Lesson 4 Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages Understanding beverage service procedures and how to serve them responsibly. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages Lesson Overview 4.0 Introduction 4.1 Beverage service procedures 4.2 – 4.3 Responsible service of alcohol / Beverage service and the law 4.4 Alcohols role in modern society 4.5 Recommended safe levels of consumption 4.6 The body and alcohol 4.7 Management responsibilities in beverage staff training 4.8 Preventing guest intoxication and identifying over consumption 4.9 Delaying or suspending service 4.10 The hangover Conclusion References Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages Aims and Learning Outcomes of the Lesson On completion of this lesson the learner will be expected to be able to; Explain and apply the service procedures for alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages Determine their legal and moral responsibilities in relation alcohol service Explain the recommended safe levels of consumption for alcohol Know the techniques used to prevent intoxication and to identify intoxicated guests Describe the potential effects of a hangover. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.1 Beverage service procedures Bamunuge, Edwards & Nutley, 2010) suggest that you should ‘always make your customers feel welcome, greet them with a smile, even if you are busy serving a drink order to someone else’ Escort customers to a bar table (when possible) – creates good impression, helps maximise seating arrangements Upon seating a customer – show them the food and beverage lists, explain specialities, promotions etc Types of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages: Wine: still, sparkling, fortified or aromatized, Beer: ales, lagers, stouts. Cider and Perry. Distilled spirits: vodka, gin, rum, whiskey, brandy (served with water, ice, in cocktails or speciality coffees). Liqueurs: flavoured, (straight, with ice, within cocktails or speciality coffees). Hot drinks: tea, coffee, chocolate. Fruit juices: freshly squeezed or prepared juices (straight or without ice). Mineral waters (natural mineral water, chilled or room temperature, manufactured mixers (served mixed with spirits or straight with ice). Cordial / Syrups: used for sweetening, flavouring, diluted with water. Further information: Murphy, J.(2013) Principles and Practices of Bar & Beverage Management - Drinks Handbook, Goodfellow Publishing Ltd, Oxford: England. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Still Wine Service) Still wine service: (Champagne and sparkling wine service chapter 4 – p. 55-58) Initial considerations: taking the order, glasses, ice buckets, equipment, service temperature, decanting. present the wine to the host (the person who ordered the wine) with the label facing them, the server states the name of the wine, the grape (if applicable), the vintage (if applicable), to confirm that the wine is the one that was ordered by the host, the host will then accept or decline the wine, if they decline then the correct wine should be sourced and presented immediately the server opens the bottle in front of the customer, holding the bottle by the neck in your left hand, with the label facing the customer, carefully cut the foil below the lip of the bottle with the blade on your waiters knife and remove the foil, the corkscrew is then inserted into the bottle, carefully extracting the cork, ensure that you have your waiters cloth draped over your fore arm so as you can wipe the top of the bottle the cork is presented to the customer, this is for the customer to examine the cork for defaults as the cork is sometimes the reason for faulty in wine, if it is a screw cap there is no need to present the cap the server, serving from the right, then pours a taste of the wine for the host to taste. When pouring the wine, the server should hold the bottle behind the label and not by the base of the bottle, the reason for this is so that the host can read the label again when pouring wine the server should twist the bottle to ensure that no drops of wine will fall onto the table and then wipe the top of the bottle with a waiters, service cloth the host will then accept or decline the wine the waiter will then pour wine for the ladies first, then gents, and the host last, if the host is a lady then you still serve her last, consider also age, rank, and social position. a bottle of wine will comfortable serve five people a medium sized glass each, when pouring wine for a party of six or more, ensure that they all receive the same amount of wine, when filling the glass a general rule is to two thirds of a glass full for white wine and a half glass full of red wine (this also depends on the size of the glass because some modern wine glasses can be huge if the host orders another bottle of the same wine the host must receive a clean glass to taste and then the remainder of the table are served if the host orders a different bottle of wine, i.e., a different type of red wine, then everyone at the table should receive clean wine glasses you must finally check that the host and their guests are happy with the service ensuring also if they require other products and services of the establishment before you leave the table. