Electromagnetic Black Hole Made of Metamaterials B96901128 王郁翔 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Theory & Structures 3. Experiments & Results 4. Conclusions 5. References What is Black Hole? 1. Laplace’s view 2. Schwarzschild’s solution of Einstein’s vacuum field equation (general relativity) Analogy Between Mechanics and Electromagnetic Curved space----inhomogeneous metamaterial Least action principle----Fermat’s principle Characteristics Non-resonant structure—broad band light absorption Omnidirectional Lossy core and lossless shell. Usage Cross-talk reduction Thermal light emitting source Solar light harvesting Theoretic Analysis Hamilton equations: p:generalized momentum q:generalized coordinate H: Hamiltonian Theoretic Analysis For cylindrical structure, use semiclassical analysis Inhomogeneous permittivity— potential. different Inhomogeneous Permeability For n=-1, 1, 2, 3 Choose n=2 easiest to fabricate Structures Lossy circular inner core—ELC resonator (20 layers) Lossless circular shell—I-shaped metamaterials (40 layers) ELC resonator t=1.6mm,g=0.3mm,p=0.15mm,s=0.65mm Resonate at 18GHz I-shaped w=0.15mm, q=1.1mm, 18GHz Different m, different ε Experiment condition 18GHz Cell 1.8mm R=108mm, Rc=36mm, height=5.4mm Fabricate on styrofoam board Parallel-plate waveguide near-field scanning system to measure Simulation Gaussian beam Absorbing rate 99.94%, 98.72% Simulation & Experiment Narrow beam simulation, experiment Simulation of Plane wave Electric field and power flow. Simulation & Experiment Nearby source excitation. Optical Frequency R=20μm, Rc=8.4μm, λ=1.5 μm Conclusion Designed, fabricated, and measured an electromagnetic black hole. Really useful in solar light harvesting? Reference  Cheng,Q., Cui,T.J., Jiang,W.X., Cai,B.G. An electromagnetic black hole made of metamaterials, 2009  Narimanov, E. E., Kildishev, A. V. Optical black hole: Broadband omnidirectional light absorber. Appl.Phys. Lett. 95, 041106 (2009).  Landau, L. D., & Lifshitz, E. M. The Classical Theory of Fields, 4th ed. (Butterworth Heinemann, 1999).