mitosis
34
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
And baby makes two or three or
more!
Multiple births
• Monozygotic
• Dizygotic
35
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
What causes multiple births?
• Fertility drugs
• Racial, ethnic, and national differences
35
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Mixing and Matching of Genes
• Basics of genetics
– DOMINANT TRAITS
– RECESSIVE TRAITS
36
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Just the right type
• GENOTYPE
– Homozygous
– Heterozygous
• PHENOTYPE
36
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Genetic Information
Transmission
Let’s turn to Figure 1-6
in the text to examine
PKU probabilities
36
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Cracking the Genetic Code
• The Human Genome
• National Human Genome
Research Institute
• (http://www.genome.gov/)
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
38
When Development Deviates
• Causes
– Genetics
– Spontaneous mutation
– Environmental insult
38
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
When Development Deviates
• Consequences
– Down Syndrome
– Fragile X Syndrome
– Sickle-cell Anemia
– Tay-Sachs Disease
– Klinefelter’s Syndrome
39
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
THE INTERACTION OF
HEREDITY AND
ENVIRONMENT
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
What do you think?
A given behavior is not caused just by
genetic factors, nor is it caused solely by
environmental factors.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Studying Development
• Nonhuman animal studies
– Controlling genetics and environment
• Human studies
– Adoption
– Twin studies
– Family studies
44
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Nature, Nurture, and
Intelligence
• Relative contributions of nature and
nurture highly researched
• Closer genetic link = greater
correspondence of overall IQ scores
46
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Genetics and I.Q.
46
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Do we inherit our personality?
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
A link look
• Two of “Big Five” personality traits linked
to genetic factors:
– Neuroticism
– Extroversion
47
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
What evidence supports this
claim?
48
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
What about environmental
influences?
• Culture
• Parental encouragement
48
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Fundamental Principle
• Within debate about relative influence
of nature and nurture
– Role of genetics is often to produce tendency
toward future course of development
– Role of environment affects when and
whether a certain behavioral characteristic will
actually be displayed
50
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Gene-environmental Influence
• Sandra Scarr suggests three ways child’s
genetic predisposition may influence his or
her environment:
– Active
– Passive
– Evocative
50
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
PRENATAL GROWTH AND
CHANGE
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Fertilization
• Moment of
conception
– Joining of sperm
and ovum =
zygote
52
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Figure 4.1 Life is sexually transmitted
Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Figure 4.2 Prenatal development
Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers
Stages of Prenatal
Development
• Germinal
• Embryonic
• Fetal
52
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Germinal Stage
• Fertilization  two weeks
– Shortest stage
– Fertilized egg now called blastocyst
– Travels to and implants in uterus
– Characterized by methodical cell division
– With division comes cell specialization
52
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Embryonic Stage
• 2 weeks  8 weeks
– Organism firmly secures to uterus and called an
embryo
– Development of major organs and basic anatomy
• Three distinct layers that ultimately form different
set of structures:
– Ectoderm
– Endoderm
– Mesoderm
52
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Embryonic Stage
• Every part of body formed with these
layers
53
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Fetal Stage
• 8 weeks  Birth
– Formally starts when differentiation of major
organs has occurred
– Organism now called fetus
– Characterized by rapid development
• Organs become more differentiated and begin
working
• Interconnections between body parents become
more complex and integrated
• Brain becomes more sophisticated
53
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Pregnancy Problems
• Infertility
• Miscarriage
• Abortion
54
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Threats to Development
• Prenatal environment
– Teratogen
(See Figure 1-15 for a teratogen sensitivity timeline)
56
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Teratogen Sensitivity Timeline
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Mother’s Prenatal Influence
• Mother’s
– Diet
– Age
– Prenatal support
– Health
– Drug use
– Alcohol use
– Tobacco use
58
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Father’s Prenatal Influence
•
•
•
•
•
Relatively little research
Tobacco use
Drug use
Alcohol use
Treatment of mother
60
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Prenatal Development
Hazards to Prenatal Development
• Psychoactive drugs
–
–
–
–
–
–
Caffeine
Alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Nicotine’s link to SIDS, ADHD, low birth weight
Effect of father’s smoking
Cocaine, marijuana, and heroin
Methamphetamine
• Environmental hazards and pollutants
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Teratogen: is a substance that can cross the
placental barrier and harm the child. Alcohol and
tobacco are perhaps the most common and
damaging. Mercury, landfills, lead paint
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): combo of
retarded growth, face and body malformations,
disorders of the nervous system. ADHD
symptoms, attention, distractibility, learning
difficulties, memory and mood impairment.
Nicotine: low birth weight, miscarriage,
retardation, still birth, small head syndrome,
medical problems.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Marijuana: birth defects, low birth weight,
ADHD, learning problems, visual and
perceptual skills deficit, impulsivityimpacts frontal lobe.
Cocaine: spontaneous abortion, delayed
growth, premature labor. Low birth
weight, birth defects, neurological
deficits; acute withdrawal following birth;
overall, significant neurological deficits.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Physical Development—
Hazards to Prenatal
Development
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
41
HIV/AIDS: likely to spread it to fetus.
Maternal Illnesses: colds, STDs, general
medical problems.
Maternal Stress: wide psychological
disorders, deformities. Negative
emotional/behavioral
Over 35: for the mother-diabetes, high
BP, severe bleeding. Child- premature
birth, birth defects, retarded growth.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Prenatal Development
Hazards to Prenatal Development
• Incompatible blood types of parents
– Rh-positive and Rh-negative
– Maternal diseases like German measles,
syphilis, HIV and AIDS
• Other prenatal factors
–
–
–
–
–
Nutrition, prenatal education and care
Maternal age and risks
Maternal emotional states and stress
Paternal factors
Environmental factors
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Becoming an Informed Consumer
Optimizing the Prenatal Environment
•Avoid X-rays and birth control pills; get
rubella vaccination
•Eat well and take prenatal vitamins
•Avoid alcohol use and other drugs
•Monitor caffeine intake.
•Avoid smoking and exposure to
secondhand smoke
•Exercise regularly
61
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
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