微算機概論小考

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Introduction to Microcomputers
微算機概論
電通三
Ying-Wen Bai
Department of Electrical Engineering,
Fu Jen Catholic University
Microcomputer ?
MPU: Microprocessor Unit;
CPU: Central Processing Unit
Microcomputer?
• A computer that uses microprocessor as
its CPU. In the 1980s. Microcomputer
could be effectively contrasted with
minicomputer and mainframes, and
typified as inexpensive, single-user
systems. However, this is no longer true
because minicomputers and even
mainframes employ microprocessors.
• IBM PC was designed in 1981.
Microprocessor
• An integrated circuit that contains the
Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU), control unit,
sometimes the floating-point unit (FPU) of a
computer’s central processing unit (CPU).
Fabricated on a small flake of silicon and
mass-produced at low cost, microprocessor
can contain the equivalent million
transistors and unquestionably one of the
twentieth century’s greatest technological
advances. (4004 designed by Intel at 1972)
CPU
• CPU: Central Processing Unit
• A computer’s internal storage, processing, and
control circuitry, including arithmetic-logic unit
(ALU), the control unit, read-only memory (ROM),
and random access memory (RAM). The ALU
and control unit are wholly contained on a chip
called the microprocessor; the memory is
elsewhere on the motherboard or an adapter on
the expansion bus.
PC Motherboard Architecture
(1981 IBM設計)
Why microcomputers?
• 1. 研究生 –各組實驗需求比率高
通訊 、控制、 計算機 、VLSI
展示和實現研究結果
可程式規劃測試平台,….
• 2. 工程師 –電子/電機/資工系畢業生必備知識之一(多校必修)
工作上需要用到機會高(大部分主管會假設你會一些)
可程式規劃應用功能,…
• 3. 創業者 --創業中便宜而且是有力工具(可程式規劃性)
• 4. 一般人 –生活上必需品(各類產品內含微算機:資料收集、資料
輸出和顯示、資料處理、資料儲存、資料傳輸、其他)
使用(內含)微算機(電腦)之各類產品
•平板電腦、筆記型電腦、個人電腦、PDA
•雲端計算系統、伺服器、工作站、各類型電腦/
網路設備/通訊系統設備
•智慧型手機、各類型手機
•機器人/遊戲機/電子寵物
•數位相機/數位攝影機/數位電視
•醫療電子儀器
•電子書/電子字典/電子表
•汽車/捷運/各類現代車輛/機車/各類飛機
•家庭保全系統/各類保全系統/各類控制器
•其他(很多)
教科書
1.
Textbook: Barry B. Brey, “The Intel Microprocessor,”
Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009, Eighth Edition.
•
1.
References:
Walter A. Triebel and Avtar Singh, “The 8088
and 8086
Microprocessors,” Prentice Hall, 2003, Fourth Edition.
Frank Vahid and Tony Givargis, Embedded System Design:
A Unified Hardware and Software Introduction, Hohn Wiley
& Sons, Inc, 2002.
A. K. Ray and K. M. Bhurchandi, “Intel Microprocessors”,
McGRAW-Hill Book Co., 2006
2.
3.