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Still Wine Service) Wine Service Figure 5.5 Glass carrying. Figure 4.1 Carrying a drinks service tray. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Cocktail Service) Cocktail Service: Making a good cocktail is about getting the balance of flavours right. Cocktails are about three things, balance, style and consistency. If you can get that right everything else will fall into place. The cocktail service also involves strategic decisions regarding the methods used to prepare the cocktails, these decisions depend on several factors; If the cocktail contains a cloudy ingredient such as fresh cream, egg yolk, lemon or orange or a similar opaque item it should be shaken. If the ingredients are all clear and are also of Co2 (fizzy) then the cocktail should be stirred. If the drinks involved are of different specific gravity’s and the bartender wishes to keep the layers separate then the cocktail be built slowly over the back of a spoon or just over ice. If the cocktail requires freshly extracted oils or juices then the cocktail should be muddled. Further information: Murphy, J. (2013) Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management – The Drinks Handbook’, Goodfellow Publishing Ltd, Oxford: England. (Chapter 10 & appendices I, provides a most comprehensive review of the best practice procedures involved in cocktail service with detailed cocktail recipe listings and extended explanations of all the significant cocktail equipment used in cocktail service. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Coffee and Tea service) Coffee and Liqueurs Service it is a tradition to enjoy coffee at the end of a good meal. personalise the individual coffee offering with modern service styles, (Americano, Latte, Espresso, Cappuccino, Latte Macchiato, Caffe Mocha) find which types of coffee your customer require, it’s important to ask each customer how much sugar they want and, when pouring out the coffee at the table, i.e. from a coffee pot offer milk, or cream separately, as appropriate always serve coffee in very warm cups, ideal service temperature for milk is 68c serve the coffee from the right hand side of each customer, ideal service temperature for coffee is 82c ensure that the coffee has a good flavour, aroma, body and colour with the milk, not grey when serving coffee offer customers a choice of alcohol or liqueurs. Place the appropriate glasses i.e Cognac or liqueur glass to the right of the customer. Cognacs and liqueurs must be served in the right glass (see scalding below). Brewing Tea: This involves getting the amount of tea, the water temperature and the steeping time just right; a light, airy tea such as white tea requires two heaping teaspoons for an 8-once cup. for stronger, more densely packed black teas, use a level teaspoon. White and many green teas should be brewed well below the boiling point, 160-180 degrees Fahrenheit. The stronger and darker the tea, the closer to the boiling point the water should be. Lighter teas steep longer (3 to 5 minutes) than black teas (2 to 3 minutes). Lighter teas may also keep their flavour through multiple steepings. Black teas lose their flavour and much of their caffeine after one or two steepings, although the taste of Pu-erh can last for several steepings. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Coffee and Tea service) Tea Service Pre-heat teapots and cups with hot boiling water, which is discarded prior to service, Indian or Ceylon Blend: usually made in either china or metal teapots. Both are offered with milk or sugar. Russian or Lemon tea: Made similar to china tea served in heat resistant glasses which stand in a silver holder, with a slice of lemon. Iced tea: made strong, sometimes strained and always chilled. Served in a tumbler glass on a side plate with a teaspoon and lemon slice. Speciality Teas Assam: rich full and malty flavoured tea, suitable for breakfast, served with milk. Darjeeling: the Champagne of teas, delicate tea with a light grape flavour, served in the afternoon or evening with lemon or milk. Earl Grey: blend of Darjeeling and China tea, flavoured with oil of Bergamot. Served with lemon or milk. Jasmine: green (un-oxidised) tea, which is dried with Jasmine Blossom and produces a tea with a fragrant and scented flavour. Kenya: consistent and refreshing tea, served with milk. Lapsang Souchong: a smoky, pungent and perfumed tea, delicate to the palate, which may be said to be an acquired taste. Served with lemon. Sri Lanka: pale golden tea, good flavour. The Ceylon blend is still used as a trade name. Served with lemon or milk. Tisanes: Tisanes are fruit flavoured teas and herbal infusions, which are often used for medicinal purposes. