纳米机器人在医疗上的应用

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Nanoscale
robots
Introduction
The Nobel Prize winner in the 6os Feyneman prophecy: if
we tiny scale of objects arranged to some control of words, we
can make the object have a lot of unusual characteristics, you
will see the properties of materials have a wealth of change.
What he said is the material of the nanometer material now.
诺贝尔奖获得者Feyneman在六十年代曾经预言:如果
我们对物体微小规模上的排列加以某种控制的话,我们就
能使物体得到大量的异乎寻常的特性,就会看到材料的性
能产生丰富的变化。他所说的材料就是现在的纳米材料。
Nano
materials
Nano material is refers to the grain size for the nanometer level (10-9
meters) of super fine material. Its particles size than atom clusters, usually less
than the particles, generally for 100 ~ 102 nm. It includes approximately equal
volume fraction of two parts: one is the diameter of several
dozens of nanometer particle or two is the interface between
particles. The former has the long process of crystal shape
structure, the latter is neither long program and no short
program the chaos of the structure.
纳米材料是指晶粒尺寸为纳米级(10-9米)的超细材料。它的微粒尺寸
大于原子簇,小于通常的微粒,一般为100~102nm。它包括体积分数近似相等的
两个部分:一是直径为几个或几十个纳米的粒子二是粒子间的界面。前者具有
长程序的晶状结构,后者是既没有长程序也没有短程序的无序结构。
纳米机器人:特色
组成纳米级原件的元素主要有碳、氢、氧、硫,其中碳
元素最总要。这是因为由碳原子组成的金刚石和纳米碳管
强度高,为化学惰性,不会引起免疫反应和过敏休克反应
,所以应用性强。
不过,纳米医学的独到之处在于它的精确性。随着纳
米技术的进步,医疗纳米机器人将装备通信和导航系统。
同时人体也会置入通信和导航系统。这样医生可以在分子
水平上精确控制进入人体的纳米机器人。每种医疗纳米机
器人表面装有特定的抗体,能与人体特定的细胞抗原结合
,从而保证医疗纳米机器人准确到达要修复的组织和器官
中。人体内的纳米机器人通过其表面抗体与细胞表面抗体
的专一性,准确识别并作用于专一部位,从而完成医疗任
务。
医疗工作原理
医疗纳米机器人被注入人体后,开始在人体内循环。然
而,处于循环状态的医疗纳米机器人在靶域之外,完全不
具有活性。当纳米机器人进入靶域后,靶域细胞表面抗体
会被医疗纳米机器人检测到。此刻,医疗纳米机器人转入
活性状态。当然,纳米机器人要得到监管医生的声音指令
后才最终转入治疗状态。由于人体内已经置入了导航系统
,所以整个治疗过程完全处于监管医生控制之下。然后纳
米机器人还可以携带化学药物,并且准确送达靶细胞,并
且,其表面传感器能检测周围药物的浓度,从而控制药物
的释放剂量。
Medical nanoscale robots
Medical nanoscale robots is currently in the pilot phase, big to a few
millimeters long, small to a few microns in diameter; But certainly, the
next few years, nanoscale robots will lead to a revolution in medicine.
Many engineers, scientists and doctors think, medical nanoscale robots
have unlimited potential-and one of the most likely include: treatment of
atherosclerosis, anti-cancer, remove blood clot, clean the wound, help
blood coagulation, dispel parasites, treat gout, crushing kidney stones,
artificial insemination and the cell activation energy, make the person not
only keep healthy, and prolong life.
医用纳米机器人目前还处在试验阶段,大到长几毫米,小到直径几微米;
但可以肯定的是,未来几年内,纳米机器人将会带来一场医学革命。
许多工程师、科学家和医生都认为,医用纳米机器人有着无限的潜力——
而其中最有可能的包括:治疗动脉粥样硬化、抗癌、去除血块、清洁伤口、
帮助凝血、祛除寄生虫、治疗痛风、粉碎肾结石、人工授精以及激活细胞能
量,使人不仅保持健康,而且延长寿命。
Figure described in the is a nanoscale robots is going into the red blood cells
图中描述的是一个纳米机器人正在进入红细胞
Nano spider robot
In May 2010, Columbia University scientists have developed a success by the DNA
molecule consists of the nano spider robot, they can follow the operation of the DNA track
free to walk, mobile, steering and stop, and they will be free to the surface of an object in the
2 d walk. The nano spider robots only four nano long (a nanometer is one hundred billionth
of a meter), human hair than the diameter of the one over one hundred thousand still small.
