The germ theory of disease states that infectious diseases are

The germ theory of disease states that
infectious diseases are caused by
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
toxins.
microorganisms.
heredity.
materials in the
environment.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Diseases are caused by
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
pathogens.
cigarette smoke.
fungi.
all of the above
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
An infectious disease is one that
is caused by
1. heredity.
2. materials in the
environment.
3. pathogens.
4. hemophilia.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
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4
Which of the following is NOT a step in
identifying the pathogen that causes a
specific disease?
1.
The pathogen should be found in
the body of a healthy organism.
The pathogen should be isolated
and grown in a pure culture.
The purified pathogens should
cause the same disease in a new
host.
The pathogen should be isolated
from the second host.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
How are infectious diseases
spread?
1. through coughing,
sneezing, or
physical contact
2. through
contaminated water
and food
3. by infected animals
4. all of the above
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
An example of an infectious
disease that is caused by a virus is
athlete’s foot.
tuberculosis.
influenza (the flu).
tetanus.
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Which of the following is an example of
a vector and the disease it spreads?
1. tall grass and Lyme
disease
2. the deer tick and
Lyme disease
3. the Nile river and
West Nile disease
4. insecticides and
malaria
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
How can you prevent the
spread of Lyme disease?
1.
Wash your hands
frequently.
Avoid sexual contact.
Avoid tall grasses and
wooded areas.
Cover your mouth with a
tissue when you cough.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Each of the following is an
infectious disease EXCEPT
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
AIDS.
chicken pox.
influenza.
cancer.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Antibiotics fight infections by
1. preventing viruses
from replicating.
2. killing bacteria.
3. killing infected cells.
4. growing green mold
that inhibits bacterial
growth.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Which of the following is a mechanism that
some antiviral drugs use to fight viruses?
1.
interfering with the
ability of viruses to
invade cells and multiply
once inside of them
increasing protein
synthesis on ribosomes
killing both bacterial and
human cells
none of the above
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Compounds that kill bacterial cells without
harming the cells of humans or other
animals are called
25% 25%
25%
25%
1. antiviral drugs.
2. insecticides.
3. antibiotics.
4. carcinogens.
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
One advantage of a fever is that
it can slow down the
1. activities of white
blood cells.
2. rate of chemical
reactions.
3. growth of
pathogens.
4. body’s recovery from
infection.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The body’s nonspecific defenses
against invading pathogens include
1. antibiotics.
2. mucus, sweat,
and tears.
3. antibodies.
4. killer T cells.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The inflammatory response can
cause
1. permanent immunity.
2. pain, swelling, and
fever.
3. antibodies to bind to
antigens.
4. killer T cells to attack
infected cells.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The body’s most important
nonspecific defense is
1. the skin.
2. cell-mediated
immunity.
3. the inflammatory
response.
4. permanent
immunity.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
If the skin is cut or broken, an infection
can result from microorganisms
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
in the air.
on the skin.
in the blood.
in the mucus.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Unlike passive immunity, in active
immunity antibodies are produced by
1. the mother of an
infant.
2. your own body.
3. other animals.
4. an autoimmune
disease.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
When a person receives a
vaccine, his or her body
1.
25%
receives antibodies against a specific
pathogen.
creates plasma cells that can produce
antibodies against the specific pathogen.
creates antigens to fight the specific
pathogen.
immediately begins fighting the infection
caused by the pathogens.
2.
3.
4.
1
1
2
3
4
5
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Humoral immunity is carried out
by
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
killer T cells.
lymphocytes.
antibodies.
macrophages.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
If a person has memory B cells against
a certain pathogen, the person is
1.
2.
likely to develop that disease.
much less likely to develop the
disease a second time.
able to spread the disease to others
through physical contact.
probably still sick with the disease.
3.
4.
25%
1
1
2
3
4
5
25%
2
25%
3
25%
4
A person who has received a
vaccine against polio
1.
is able to produce antibodies
against polio.
is more susceptible to the polio
virus than someone who has not
had the vaccine.
has polio antibodies in the
bloodstream.
has antipolio killer T cells in the
bloodstream.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
2
25%
3
25%
4
An immune response is
triggered by a(an)
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
antibiotic.
antibody.
antigen.
histamine.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Asthma is an example of
1.
the immune system
attacking its own body
cells.
the immune system
overreacting to an
antigen.
an autoimmune
disease.
an infection.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes
associated with allergies are caused when
1.
smooth muscles reduce the size
of air passageways in the lungs.
the immune system attacks the
body’s own cells.
mast cells release histamines.
infected cells produce interferon.
2.
3.
4.
25%
1
1
2
3
4
5
25%
2
25%
3
25%
4
What happens when a person who is
allergic to ragweed encounters ragweed?
