Responding to Emergencies PowerPoint

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Chapter 14: Chest, Abdomen,
and Pelvic Injuries
Injuries to the Chest, Abdomen and Pelvis
 Because the chest,
abdomen and pelvis
contain many organs
important to life, injury
to these areas can be
fatal.
 Chest injuries are a
leading cause of trauma
deaths each year.
151
AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION
Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross
All rights reserved.
Chest Injury
 Chest injuries may involve the bones that form the chest cavity
or they may involve the organs or other structures in the cavity
itself.
 Chest wounds are either open or closed (ex: rib fractures and
puncture wounds).
 Signals of serious chest injury include—
 Trouble breathing.
 Severe pain.
 Flushed, pale, ashen or bluish skin.
 Obvious deformity.
 Coughing up blood.
 Bruising at the site of a blunt injury.
 A distinctive “sucking” sound as the person breathes.
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AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION
Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross
All rights reserved.
Care for Injuries to the Chest
 Caring for a serious chest injury often means helping the victim
with trouble breathing. To care for a serious chest injury—
 Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.
 Position the victim to aid breathing.
 If ribs are broken, bind the victim’s upper arm to the chest.
 Use a pillow or rolled blanket to support and immobilize the
area.
 If a sucking chest sound is evident, cover the wound with an
occlusive dressing.
 Take steps to minimize shock.
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AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION
Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross
All rights reserved.
Injuries to the Abdomen
 Signals of serious abdominal injury include—
 Severe pain.
 Bruising.
 External bleeding.
 Nausea.
 Vomiting (sometimes containing blood).
 Weakness.
 Thirst.
 Pain, tenderness or tight feeling in the abdomen.
 Organs protruding from the abdomen.
 Rigid abdominal muscles.
 Other signals of shock.
154
AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION
Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross
All rights reserved.
Care for Injuries to the Abdomen
 If the injury involves an open wound—
 Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.
 Carefully position the victim on his or her back.
 Do not apply direct pressure.
 Do not push any protruding organs back in.
 Remove clothing from around the wound.
 Apply moist, sterile dressings.
 Cover the wound with an occlusive dressing.
 Cover dressings lightly with a folded towel to maintain
warmth.
 Take steps to minimize shock.
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AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION
Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross
All rights reserved.
Care for Injuries to the Abdomen
(continued)
 If the injury involves a closed wound—
 Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number immediately.
 Carefully position the victim on his or her back unless you
suspect injury to the head, neck or back.
 Bend the victim’s knees slightly. If moving the victim’s legs
causes pain, keep them straight.
 Place rolled-up pillows or blankets under the knees for
support.
 Take steps to minimize shock.
 Monitor breathing, skin color and temperature until EMS
personnel arrive.
156
AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION
Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross
All rights reserved.
Injuries to the Pelvis
 Signals of pelvic injury are the same as those for an abdominal
injury. Signals of pelvic injuries may also include—
 Severe pain.
 Protruding
organs.
 Bruising.
 Rigid muscles.
 External bleeding.
 Pelvic injuries may also cause
 Nausea.
 Vomiting (blood).
 Loss of sensation in the legs.
 Weakness.
 Inability to move.
 Thirst.
 Pain, tenderness or swelling.
157
AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION
Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross
All rights reserved.
Care for Pelvic Injury
 To care for injuries to the pelvis—
 Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.
 Do not move the victim unless necessary.
 Control external bleeding.
 Cover any protruding organs.
 Take steps to minimize shock.
 Care for a closed wound to the genitals as you would any
closed wounds.
 If the genital has an open wound apply a sterile dressing and
control bleeding with direct pressure.
158
AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION
Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross
All rights reserved.
Review
 Injuries to the chest, abdomen or pelvis can be serious.
 Some injuries can only be detected if the victim’s condition
worsens over time.
 Watch for signals of serious injury that require medical attention.
 Care for life-threatening emergencies first.
 Always call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number as soon as
possible.
 For open wounds, control the bleeding.
 If a fracture is suspected, immobilize the injured part.
 Use occlusive dressing for sucking chest wounds and open
abdominal wounds.
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AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION
Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross
All rights reserved.
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