Despite earlier nanoscale robots also realization walking function, but not more than 3
steps. And nano spider robot but can travel 100 nano distance, equivalent to fifty steps.
Scientists through programming, let it to certain track along the sport; The development of
the powerful lies in: once programming, nano spider robot can be finished the task, and don't
need human intervention. They think: nano spider robot can be used for medical enterprise,
to help the human recognition and kill cancer cells in order to achieve the purpose of cancer
treatment, still can help people finish surgery, cleaning the arterial junk, etc.
2010年5月,美国哥伦比亚大学的科学家成功研制出一种由脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)
分子构成的纳米蜘蛛机器人,它们能够跟随DNA的运行轨迹自由地行走、移动、转向
以及停止,并且它们能够自由地在二维物体的表面行走。这种纳米蜘蛛机器人只有4
纳米长(一纳米为一米的十亿分之一),比人类头发直径的十万分之一还小。
虽然之前的纳米机器人也实现了行走功能,但不会超过3步。而纳米蜘蛛机器人
却能行进100纳米距离,相当于50步。科学家通过编程,让其能够沿着特定的轨道运
动;这一进展的强大之处在于:一旦被编程,纳米蜘蛛机器人就能够自动完成任务,
而不需要人为介入。他们认为:纳米蜘蛛机器人可以用于医疗事业,以帮助人类识
别并杀死癌细胞以达到治疗癌症的目的,还可以帮助人们完成外科手术,清理动脉
血管垃圾等。
Nano spider robot duplicate another robot, and then be dyed green, and
toward the red target mobile
纳米蜘蛛机器人复制出了另一个机器人,继而被染成绿色,并朝红色目标移动
Figure is described in the nanoscale robots are looking for invasion of the virus
图中描述的是纳米机器人正在寻找入侵的病毒
Scientists to this kind of robot continue to improve, and made
breakthrough progress, it can now from a variety of sources to detect
disease index, for example mRNA, micro RNA (miRNA), protein and a
variety of small molecules.
Scientists goal is: in the future to create a lot this nanoscale robots, let
they automatically and continuously patrol inside the body, look for
various diseases signal. Because from a variety of sources can be directly
detect disease index, so diagnosis more accurately.
科学家对这种机器人进行了不断的改进,并取得了突破性的
进展,它现在可以从多种渠道来检测疾病指标,例如mRNA、微
核糖核酸(miRNA)、蛋白质以及多种小分子。
科学家的目标是:在未来创造大量这种纳米机器人,让它们
自动且不间断地在身体内巡逻,寻找各种疾病信号。由于可以
从多种渠道直接探测疾病指标,所以诊断更为精确。
Every new technology appear, seems to contain infinite possibility. It will not be long
before, and only the size of molecules magic nano robots will be flowing into the human
of everyday life. Famous Chinese scholars professor ZhouHaiZhong published in 1990
"on robot" in a prophecy: to 21 centuries middle period, nanoscale robots will
completely change human labor and way of life.
The last is worth mentioning: future scientists think that, in the 21 th century, with
the computer will absolutely and clear the area from will become meaningless. On one
hand, humans will have after nanometer robot technology greatly expanded biological
brain; On the other hand, people will have pure the biological brain, the latter is greatly
improves the function of human brain copies. There is no doubt that, after the brain
function improves, we will create numerous and nano robot technology of the update
fusion technology. At the appointed time, humans will enter a new world, become real
"new humans".
每一种新科技的出现,似乎都包涵着无限可能。用不了多久,个头只有分子
大小的神奇纳米机器人将源源不断地进入人类的日常生活。中国著名学者周海中
教授在1990年发表的《论机器人》一文中就预言:到21世纪中叶,纳米机器人将
彻底改变人类的劳动和生活方式。
最后值得一提的是:未来学家认为,到了21世纪下半叶,将人同计算机绝对
而清楚地区分开来将变得毫无意义。一方面,人类将拥有经过纳米机器人技术大
大扩展了的生物大脑;另一方面,人们将拥有纯粹的非生物大脑,后者是功能大
大增强了的人类大脑的复制品。毫无疑问,有了经过功能改善的大脑,我们将创
造出无数与纳米机器人技术融合的更新的技术。届时,人类将进入一个新天地,
成为地道的“新人类”。
制作人:严俊
0912050208
向鸣
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