Materials_ch01

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FUNDAMENTALS OF
Materials Science
and Engineering
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH
Fourth Edition
William D. Callister, Jr. and
David G. Rethwisch
Chapter 1
Introduction
Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 1 -
CHEN313: Introduction to
Materials Science & Engineering
Course Objective...
Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials
Science & Engineering
You will learn about:
• material structures
• how structure dictates properties
• how processing can change structure
This course will help you to:
• use materials properly
• realize new design opportunities
with materials
Chapter 1 - 2
COURSE MATERIALS (with text)
Textbook:
• Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering,
W.D. Callister, Jr. and D.G. Rethwisch, 4th edition,
John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (2012).
Chapter 1 - 3
Chapter 1 -
Chapter 1 -
COURSE MATERIALS
(with WileyPLUS)
Textbook:
• WileyPLUS for Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering,
W.D. Callister, Jr. and D.G. Rethwisch, 4th edition, John Wiley
and Sons, Inc. (2012).
Website: http://www.wileyplus.com/xxxxxxxxxxx
• Can be bought online at wileyplus.com for 40% of textbook price
• Includes complete online version of textbook
• Or comes bundled with textbook at bookstore
• $5 more than textbook alone
• Homework assignments with instant feedback and hints
• Computer graded self-help problems
• Hotlinks in homework to supporting text sections
• Quizzes
Chapter 1 - 6
WEBSITES
Course Website: See Syllabus in the web page
Text Website: http://www.wiley.com/college/callister
• VMSE for 3D interactive simulations and animations of material
structures, characteristics, and properties
• Mechanical Engineering online support module
• Case studies of materials usage
• Extended learning objectives
• Self-assessment exercises
Chapter 1 - 7
Virtual Materials Science &
Engineering (VMSE)
Website: http://www.wileyplus.com/college/callister
Student Companion Site  VMSE
• Comprised of 8 interactive modules
• Atomic/molecular stuctures - 3D perspectives (better
visualizations) using click-and-drag rotations
• Demonstrations of defects and phenomena that
exist/occur in materials
• Demonstrations of material tests - performance and results
• Database of material property values and costs
Chapter 1 - 8
Virtual Materials Science & Engineering (VMSE)
• This is a screenshot of the VMSE opening window
• Available in Student Companion Site at www.wiley.com/college/callister
and in WileyPLUS
Chapter 1 - 9
Chapter 1 - Introduction
• What is materials science?
– Structure-properties
– Applications
• Why should we know about it?
– All fields make use of materials
• Materials drive our society
–
–
–
–
Stone Age
Bronze Age
Iron Age
Now?
• Silicon Age?
• Polymer Age?
• Nano age
Chapter 1 - 10
Example – Hip Implant
• With age or certain illnesses joints deteriorate.
Particularly those with large loads (such as hip).
Adapted from Fig. 22.25, Callister 7e.
Chapter 1 - 11
Example – Hip Implant
• Requirements
– mechanical
strength (many
cycles)
– good lubricity
– biocompatibility
Adapted from Fig. 22.24, Callister 7e.
Chapter 1 - 12
Example – Hip Implant
Adapted from Fig. 22.26, Callister 7e.
Chapter 1 - 13
Hip Implant
• Key problems to overcome
– fixation agent to hold
acetabular cup
– cup lubrication material
– femoral stem – fixing agent
– must avoid any debris in cup
Ball
Acetabular
Cup and Liner
Femoral
Stem
Adapted from chapter-opening photograph,
Chapter 22, Callister 7e.
Chapter 1 - 14
Example – Develop New Types of
Polymers
• Commodity plastics – large volume ca. $0.50 / lb
Ex.
Polyethylene
Polypropylene
Polystyrene
etc.
•
Engineering Resins – small volume > $1.00 / lb
Ex.
Polycarbonate
Nylon
Polysulfone
etc.
Can polypropylene be “upgraded” to properties (and price) near
those of engineering resins?
Chapter 1 - 15
Structure, Processing, & Properties
• Properties depend on structure
ex: hardness vs structure of steel
(d)
Hardness (BHN)
600
500
400
(c)
(a)
(b)
4 mm
300
200
30 mm
30 mm
100
0.01 0.1
30 mm
Data obtained from Figs. 11.31(a)
and 11.33 with 4 wt% C composition,
and from Fig. 14.8 and associated
discussion, Callister & Rethwisch 4e.
Micrographs adapted from (a) Fig.