1.
Ragweed antigens bind to mast cells,
which release histamines.
Ragweed antibodies attack the
immune system.
Mast cells release antihistamines into
the bloodstream.
The cells of the immune system
become weakened.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The symptoms of allergies
include
1.
2.
runny nose and a fever.
sneezing, runny nose,
and watery eyes.
unusual infections of the
lungs, mouth, throat,
and skin.
formation of a tumor.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
What causes asthma?
1.
Particular antigens trigger mast
cells to release histamines.
Particular antigens trigger muscle
contractions that make it difficult
to breathe.
Antibodies and killer T cells
attack cells in the tissues of the
lungs.
Antibodies and killer T cells
attack cells in the lining of the
heart.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
2
25%
3
25%
4
An example of an autoimmune
disease is
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
asthma.
allergies.
multiple sclerosis.
strep throat.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Autoimmune diseases result
when the immune system
1. fails to distinguish
self from nonself.
2. overreacts to
certain antigens.
3. is weakened by
asthma.
4. all of the above
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Antibodies attack
neuromuscular junctions in
1. rheumatoid
arthritis.
2. myasthenia
gravis.
3. multiple sclerosis.
4. Type I diabetes.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
All of the following are ways that
HIV can be spread EXCEPT
1.
sharing needles for intravenous
drug use.
tending to another person’s
bleeding wound when you have
a cut on your hand.
using another person’s
hairbrush.
having sex without a condom.
2.
3.
4.
25%
1
1
2
3
4
5
25%
2
25%
3
25%
4
Doctors first suspected that AIDS was
weakening the immune system of infected
patients when their patients developed
25% 25%
25%
25%
1. asthma.
2. allergies.
3. rare infections.
4. strep throat.
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
HIV weakens the immune
system by killing
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
antibodies.
B cells.
helper T cells.
killer T cells.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
HIV spreads through the body
by
1.
replicating inside the cells of the
immune system.
preventing the body from producing
antibodies against HIV.
causing the body to have asthma
attacks.
strengthening the immune system.
2.
3.
4.
25%
1
1
2
3
4
5
25%
2
25%
3
25%
4
Which of the following presents
a risk of spreading HIV?
1. abstaining from sex
2. giving blood
3. kissing someone on
the cheek
4. using a
contaminated needle
to receive an
injection
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Factors that affect air quality
include
1. carbon monoxide.
2. ozone.
3. airborne
particulates.
4. all of the above
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Lead pollution is no longer a
serious problem because
1.
lead particulates are not easily
inhaled.
leaded gasoline was replaced
with unleaded gasoline.
lead particulates are washed into
rivers and streams.
asbestos is now used instead of
lead.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
2
25%
3
25%
4
Cancer cells affect other cells in
the body by
1.
taking in nutrients
needed by other cells.
increasing nerve
connections.
forming benign tumors
throughout the body.
all of the above
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Cancer can be caused by
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
bacteria.
asthma.
radiation.
allergies.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
A benign tumor is one that
1. is cancerous.
2. has undergone
metastasis.
3. does not spread to
other parts of the
body.
4. does not divide
uncontrollably.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Radiation and cigarette smoke
both
1. cause mutations in
DNA.
2. are carcinogens.
3. cause nausea,
headaches, and hair
loss.
4. destroy fast-growing
cancer cells.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Healthful behaviors include
1. eating a healthful
diet.
2. getting plenty of
exercise.
3. getting regular
checkups.
4. all of the above
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Eating foods that are low in saturated
fat and cholesterol may help prevent
1. cancer.
2. bacterial
diseases.
3. obesity.
4. STDs.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Regular excercise is important
because it
1. suppresses the
immune system.
2. helps prevent heart
disease.
3. reduce the risk of
getting an STD.
4. helps prevent
cancer.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Koch’s postulates would not be an effective
method of determining the cause of
hemophilia. _________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
Washing your hands frequently can prevent
the spread of many vectors.
_________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
The protists that cause Chagas disease are spread by
insects called assassin bugs. These assassin bugs are
pathogens for Chagas disease.
_________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
Antibiotics are an effective treatment for a
viral disease such as measles.
_________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
Lysozyme, an enzyme that breaks down the cell
walls of bacteria, is a part of the body’s specific
defenses. _________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
The immune response is triggered by
antibodies. _________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
Cell-mediated immunity is carried out by
lymphocytes.
_________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
Histamines can reduce the symptoms of an
allergic reaction.
_________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
Injecting specific allergens into the body of a person with
allergies can improve the allergic symptoms over time. This
treatment serves to make the immune system more
sensitive to the allergens. _________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
When the immune system makes a mistake and attacks
the body’s own cells, it produces an allergic reaction.