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Distilled spirits and liqueurs service) Distilled sprits and liqueurs service (chapter 4 – pp. 61-62 further information) Adopting modern service techniques for these drinks can help to intensify and enhance the enjoyment of these drinks for your customers. Floating liqueurs (Pousse café, layered shooters) Flambe Frozen drinks Frosting (rimming) glasses Frappe Free pour Chilled spirits Mist Martinis On the rocks Highballs Scalding Straight up, neat Shots Further information: Comprehensive information in relation to individual distilled spirits, beers, liqueurs, cocktails, tea and coffee, soft drinks and wine recommendations, preparation and service procedures please refer to Murphy, J. (2013) ‘Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management- The Drinks Handbook, Oxford: England. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.2 - 4.3 Responsible service of alcohol / Beverage Service and the Law Responsible Service of Alcohol Bar staff and management have the task of serving and dealing with all types of people from all walks of life and status of society, this is an enjoyable and rewarding part of the job However there are many occasions when they have to deal with people who may well have on occasion for various reasons consumed too much alcohol. This situation requires considerable patience, tact, firmness and above all experience. Alcohol awareness and responsible service can ultimately lead to informed and wise decision making by all bar staff. Beverage Service and the Law The Laws relating to the provision of alcohol differ from country to country and sometimes even region, state or village, it is important that you learn which laws which apply to your country or area The bartender may be held responsible for injury to others that is caused by an intoxicated customer who has been served unlawfully, failure to act responsibly in the service of alcohol can result if negligence is proven against the bar or bartender the court may allow substantial damages Crucial that the bar owner (license holder), their management and staff members to develop ways to monitor the service of alcohol. An intoxicated guest’s normal judgment will be impaired, therefore, it is up to the bartender, not the customer, to decide on service. Responsible alcohol service practices can also lead to better business practices which contribute to improving the atmosphere of the bar, ultimately to achieve greater profits. Bar owners should therefore improve their RSA practices and training for the following reasons; maintaining a good reputation increase customer satisfaction decrease damage done to the bar avoid potential legal cases less police attendance morale will increase boosting productivity and reducing staff turnover. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.4 Alcohols Role in Modern Society Alcohol is considered to be societies most prevalent and accepted legal recreational drug; it is generally accepted as a component of our daily life. Ancient cultures had their own form of alcohol, and it played its own role in each society, be it religious or cultural, enjoying alcoholic beverages has been a part of many societies over many centuries The Swiss Alchemist Paracelsus (1493-1541) who was the first person to use the word 'alcohol'. Further information on World alcohol consumption, laws, advertising regulations; The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Status Report, Alcohol Policy reports. The International Center for Alcohol Policy (ICAP) – publishes the upper drinking levels for most countries. The Center for information on Beverage Alcohol (CBA). Drinks companies worldwide have joined together to form social aspects organizations to promote sensible and responsible drinking and to combat abuse Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.5 Recommended Safe Levels of Consumption Recent research studies indicate that customers and individuals are drinking no more than their parents were drinking 15 years ago but the frequency, strength of drinks, and amount of drinks consumed per session has increased. These irrational drinking patterns have created a binge drinking culture. Scale units of alcohol for standard drinks: agreed convention is grams of absolute ethanol, enables bartenders and consumers to be able to assess the risk levels for consumption, a standard drink, ranging from 8g to 13g in certain countries) Recommendations on drinking levels considered ‘minimum risk’ for men and women cover a range of values as daily limits, or as weekly recommendations. Calculating the unit of alcohol in your drink (formula): Amount of drink (ml) multiplied by the drink strength abv % = Unit/s of alcohol. 1 unit of alcohol is equivalent to 10 millilitres (which is approximately 8 grams of ethanol) Examples: Cider (bottle: 330ml) multiplied by (cider strength: 5% abv) = 1.7 units Lager (one pint : 568ml) multiplied by (lager strength: 4 % abv) = 2.3 units Alcohol, acute and long term effects 1-2 units daily: Acute effects: a mild alteration of feelings and a slight intensification of moods. At 2 units, bad driving habits could be slightly more pronounced but if you were to be breathalyses, your blood alcohol reading would probably be less than half the legal limit. Long-term effects: regular daily consumption reduces levels of LDL (bad), cholesterol in the blood, cutting the risk of heart disease. 3-4 units daily: Acute effects: You may become more cheerful, feel warm, relaxed or slightly sedated. Emotions and behavior are exaggerated and you take slightly longer to react. Long term effects: no significant risks to health. 