evolution model - EmperorPenguinsGoneWild

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All organisms use
DNA to store and pass
on genetic material
The DNA and characteristics between
individuals within a population are
extremely similar, however DNA varies
slightly between each individual
Each individual has a unique
combination of genes, traits,
and characteristics
Through sexual reproduction
an individual passes its genes
and traits on to it’s offspring
More offspring are
produced than can
survive
The DNA and traits vary from adult to
offspring due to gene shuffling, natural
selection, random assortment,
environmental factors, and sometimes
mutation
How Evolution Works
Peter Schubert, Will Bryant
Resource
availability
Environment
Predators
Survival of the fittest
Learned
behaviors
Phenotypic
traits
unfit organisms with genes
and characteristics that are
not well conditioned
towards the environment
die
Individuals that
survive are on
average more fit
than those who
do not survive
The surviving “fit”
individuals pass
their traits on to
their offspring
organism with genes
and characteristics
that are well
adapted to the
environment live to
reproduce
Over many
reproductive cycles
the gene pool of a
population changes
to becomes more fit
Changes in DNA accumulate over many
generations, leading to a vastly different
population than before
All organisms use
DNA to store and pass
on genetic material
The DNA and characteristics between
individuals within a population are
extremely similar, however DNA varies
slightly between each individual
Emperor Penguins vary in
size, body shape, weight,
and numerous other
characteristics
Through sexual reproduction
an individual passes its genes
and traits on to it’s offspring
The female Emperor Penguin
lays only one egg per year,
however only 19% of these
eggs survive their first year of
life
The DNA and traits vary from adult to
offspring due to gene shuffling, natural
selection, random assortment,
environmental factors, and sometimes
mutation
Evolution of the
Emperor Penguin
High wind speeds of up to
144km/hr and extreme cold(40°C) limit survival rate
Emperor Penguins
compete with Weddell
Seals for food
Predators such as the
Southern Giant Petral
and the Orca kill
Emperor Penguins
Survival of the fittest
Emperor Penguins
huddle together to
conserve heat during
cold months
Phenotypic traits such
as bone density,
metabolic rate, size,
and many other
characteristics may
increase or decrease
the chance of survival
i.e. Penguins with high bone density can
undergo more barometric pressure when
diving underwater, allowing them to collect
more food and escape predators
Emperor Penguins
that are better
hunters and are more
suited to the
environment survive
more often
The surviving “fit”
penguins pass
their traits on to
their offspring
Over many reproductive
cycles the gene pool of
the Emperor Penguin
population changes to
contain more individuals
with high bone density
Changes, such as bone density, accumulate
over many generations, leading to a vastly
different population than before
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