flood management in pakistan

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MINISTRY OF WATER & POWER
FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION
FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
JULY 12, 2012
FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION
ESTABLISHMENT
 Prior to 1976, the Provincial Governments were
responsible for planning and execution of flood
protection works;
 Disastrous floods of 1973 and 1976 resulted in
heavy losses indicating that existing flood
protection
facilities
and
planning
were
inadequate to provide effective protective
measures for the country;
 Consequently in January 1977, Federal Flood
Commission was established for integrated flood
management on country-wide basis.
2
FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION
COMPOSITION
Chief Engineering Adviser
Chairman
Chief (Water), Planning & Development Division,
Member
Joint Secretary (Roads), M/O Communications
Member
Member (Water), WAPDA
Member
Director General, Pakistan Meteorological Department
Member
Member (Civil Engineering), Pakistan Railways
Member
Four Provincial Irrigation Secretaries and representatives
from Gilgit-Baltistan, FATA and Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Members
3
FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION
CHARTER OF DUTIES
 Preparation of Flood Protection Plan for the country;
 Approval of flood control/protection schemes prepared by Provincial
Governments and Federal Agencies;
 Recommendations regarding principles of regulation of reservoirs for flood
control;
 Review of damage to flood protection works and review of plans for
restoration and reconstruction works ;
 Measures for improvement of Flood Forecasting & Warning System;
 Preparation of a Research Programme for flood control and protection;
 Standardization of designs and specifications for flood protection works;
 Evaluation and monitoring of progress of implementation of the National Flood
Protection Plan
(Resolution No. W-II.3(23)/76/FFC dated 4th January, 1977)
NOTE: Preparation of schemes (PC-Is), tendering, award of contract, execution, disbursement of 4funds,
maintenance of flood works, etc. is total responsibility of Provinces/Federal Line Agencies.
FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
Flood have caused massive damage to infrastructure and
crops in Pakistan, besides loss of life. Monetary losses
during the major floods since 1950 aggregate billion
dollars. Major floods during the years 1955, 1973, 1976,
1988, 1992, 2010 & 2011 resulted in inundation of
millions of acres of land in various parts of Pakistan,
which constituted one of the most serious environmental
hazards. Over 10,668 people lost their lives during these
floods. Floods are detrimental not only in financial terms,
but also in their ability to severely undermine the
productive system, which needs to be free from
uncertainties and frequent disruptions.
FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
The complete prevention of floods is almost a physical
impossibility. However, flood protection to the extent
it is technically and economically feasible, is a socioeconomic necessity. By proper planning, means can be
devised not only to minimize flood losses but also to
conserve the surplus flows for augmenting water
availability for productive use of the community. The
recent drought, prolonged as it has been, must not be
understood as meaning that Pakistan will not be hit by
severe floods again. Indeed, the progressively declining
storage, if not replaced, will eventually mean that flood
peaks on Indus and Jhelum will be even higher due to
loss of attending ability of the reservoir.
FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
 In order to safeguard the Indus Valley and other
flood prone areas from inundation, 5,822 Km
(3,600 miles) of embankments have been
constructed along major rivers and their
tributaries in Pakistan.
 The protect embankment, to channelize flows
through barrages and bridges, and to save lands
and areas from erosion, 577 spurs have so far
been constructed.
FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN




The nature and need of flood protection facilities very according to
specific physiographic characteristics and local conditions in different
parts of Pakistan.
In Punjab Province, the problems of inundation and land erosion are
both prevalent.
In Sindh, the river bed is generally higher than the adjoining lands and
the river slopes are milder due to which the problem of inundation is
far more serious. This is why almost throughout in Sindh, a double line
of flood protection embankments has been constructed along both the
banks of Indus. Wherever river current is anticipated to attack the
embankments, heavy stone pitching and aprons have been provided as
protective measures.
In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan, besides river flooding, hill
torrents create havocs due to their steep slopes which result in flashy
sudden flows of high magnitudes.
