Rabies in the United States - Iowa Veterinary Medical Association

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Rabies Virus
Acknowledgements
• This presentation was developed by the Iowa
Department of Public Health in partnership with the
Iowa Veterinary Medical Association and Iowa
Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship.
• This presentation was developed for public health,
environmental health, veterinary and healthcare
partners to use when they are educating clients
and their communities.
• This presentation was last updated January 2011
Discussion Topics
1. Rabies activity in the United States
2. Rabies activity in Iowa
3. Recommended actions if you or your
animals are exposed to potentially
rabid animals
4. Review of rabies treatment protocol for
humans exposed to potentially rabid
animals
5. Animal rabies testing resources in Iowa
Rabies in the United States
• In 2009:
– 6,690 tested positive for rabies
• Distribution of Disease:
– 92% in wild animals
– 8% in domestic animals
Rabies in the United States
• Lyssavirus
• Primary reservoirs are wild animals
Recognized Reservoirs for
Rabies in Terrestrial Mammals
Rabid Bats Reported in the
United States during 2009
Human Rabies in the United States
• Human rabies infection is uncommon
– 4 human rabies cases reported in 2009
• Potential rabies exposures are
common
– About 40,000 human exposures / year
Animal Reservoirs in Iowa
Primary reservoirs include:
~Skunks and Bats
However, many different types of animals
are found to be infected with rabies
each year in our state.
Confirmed Rabid Animals in Iowa
(Years 2001 to 2010)
Species
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Total
Bat
31
27
47
47
60
28
13
11
11
10
285
Skunk
28
27
38
28
33
13
5
7
13
13
205
Cat
10
7
8
11
5
7
7
9
3
1
68
Cow
10
12
3
10
7
4
0
1
5
1
53
Dog
2
3
6
3
2
2
5
1
2
1
27
Horse
3
2
3
0
1
3
1
0
0
0
13
Fox
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
Squirrel
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
Badger 0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Total
78
106
100
108
57
31
29
35
27
656
85
Percent of Animals Testing Positive
for Rabies by Animal Type (2010)
Species
Positive
Tested
% Positive
Dogs
Cows
Cats
Bats
Fox
Skunks
1
1
1
10
1
13
322
72
425
444
6
27
0.31%
1.39%
0.24%
2.25%
16.67%
48.15%
Human Rabies in Iowa
• Most Recent
– 2002
– Most likely exposed to
an infected bat
• Previous Case
– 1951
– Most likely exposed to
an infected dog
How do I know if I have
been exposed to rabies?
The rabies virus is transmitted through
saliva or nervous system tissue.
• What is considered an exposure?
– Bite from a potentially infected animal
– Saliva or nervous tissue contact to open wounds
– Saliva or nervous tissue contact to mucous
membranes (eyes, nose, mouth)
• What is not considered exposure?
– Saliva or nervous tissue contact to INTACT SKIN
– Contact with blood, urine, or feces
– Touching or petting an animal
Bat-specific exposure criteria
• Exposure criteria for bats include all those listed
on the previous slide and the following:
–
–
–
–
Waking up to find a bat in the room you are sleeping in
Finding a bat in a room with an unsupervised child
Finding a bat in a room with incapacitated person
Contact with a bat and unsure whether you were bitten
(i.e. bat flies into your arm)
• Exposure criteria is not based upon
finding a potential wound
If you are exposed to a
potentially rabid animal
• Immediately wash any wounds and then
seek medical care
• Depending upon the situation, it may be
appropriate to observe or test the animal
that exposed you
• Rabies in humans is 100% preventable
through prompt appropriate medical
care
Some animals can be
quarantined
• If a dog, cat, or ferret exposes a
human it can be quarantined for 10
days
– If the animal becomes sick during the 10
day quarantine, it should be tested for
rabies immediately
• Dogs, cats, and ferrets are the only
animals that can be quarantined
Rabies Prevention Before
and After Exposures
• Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
– Series of three vaccines given
before exposure
• If exposed, still need two booster shots of vaccine
– Recommended for those frequently exposed
such as veterinarians, animal control officers,
and lab workers
• Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
– Treatment given after rabies exposure
– Usually includes 1 dose of Immunoglobulin
and 4 doses of vaccine given over 2 weeks
What should I do if my animal is exposed
to a potentially rabid animal?
Contact your veterinarian
• Recommendations differ based on the types
of animals involved and whether your animal
has been vaccinated for rabies
• Your veterinarian can assess the vaccination
status of your animal and make the
appropriate recommendations
• Your veterinarian can also help determine
whether it is appropriate to observe or test the
animal that exposed your animal
Animal Rabies Testing
• State Hygienic Laboratory, Iowa City
–
–
–
–
800-421-4692
Available for after-hours or emergency testing
Only test animals that have exposed humans
Testing is Free
• Iowa State University, Veterinary
Diagnostic Laboratory, Ames
– 515-294-1950
– Human and animal-to-animal exposures
– Fees for testing
How can I help prevent
rabies spread and being exposed?
Vaccinate pets and valuable
livestock
Iowa Law:
– …unlawful for any person to own or have a dog in the
person's possession, six months of age or over, which
has not been vaccinated against rabies…
– …All dogs four months of age and older coming into
Iowa must have a current rabies vaccination…
How can I help prevent
rabies spread and being exposed?
Enjoy and observe wildlife from afar
Do not handle wild animals.
Avoid sick animals or those that act strangely.
Do not touch or handle dead animals.
Cover garbage cans and keep pet food
indoors, so wild animals are not attracted.
• Do not keep wild animals as pets, which is
often illegal as well as dangerous.
•
•
•
•
How can I help prevent
rabies spread and being exposed?
Contact a healthcare provider
before traveling internationally
– Rabies pre-exposure vaccination is
recommended for high-risk travelers to
some countries where rabies is common.
– Discuss health risks in the countries you will
visit.
Questions
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