Chapter 9 Lecture One of Two Myths of the Female Deities: Demeter, Hestia, Aphrodite ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. The Female Olympians • Mostly reducible to some aspect of fertility • Greek myth told by and for Greek males • With the exception of Aphrodite and Athena, they never do very much ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. The goddess of the harvest. DEMETER, MISTRESS OF WHEAT ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Demeter • “Wheat” mother? • Connection with foundation myth of the Eleusinian Mysteries will be discussed in a separate chapter. ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. The eldest child of Zeus and Hera. HESTIA, THE HEARTH ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Hestia • • • • • Goddess of the house. Few stories (she’s inside all the time). No love affairs. Had suitors briefly: Apollo and Poseidon. Given honor instead of marriage. ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. The power of sexual attraction. APHRODITE, GODDESS OF SEXUAL LOVE ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Aphrodite • Goddess of sexuality • Her lineage – As Aphrodite – Zeus and Dione • Connections with Eastern deities – Istarte, Ishtar, Inanna ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Venus: Images of Beauty in European Art PERSPECTIVE 9 ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Perspective 9a Botticelli: Birth of Venus Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence; Erich Lessing/Art Resource, New York ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Perspective 9b: de Cosimo Venus and Mars Staatliche Museen, Berlin, Gemaldegalerie; Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/ Art Resource, New York ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Perspective 9c: Veronese: Venus and Adonis Museo del Prado, Madrid; Scala/White Images/ Art Resource, New York ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Perspective 9d: Veláquez: Toilet of Venus ©National Gallery, London; Art Resource, New York ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Aphrodite • Sappho's Hymn to Aphrodite celebrates the goddess power over even the unwilling. ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Children by various male deities or associated powers. HERMAPHRODITUS AND PRIAPUS ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Hermaphroditus and Priapus • Hermaphroditus has qualities of both sexes because he was fused with the nymph Salmacis when she prayed to Aphrodite that they never be parted. ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Hermaphroditus and Priapus • Priapus – Aphrodite and Dionysus or Hermes – Asian garden deity – “priapism” ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Fig. 9.1 Priapus weighs his penis. Pompeii, House of the Vettii; Scala/Art Resource, New York ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. The inspiration for Shaw's play Pygmalion and the musical My Fair Lady. PYGMALION ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Pygmalion • Pygmalion, the king of Cyprus, makes a statue of his image of the perfect women, with which he promptly falls in love. • Aphrodite brings his statue to life for him. ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Pygmalion • The girl, named Galatea, gave brith to Cinyras ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Pygmalion • Cinyras’s wife boasts that Myrrha is more beautiful than Aphrodite herself. • Aphrodite inflicts Myrrha with a passion for her father, Cinyras. • Cinyras lured into sex with her • Enraged, he chases her until she turns into the myrrh tree ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Aphrodite • Her tears are myrrh resin, burned on Aphrodite’s altar – an etiological myth • From the myrrh tree, Adonis is born • Semitic name: “lord,” cf. Adonai, another name for YHWH in the Old Testament ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Fig. 9.2 The Capitoline Venus, a Roman copy of a lost statue from the Greek master, Praxiteles. Museo Capitolino, Rome; author’s photo ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. This explains how the Romans are ultimately descended from Venus. APHRODITE AND ANCHISES ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Aphrodite and Anchises • • • • • • Anchises Prince of Troy Aphrodite “punished” by Zeus Made to fall in love with a mortal man “Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite” His “reward” will be to have a famous son, Aeneas ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Aphrodite • But he reveals the secret – that Aphrodite is Aeneas’s mother – and Zeus strikes him with a thunderbolt • After that, he is lame • Aeneas goes on to become the legendary founder of the Roman people after his escape from Troy. ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. End ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.