In these areas, flood
abatement/dispersion structures
FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
ISSUES:
and retaining walls have been constructed covering parts of
area. Despite huge investment made in this sector, breaches in
embankments and failure of structures frequently lake place
causing heavy loss of life and property. As the impact of such
damages is progressively becoming more intense with higher
levels of development and economic activities, there is a need
to review the existing design and maintenance standards. The
latter is particularly in a deficient state, and a lack of budgetary
funds is given as the main reason. In the case of Indus and
Jhelum, where some flexibility is available in the form of flood
control because of Tarbela and Mangla Reservoirs, a prudent
operation can optimize flood benefits without significantly
sacrificing the water and power benefits.
FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
ISSUES:
 In Pakistan; both structural and non-structural
measures have been used to mitigate flood losses.
Principal non-structural measures include flood
forecasting and warning, permanent relocation of
people, flood insurance and land-use regulations.
Under FPSP-I, considerable work has been done in
the field of non-structural measures including
flood plain mapping of some major river reaches.
However, there is lot of room for carrying out more
work in this field.
FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
Although considerable strengthening of
flood forecasting work in the form of
additional weather radar ad telemetric
system, has been done, still greater
emphasis is required on accurately
forecasting precipitation in catchment
areas, and on the development of an early
warning system.
CAUSES OF FLOODS IN PAKISTAN
12
FLOOD CONTROL & OBJECTIVES
13
TYPES OF FLOODS IN PAKISTAN
3.
--------------------------------
14
ORGANIZATIONS DEALING WITH FLOOD MANAGEMENT AT
NATIONAL & REGIONAL LEVEL
There is a strong likelihood that total amount of
precipitation in Pakistan during monsoon season 2012 (be
+05-15% of the long term average. However, erratic
spread of monsoon on temporal and spatial scale is likely
to be a prevalent feature; as such the possibility of very
heavy localized rainfall, at times resulting in flash
flooding, may not be ruled out. Further, such localized
rainfall events may cause localized flash flooding over the
hill torrents of Suleman Range & Rod-Kohi area in
Rajanpur, D.I. Khan & D.G. Khan.”
“
15
“There is a strong likelihood that total amount of precipitation in Pakistan during monsoon season 2012 (July-September) will be +05-15
“There is a strong likelihood that total amount of precipitation in Pakistan during monsoon season 2012 (July-September) will be +05-15
PAKISTAN METEOROLOGICAL FORECAST
FOR MONSOON SEASON 2012
3.
--------------------------------
16
COMPARISON OF INFLOWS & OUTFLOWS
OF MAJOR RESERVOIRS
Reservoir
Current Year
(2012)
Last Year Average of Remarks
(2011)
last 10 Years
Inflows
36.65
47.42
46.57
Outflows
20.79
26.33
24.57
(From Reservoirs)
COMPARISON OF WATER LEVELS OF
MAJOR RESERVOIRS
Reservoir
Current Year Last Year
(12.7. 2012) (12.7.2011)
Average of Remarks
last 10 Years
Tarbela
1441.70 feet
1441.92 feet 1462.04 feet
Mangla
1134.20 feet
1187.60 feet
1176.33
Chashma
647.20 feet
647.90 feet
645.50 feet
COMPARISON OF WATER STORAGE OF
MAJOR RESERVOIRS
Reservoir Current Year Last Year Average of Remarks
(12.7. 2012)
(2011)
last 10 Years
Tarbela
1.413 MAF
1.513 MAF
2.175 MAF
Mangla
1.445 MAF
3.773 MAF
3.011 MAF
Chashma
0.186 MAF
0.212 MAF
0.140 MAF
3.044 MAF
5.498 MAF
5.326 MAF
Total:
INTEGRATED FLOOD MANAGEMENT
Construction of Flood Protection Works along major &
other Rivers:
i.
Construction of new Flood Protection Infrastructure in vulnerable reaches
along major & other rivers.
ii.
Up-gradation/Remodelling of flood protection infrastructure that provide
protection to the urban areas/main cities and important installations such
as power stations, oil refineries, industries etc.;
iii.
Flood Management of Hill Torrents through construction of;
(a)
Small Dams/Delay Action Dams (Water storage structures);
(b)
Flood Management Structures for mitigating flood flows and Agriculture
development.
iv.