5-8 units daily: Acute effects: Euphoria feeling, impairment of mental abilities, dangerous to drive. Long term effects: you're on the slippery slope. 9-14 units daily: Acute effects: Loss of self-control, slurred speech, and double vision is common. Long-term effects: Some risk of breast cancer and liver cirrhosis can be expected. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.6 The Body and Alcohol Distribution of alcohol: enzymes turn alcohol into acid aldehide into (safe acids), distribution differs on gender; Men - high body fluid volume (usually 60-80% of body weight) distribution is usually slower. Women lower body fluid (usually 50-70% of body weight) distribution is faster. Women have fewer enzymes in the liver and gut wall that break down alcohol Removal of alcohol: alcohol is predominately removed by metabolism in the liver cells. Elimination rate is 5 - 9g e / h per hour (this basically means that alcohol is eliminated only at one unit per hour). Full detailed removal of alcohol from the body is as follows skin (sweat) 2-6%, lungs (breath) 2-4%, liver 90%, kidneys (urine) 2-4%. Vomiting, perspiring, hyperventilating, consuming black coffee or urinating have no effect on the removal on the amount of alcohol in the blood, and have little effect on the degree of intoxication. So you must be extra careful the morning after, for example if you operating machinery or driving. The body can only eliminate about one dose of alcohol per hour, by drinking several drinks in that time will increase your BAC much more than having one drink over an hour or more. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels, tolerance to alcohol Humans develop tolerance when their brains adapt to compensate for the disruption caused by alcohol in both their behaviour and their bodily functions. BAC levels and likely human condition;, BAC 40: you begin to feel relaxed, there is an increased chance of an accident (2 small beers) BAC 60: you are cheerful, you have poorer judgment and decisions may be affected BAC 80: you have a feeling of warmth and well being, there will be some loss of inhibitions and self control. Slow reaction time, driving ability definitely worse BAC 120: you are likely to become more talkative, excited and emotional, you are inhibited and may act on impulse BAC 150: you are silly and probably confused, speech is slurred, may be aggressive BAC 200: drunk, staggering, double vision, loss of memory, BAC 300: possibly unconscious BAC 400: unconsciousness likely, death not unknown, BAC 500: death possible, BAC 800: death probable. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.7 Management Responsibilities in Beverage Staff Training Management must clearly state their expectation of staff and give them the authority to make decisions. Support staff with (written house policy, staff meetings, an incident log and reviewing particular incidents). Consider safe transport options staff offering to call a friend or family member of a customer; staff offering to call a taxi; making a phone available and the phone numbers of taxi companies; offering to include the cost of mini-buses as part of the costs of a function; and starting a designated driver program (DDP) Avoiding conflict and violence removal of glasses, containers and litter regularly; adequate numbers of licensed crowd controllers (hosts) adequate toilet facilities video camera surveillance in large bars and clubs a good ratio between the men and women attending the premises non-aggressive staff monitoring the door; these staff should vet underage persons ready availability of attractive, keenly priced food, low alcohol and non-alcoholic drinks; well trained staff, excellent customer service, variety of spaces and activities adequate seating arrangements Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.8 Preventing Guest Intoxication and Identifying Over Consumption Strategies to prevent guest intoxication Notify management of potential problems (i.e. guests drinking fast). Keep track of how many drinks are being consumed and in what time frame. Engage you guests in conversations, ask details that would be a good test of mental alertness (i.e. recent news, sports events). Suggest selling food (especially high protein food such as fried cheese, potato skins). Promote healthy non and low alcoholic drinks / events – attractive signage and price incentives are useful. Bar staff can influence a customer’s decision regarding drinks so try to avoid unacceptable serving practices. Techniques to identifying guest intoxication Some people are very clever at hiding intoxication, so how do we identify over consumption, listed below are some of the most signs to help you in your decision making process. These signs much not considered in isolation of each other because rash decisions can also cause you major problems, a person with disability might display some of the signs below; A noticeable change in your customer’s behavior , becoming loud (heightened voice volume), erratic, entertaining, animated, boisterous, using bad language, annoying customers, slurred speech, argumentative, mean, obnoxious, over friendly to strangers wants to converse or buy them a drink, sudden quietness. A lack of judgment, careless with their money, making silly, irrational or repeated statements, boasts about their financial situation, ‘conquests’, physical or mental strength, drinking faster, complaining about drink prices. Clumsiness, losing muscular control, becoming clumsy, spilling drinks and difficulty in picking up change. Loss of co-ordination, swaying and staggering, difficulty in walking straight, bumping into furniture. Decreased alertness, becoming drowsy (heavy eyelids), delays in responding to questions and paying attention, hearing, concentration and focus ‘glazed eyes’, or becomes detached, brooding. The smell of alcohol (an important indication). Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.9 Delaying or Suspending Service When a customer has reached their maximum number of drinks, service can be delayed; if the customer showing signs of intoxication, service of alcohol may be stopped for the duration of the evening. This decision can be easily determined by a customer’s actions. Delaying or suspending service: best practices (chapter 4 – pp. 69- 70). Refusal of service technique (T.A.K.E C.A.R.E – Chapter 4 - p. 70). Responsible service of alcohol (RSA): role-play scenarios for discussion (chapter 4 – p. 71). Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.10 The Hangover Hangover symptoms are caused by the combined effects of the congeners and the products of the breakdown of alcohol. Your customers will be suffering the following conditions; Dehydration: although you're taking in more fluids, you're also expelling them more quickly, altering the water balance in the cells and tissues. This is the major cause of hangover headache. Low blood sugar Irritation of the stomach lining A degree of poisoning: congeners (impurities which give particular taste - toxins) methanol, a type of alcohol found as a congener in most alcoholic drinks, is not broken down by most people's bodies until the morning after. It's then that the unpleasant toxins responsible for many hangover symptoms are produced. Vessels relax (blood shot eyes): alcohol relaxes blood vessels, which then expand to let more blood through, causing telltale bloodshot eyes. Nervous System (sensitivity): the body combats the sedative effects of alcohol by making the nervous system more sensitive - hence difficulty in sleeping, sensitivity to lights and noise. Brain cells: example: 1 single measure of whiskey destroys 20000 brain cells, which will never be replaced. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages Conclusion Beverage staff must always seek to provide high standards when serving all types of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Alcohol is usually present everywhere in our socializing, entertaining and workplace environments It enlivens our moment of relaxation and generally helps to promote lively cultural engagements and a healthy disposition when consumed in moderation and with care. Unfortunately abuse or over consumption of alcohol can bring harmful consequences. Managing alcohol consumption through responsible service strategies need to be adopted by all your in-house staff. Promote low alcohol and non-alcoholic drinks, Always support your bartenders when refusing service and allocate proper access and time for RSA staff training. Display your house policy on alcohol in a good vantage point within your premises Remember we can all make the differences that count in making our jobs more enjoyable and our bars safer and socially enhanced. Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages References Brown, G. Hepner, K. and Deegan, A. (1994) Introduction to Food and Beverage Service, Pearson Education Ltd: England. Cousins, J. and Lillicrap, D. (2010) Essential Food and Beverage Service, London: Hodder Education. Edwards, G. (2002) Alcohol: The World's Favourite Drink, Thomas Dum Books: England. Irish National Alcohol Awareness Campaign (2001-03) Phases and Booklets, Irish Health Board. IBA. (2008) A Guide to Social Responsibility, International Bartenders Association: The Netherlands. Kummer, C.(2003) The joy of coffee : the essential guide to buying, brewing, and enjoying. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Murphy, J. (2005) ‘Dealing with Intoxication’, Licensing World, November, Jemma Publications Ltd: Dublin. Murphy, R. (2002) Developing an Alcohol and Drug Policy for your Workplace', Western Health Board: Ireland. Murphy, J. (2013) Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management, Goodfellow Publishing Ltd, Oxford: England. Murphy, J. (2013) Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management – The Drinks Handbook, Goodfellow Publishing Ltd, Oxford: England. Moxham, R. (2003) Tea: addition exploitation and empire, Constable Publishing: UK. Water Codex II (nd) The San Pellegrino and Aqcua Panna Water - Codex II, : Italy. Web resources www.servsafe.com Serve-safe USA. www.icap.org/Publication/ICAPBlueBook/tabid/148/Default.aspx International centre for alcohol policies (ICAP). www.apsad.org.au APSAD Australia. www.efrd.org European Forum for Responsible Drinking. http://www.restaurant.org/legal/law_alcohol.cfm#incident National restaurant association, how to serve alcohol responsibly.