11.19; (b) Fig. 10.34;(c) Fig. 11.34;
and (d) Fig. 11.22, Callister &
Rethwisch 4e.
1
10 100 1000
Cooling Rate (ºC/s)
• Processing can change structure
ex: structure vs cooling rate of steel
Chapter 1 - 16
Types of Materials
• Metals:
– Strong, ductile
– High thermal & electrical conductivity
– Opaque, reflective.
• Polymers/plastics: Covalent bonding  sharing of e’s
– Soft, ductile, low strength, low density
– Thermal & electrical insulators
– Optically translucent or transparent.
• Ceramics: ionic bonding (refractory) – compounds of metallic
& non-metallic elements (oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides)
– Brittle, glassy, elastic
– Non-conducting (insulators)
Chapter 1 - 17
The Materials Selection Process
1. Pick Application
Determine required Properties
Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,
magnetic, optical, deteriorative.
2. Properties
Identify candidate Material(s)
Material: structure, composition.
3. Material
Identify required Processing
Processing: changes structure and overall shape
ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping
forming, joining, annealing.
Chapter 1 - 18
Chapter 1 -
Chapter 1 -
Chapter 1 -
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Chapter 1 -
ELECTRICAL
• Electrical Resistivity of Copper:
6
Adapted from Fig. 12.8, Callister &
Rethwisch 4e. (Fig. 12.8 adapted
from: J.O. Linde, Ann Physik 5, 219
(1932); and C.A. Wert and R.M.
Thomson, Physics of Solids, 2nd
edition, McGraw-Hill Company, New
York, 1970.)
(10-8 Ohm-m)
Resistivity, r
5
4
3
2
1
0
-200
-100
0
T (°C)
• Adding “impurity” atoms to Cu increases resistivity.
• Deforming Cu increases resistivity.
Chapter 1 - 27
THERMAL
-- Silica fiber insulation
offers low heat conduction.
Adapted from chapteropening photograph,
Chapter 17, Callister &
Rethwisch 3e. (Courtesy
of Lockheed
Missiles and Space
Company, Inc.)
100 mm
• Thermal Conductivity
of Copper:
-- It decreases when
you add zinc!
Thermal Conductivity
(W/m-K)
• Space Shuttle Tiles:
Adapted from
Fig. 19.4W, Callister
6e. (Courtesy of
Lockheed Aerospace
Ceramics Systems,
Sunnyvale, CA)
(Note: "W" denotes fig.
is on CD-ROM.)
400
300
200
100
0
0
10
20 30 40
Composition (wt% Zinc)
Adapted from Fig. 17.4, Callister & Rethwisch
4e. (Fig. 17.4 is adapted from Metals Handbook:
Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and
Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker,
(Managing Editor), American Society for Metals,
1979, p. 315.)
Chapter 1 - 28
MAGNETIC
• Magnetic Storage:
vs. Composition:
-- Adding 3 atomic % Si
makes Fe a better
recording medium!
Magnetization
-- Recording medium
is magnetized by
recording head.
• Magnetic Permeability
Fe+3%Si
Fe
Magnetic Field
Fig. 18.23, Callister & Rethwisch 4e.
Adapted from C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix, and
A.S. Tetelman, The Principles of
Engineering Materials, Fig. 1-7(a), p. 9,
1973. Electronically reproduced
by permission of Pearson Education, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Chapter 1 - 29
OPTICAL
• Transmittance:
-- Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, or
opaque depending on the material’s structure (i.e.,
single crystal vs. polycrystal, and degree of porosity).
single crystal
polycrystal:
no porosity
polycrystal:
some porosity
Adapted from Fig. 1.2,
Callister & Rethwisch 4e.
(Specimen preparation,
P.A. Lessing; photo by S.
Tanner.)
Chapter 1 - 30
Chapter 1 -
DETERIORATIVE
• Stress & Saltwater...
-- causes cracks!
• Heat treatment: slows
crack speed in salt water!
Adapted from Fig. 16.21, Callister & Rethwisch
4e. (from Marine Corrosion, Causes, and
Prevention, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975.)
crack speed (m/s)
10 -8
“as-is”
“held at
160ºC for 1 hr
before testing”
10 -10
Alloy 7178 tested in
saturated aqueous NaCl
solution at 23ºC
increasing load
Adapted from Fig. 11.20(b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and
Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505, John
Wiley and Sons, 1996. (Original source: Markus O. Speidel, Brown
Boveri Co.)
Chapter 1 - 32
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