______________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
Autoimmune diseases can be treated.
_________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
Over a period of years, HIV kills most of a
person’s B cells.
_________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
Benign tumors are not cancerous.
_________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
A risk factor is anything that increases the
chance of disease or injury.
_________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
The only way to absolutely prevent exposure
to STDs is abstinence.
_________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
Participant Scores
0
0
Participant 1
Participant 2
0
0
0
Participant 3
Participant 4
Participant 5
A ____________________ is
any disease-causing organism.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Chickenpox, tetanus, and malaria are all
examples of ____________________
diseases.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Mosquitoes that carry disease-causing
organisms from person to person are called
____________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Antibiotics are used to treat infectious
diseases caused by
____________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
____________________ are effective at
treating strep throat, but not at treating the
flu.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Any opening in the skin is a potential
entrance for ____________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
The distinction between specific and nonspecific immune
defenses is whether the defense targets
____________________ pathogens or all pathogens.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
A ____________________ T cell activates
other T cells and B cells, whereas a killer T
cell binds to infected cells.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Killer T cells attack pathogens in
____________________ immunity.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
During an allergy attack, antigens bind to
____________________, which release
____________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Lupus erythematosus occurs when the immune system
attacks the connective tissues of the body. This is an
example of a(an) _________________________ disease.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
A person who has ____________________ is likely to
suffer from a number of other rare infections because this
virus attacks the immune system.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Unlike a benign tumor, a(an) ____________________
tumor is likely to ____________________ surrounding
healthy tissue.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
____________________ is the intentional
use of biological agents to disable or kill
individuals.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Eating foods that are low in saturated fat
and ____________________ may help
prevent obesity.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What are three causes of
disease?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Why do you think blood is tested before
it is given to another person?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Acyclovir is sometimes used to treat chickenpox and
mononucleosis. This drug works by inhibiting the synthesis
of viral DNA. Can acyclovir be considered an antibiotic?
Why or why not?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What are antibiotics?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What role do interferons play in the immune
system? Are they effective against all
pathogens?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
How does the skin act as a nonspecific
defense against pathogens?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Measles (rubeola) and German measles (rubella) are
caused by different viruses. If you have recovered from
rubeola, are you protected against infection with rubella?
Why or why not?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
How do allergies occur?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Describe the mechanism that
causes allergies.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What causes autoimmune
diseases?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Zidovudine (AZT) is a drug that inhibits the enzyme HIV
needs to multiply. What effect would you expect AZT to
have on the number of T cells in an HIV-infected person’s
blood and immune system overall?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What effects does HIV have on
the immune system?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What is the difference between a
benign tumor and a malignant tumor?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
List four behaviors that will help
maintain your overall health.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Describe three air quality factors that
can be risk factors for health problems.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Identify three main causes of disease. Give
an example of a disease caused by each
factor you discuss.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Rabies is a serious, and often fatal, viral infection that affects mainly wild mammals. Most
humans who contract rabies get it from the bite of an infected dog. In the United States,
all pet dogs are required to have a rabies vaccination each year because any wild
mammal can potentially transmit the virus to a dog. Based on this information, identify the
vectors for rabies transmission to humans and to dogs. Also, describe measures that can
be taken to prevent the spread of rabies.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Many bacteria can be divided into two groups based on the structure and chemical
composition of their cell wall. Gram-positive bacteria have a simpler cell wall than Gramnegative bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane in the cell wall and
are more resistant to antibiotics. Based on what you know about how antibiotics fight
bacteria, explain why antibiotics are less effective against Gram-negative bacteria.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Describe the inflammatory
response in terms of a wound.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Describe active and passive immunity and
explain how an individual develops each
type.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Over the last 30 years, the number of people afflicted with asthma has increased greatly.
Some researchers claim that their studies show a link between asthma and air pollution.
Other researchers say that the evidence is not clear. Based on what you’ve learned about
asthma, do you think it’s possible that air pollution could cause asthma or make it worse?
How could you test your hypothesis? Explain your answer
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Before a person receives an organ from another person, he or she is
first given very strong drugs to weaken the immune system. Otherwise,
the immune system will attack the new organ. What causes the attack?
Is this a form of autoimmune disease? Why or why not?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
When a person is first infected with HIV, the body produces many antibodies
against HIV and the number of viruses in the blood decreases significantly.
Although the antibody level remains high, the number of viruses in the blood
increases over time and the number of T cells decreases. Explain these typical
lab results based on how HIV affects the immune system.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Explain how radiation and
chemicals can cause cancer.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Give at least three reasons why it is
important to eat a healthful diet.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
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