Adequate budget allocation by the Provinces each year for proper
maintenance of existing flood management facilities.
v.
Recommend options for safety inspection and real time monitoring of flood
protection and River Training Works and Barrages using Satellite services
of SUPARCO.
INTEGRATED FLOOD MANAGEMENT
FLOOD PLAIN MAPPING/ZONING
i.
Flood Plain Mapping/Zoning along all the Indus river and its major tributaries (Jehlum, Chenab, Ravi
& Sutlej, Kabul, Swat, Panjkora) for restricting/prohibiting by law permanent settlements in high and
medium flood risk areas;
ii.
Provinces to prepare and pass an Act/River law and ensure its implementation;
iii.
Develop Web-GIS based inventory showing the complete history of existing flood protection and
River Training Works along main rivers, secondary & Tertiary rivers including Hill Torrents/local
nullahs of the entire country.
iv.
Submergence plans for critical reaches along flood embankments;
v.
Identification, resettlement and relocation of villages in flood plains to safe areas outside the flood
bunds;
vi.
Identification of low flood risk areas for future cities, towns and villages, industrial areas etc.;
vii.
Management for effective control on Flood Plain Development.
viii.
Urban planning for flood resilient communities;
ix.
Community participation in cost sharing of flood projects and awareness campaigns.
INTEGRATED FLOOD MANAGEMENT
Provision of Escape Channels/Breaching Sections:
Identification of flood escape channels to desert
areas/off channel storages that would provide
major reduction in flood peak discharge in Indus
River System. Also identify possible sites for
underground reservoirs, retarding basins, etc.;
THANKS
STEPS TAKEN BY FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION TO MITIGATE
FUTURE FLOODS LOSSES IN THE COUNTRY
• FFC organized Post Flood Meeting on December 19, 2011 under the
chairmanship of Honourable Federal Minister for Water & Power,
wherein certain directions were issued to the flood management related
organizations.
• Work on Preparation of Comprehensive Flood Management Plan on
countrywide basis for next 10 years (based on integrated & innovative
approach) has been initiated through World Bank funded Water Sector
Capacity Building & Advisory Services Project (WCAP). The study is
likely to be completed by June 30, 2013
STEPS TAKEN BY FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION TO MITIGATE
FUTURE FLOOD LOSSES IN THE COUNTRY
• A High Level Flood Management Committee having
representation from FFC, NDMA, WAPDA, PMD, PCIW
and Engineer Directorate, GHQ, Rawalpindi has been renotified for Monsoon Season 2012 as done in the previous
Monsoon Season (2011).
Objectives of the Committee:
• The main objectives of the Committee are be to oversee
and ensure proper operation of Tarbela, Chashma and
Mangla reservoirs during Monsoon Season 2012, besides
coordination for Flood Forecasting and Management
activities. The Committee shall meet as frequently as
needed during Monsoon Season 2012.
STEPS TAKEN BY FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION TO MITIGATE
FUTURE FLOOD LOSSES IN THE COUNTRY
• The Flood Communication Cell (FCC) established in FFC has
started working on round the clock basis from June 15, 2012, which
would work upto 15th October 2012. The Flood Communication
Cell obtain rainfall data and weather information from Flood
Forecasting Division (FFD), Lahore and other Flood Warning
Centers set up in the Provincial Headquarters, besides data relating
to river discharges at RIM stations and other important control
points including flood flows data of Eastern Rivers through PCIW
and its transmission to concerned organizations.
• FFC is better flood management of Lai Nullah during Monsoon
Season. For that purpose FFC organized consultative meetings and
site visits with WASA and other concerned authorities. The
desilting works in critical sections has been completed by June 30,
2012.
STEPS TAKEN BY FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION TO
MITIGATE FUTURE FLOOD LOSSES
• The impounding water level of Mangla Dam Project is
being raised from 1210 feet (Max. Conservation Level of
last year) to 1242 feet for Monsoon Season 2012, which
will enhance the flood mitigation role of the dam project,
besides additional water storage of 2.90 MAF and 12%
more electricity i.e. 644 Gwh per annum.
• SOPs of Tarbela Dam are being revisited for enhancing its
role in mitigating future floods.
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