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Office Hours :
Office: SF 719
Tuesday: 10:00~11:00
Thursday: 10:00~12:00
評分
•
•
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兩次小考: 10% X 2
期中考: 30%
期末考: 30%
四次作業: 5% X 4
• 期末報告: 0%~5% (加分) 2014/01/07以前繳交
題目與微算機概論相關(4~8頁A4紙張版)
• 上課出席: 0%~5% (加分)
•
2013/10/22
2013/11/12
2013/12/31
2014/01/14
微算機概論小考
微算機概論期中考
微算機概論小考
微算機概論期末考
「微算機概論」評分情形和修課建議
• 前幾年評分統計:選修本科目不及格率大
約10~20%
•如果選修本科目,我們建議:
1. 選修本科目要來上課,每週點名
2. 針對本科目,每週請投入3~9小時自修
時間(閱讀課本,做習題)
3. 多次且仔細閱讀課本(需要查字典或
查證其他資料)和閱讀PowerPoint,
做習題
Contents
1. Introduction to Microprocessor and
Computer
2. Microprocessor and Its Architecture
3. Addressing Modes
4. Data Movement Instructions
5. Arithmetic and Logic Instruction
6. Program Control Instructions
Contents
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7. Using Assembly Language with C/C++
8. Programming the Microprocessor
9. 8086/8088 Hardware Specifications
10 Memory Interface
11. Basic I/O Interface
12. Interrupts
13. Direct Memory Access and DMAcontrolled I/O
Contents
• 14. The Arithmetic Coprocessor, MMX,
and SIMD Technologies
• 15. Bus Interface
• 16. The 80186, 80188 and 80286
Microprocessors
• 17. The 80386 and 80486
Microprocessors
Contents
• 18. The Pentium and Pentium Pro
Microprocessors
• 19. The Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium 4,
and Core 2 Microprocessors
The Computer Revolution
• Progress in computer technology
– Underpinned by Moore’s Law
• Makes novel applications feasible
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Computers in automobiles
Cell phones
Human genome project
World Wide Web
Search Engines
Cloud Computing
• Computers are pervasive
Classes of Computers
• Desktop computers
– General purpose, variety of software
– Subject to cost/performance tradeoff
• Server computers
– Network based
– High capacity, performance, reliability
– Range from small servers to building sized
• Embedded computers
– Hidden as components of systems
– Stringent power/performance/cost constraints
The Processor Market
Block Diagram of a Mobile Phone
A Special Computer System:
Block Diagram of Digital TV Hardware
Audio Amp 5W
TDA8944
Line In
Multimedia Tuner
Head
Phone
Sound Processor
MSP 3450 G
Line Out
SIF
SIF
Audio
Speaker
EEPROM
Philips Tuner Module
System uC, OSD, Teletext
SDA 5550M
SCART
CVBS
CVBS
Y/C
CVBS
Video, de-interlacer, PIP
VSP9407B
RGB, FB
Scalar
DPS9450A
Digital
RGB
Control
LVDS
THC63LV
DVD / STB 480i analog YCrCb
digital YCrCb ITUR 656
DC Power
VGA
ADC
SG9883
OSD
Digital
Uniprocessor Performance
Constrained by power, instruction-level parallelism,
memory latency
Worldwide smart phone and client
PC shipments, full year 2011
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Smart Phone
Total client PCs
-Pads
-Netbooks
-Notebooks
-Desktops
487.8 millions +62.7%
414.6 millions +14.8%
63.2 millions +274.2%
29.4 millions
-25.3%
209.6 millions
+7.5%
112.4 millions
+2.3%
Worldwide smart phone market
Shipments by platform, full year 2011
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Platform
Total
Android
iOS
Symbian
BlackBerry
Bada
Windows
Shipment
487.7 millions
237.8 millions
93.1 millions
80.1 millions
51.4 millions
6.8 millions
5.4 millions
Growth
+62%
+244%
+98%
-25%
+5%
-4%
+14%
平板電腦成為2014年PC成長動力
• 圖一、2014年平板電腦將佔PC出貨量達24%
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• 關鍵字: 平板電腦(Tablet PC)
2013 Q2智慧機銷量2.25億支
• 市調機構表示,第2季全球智慧型手機銷售量達2.25億支
,不僅首度超越功能手機、年成長率更遠超過4成,三星
、蘋果仍分居冠、亞軍,不過顧能也指出,高階機種中以
均價400美元的產品成長性最高,下半年起對於以超過
600美元旗艦機種為主打的品牌,都會造成壓力。
• 第2季全球手機整體銷售量為4.35億支,較去年同期小幅
成長3.6%,而在智慧型手機已是主流中的主流下,智慧
型手機銷售量就佔其中的51.8%、達2.25億支,不僅是首
度超越功能手機,銷量更較去年同期大增46.5%,而功能
手機則節節衰退,第2季全球功能手機的銷售量為2.1億支
,較去年同期大減21%。
Graphics in the Computer Systems
Inside the Processor
• AMD Barcelona: 4 processor cores
PowerPoints
• Web: http://cs.ee.fju.edu.tw/
• E-mail: [email protected]
微算機概論 助教
• 研究生:宋明慶
• 地點: SF 743 計算機系統實驗室
• TEL: (02) 29053592
• 討論時間:星期二 16:30~18:00
星期四 15:40~17:40
•
微算機概論 小考
• 12:30~13:30 2013/10/22 (星期二)
SF235
微算機概論 PowerPoint
• iCAN
• http://cs.ee.edu.tw
電機系 計算機系統實驗室網頁
• 光碟
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