advertisement

Zeeman effect HFS and isotope shift Anomalous Zeeman Effect • More than three closely spaced optical lines were observed. • The interaction that splits the energy levels in an external magnetic field is caused by interaction. • The magnetic moment depends on Orbital contribution and Spin magnetic moment • The 2J + 1 degeneracy for a given total angular momentum state J is removed by the effect of the . • If the is small compared to internal magnetic field, then and precess about while precesses slowly about . • <= 0.1T for Zeeman splitting • The normal Zeeman affect occurs for S=0 Nuclear shell model HFS and isotope shift F 5/2 1 B 4 (5/2)A wj IS 3/2 3 J 2 I 1 B (3/2)A 1/2 HFS levels: for Q=0 full lines B>0 broken lines B < 0 3 C (C 1) I ( I 1) J ( J 1) C wF wJ A B 4 2 2 I (2 I 1) J (2 J 1) with A C F ( F 1) I ( I 1) J ( J 1) F I J , I J 1,...., I J I H ( 0) IJ B eQ JJ (0) 5 B 4 n (r) Field isotope shift: A Á r0 E F e ( r ) ( r )4r 2 dr r 0 e charge density of s electrons at the site of the nucleus r0 r0 (r ) (r ) FAÁ AA AÁ AÁ C AA 2 2k k F1 r AÁ r E1AÁ E1AÁ r 2 k 2 C1 This amounts to a few percent