The Animal Science Industry

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Animal, Plant &
Soil Science
Lesson C1-1
The Animal Science
Industry
Interest Approach

Form groups of three to five individuals. Each group
should select a chairperson and a recorder. Have each
group develop a list of the ways animals benefit humans.
Items on the list should be ranked, with 1 being the most
important and the highest number being the least
important. (The value of the highest number depends on
the number of items the group has listed.) Allow 10 to 15
minutes for this activity. Afterward, call on the recorder for
each group to give a report and to list the benefits in order
of importance on the writing surface. Go through the
reports from all the groups and have students consolidate
the lists. The numerical rankings can be used in the
consolidation process. (The list should be retained for
future reference as this lesson is taught. Students should
record the list in their notebooks.)
Objectives

Investigate the history of
animal domestication.

Identify and describe the
important segments of the
animal industry.
Objectives

Analyze the components
necessary to provide
appropriate animal care and
well-being.

Classify common livestock and
companion animals based on
their species, age, and sexual
state.
Terms

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animal
domestication
animal
environment
animal health
animal industry
animal marketing
animal nutrition
animal
processing
animal
production
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animal
reproduction
animal selection
animal services
animal supplies
animal well-being
castration
companion animal
feral animal
Terms
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livestock
neutering
poultry
ration
service animals
spaying
wildlife
What is the history of
animal domestication?
Animal domestication is the process of
removing animals from wild settings and
raising them in a controlled environment.
 Domestication usually results
in all members of a species
being domesticated.
 Animals that have not been domesticated
are known as wildlife.

What is the history of
animal domestication?
A member of a species that was once
domesticated but has returned to live in
the wild is a feral animal.
 Examples of feral animals are
wild dogs and wild horses.
 Domesticated animals depend on humans
to provide for most of their needs, such as
a good pasture for cattle.

What is the history of
animal domestication?

A. Domestication began thousands of
years ago with animals similar to cattle
whose fossils were found in Asia.
 The
fossils date back 3 to 4 million years or
more.
 The remains have ox-like animal parts and
horns comparable to those of goats.
 However, cattle are not thought to have been
domesticated until 8000 to 6000 B.C. in
Europe and parts of Asia.
What is the history of
animal domestication?
 The
first domesticated bovine animal is believed to
have descended from aurochs.
 The auroch survived until relatively modern times.
 The species became extinct in 1627 near Warsaw,
Poland.
 Early cattle served a triple purpose for humans. They
provided meat, milk, and labor.
 Ultimately, the draft purpose was replaced by horses
and then by machinery.
 Today many breeds are considered for single or dual
purposes.
What are the common uses of
animals?
Food
 Clothing
 Work/Draft
 Pleasure
 Companionship
 Service

What is the history of
animal domestication?

1. People began domestication because
having a consistent food supply was
easier if animals did not have to be
hunted.
 People
started to manage animals
and found it easier to care for them
and to understand their needs.
 They also found it easier to raise
them and use them to help meet
human needs.
What is the history of
animal domestication?

2. Domestication allowed people to use
animals for power in pulling loads.
 Many
early cattle served as triple-purpose
breeds.
 Draft purpose was one of the
essential functions.
 Horses, donkeys, and even
goats served a draft purpose.
What is the history of
animal domestication?

3. Some animals and their owners developed
“attachments” to each other.
 The
animals became companion animals.
 A companion animal is an animal kept by a human
for enjoyment in a long-term relationship.
 Companion animals are frequently called pets.
 Examples of companion animals are dogs, cats, fish,
rabbits, and hamsters.
 Horses and other animals may be raised for
recreation and/or companion relationships.
What is the history of
animal domestication?

B. Domestication continues today, with new
species now undergoing the process.
 An example is elk.
 Some people are beginning
to farm elk,
though most elk still exist in the wild.
 Bison and some fish are other examples
of species being domesticated.
 Some types of monkeys are bred for pet trade.
 Llamas are bred with alpacas for a greater pet appeal
and woollier coats.
 The production of fennec foxes, albino hedgehogs,
and mutant hairless guinea pigs are examples of how
domestication continues today.
What are the important segments of
the animal industry?


The animal industry is all the activities in
producing animals and their products or benefits
to meet the needs of people.
A. Many competencies are needed to assure
that animals receive care that promotes their
well-being.
 People
need to understand the unique characteristics
of the species they are producing.

B. The animal industry has several important
areas.
 These
contribute to animal production for maximum
human benefit.
What are the important
segments of the animal
industry?
1. Animal production is the
production of animals for food
and other uses, such as
companionship.
 The kinds of animals produced and the
nature of production practices vary,
depending on interests and technology.
 Production may be quite specialized to
provide a specific animal product.

What are the important
segments of the animal
industry?

a. Livestock encompasses mammals
raised on farms and/or ranches for food
and other human purposes.
 Cattle,
swine, sheep, horses, and
goats are often produced on largescale farms.
 Less common species, such as
llamas and elk, are usually produced on
small-scale farms.
What are the important
segments of the animal
industry?

b. Companion animals serve
as pets.
 Among
the most popular are dogs,
cats, fish, rabbits, and hamsters.
 Some companion animals can act as service animals
to humans.
 Service animals are animals that assist people in
living and work.
 They are used in many ways and may be given
special training.
 Examples are dogs that assist people who are
visually impaired.
What are the important
segments of the animal
industry?

c. Poultry is the group name
for all domesticated birds
used for meat, eggs, and
feathers.
 Poultry
is also referred to as birds and fowl.
 These birds have wings, backbones, and
feathers; some can even swim.

d. Other animals produced for specific
reasons include food fish, laboratory
animals, and exotic animals.
What are the important
segments of the animal
industry?

2. Animal supplies is the area of the
animal industry that provides the inputs
(goods or products) needed to produce
animals.
 These
goods or products
typically come from sources
of the production facility.
 Examples are feed, medicine,
and equipment.
What are the important
segments of the animal
industry?

3. Animal services is the area of the
animal industry that includes the
professional and technical assistance that
producers need and use in efficiently
producing animals.
 Examples
of service
providers are
veterinarians, farriers,
and shearers.
What are the important
segments of the animal
industry?

4. Animal marketing is all the processes
involved in assuring that consumers have
the desired animal products.
 It
includes activities in transporting, grading,
selling, etc.
 Marketing is the link between the producer
and the consumer.
What are the important
segments of the animal
industry?

5. Animal processing is the preparation of
animals and animal products for human use or
consumption.
 It
is closely related to marketing.
 The functions vary with the product.
 Milk, eggs, wool, and meat go through
different processes in preparation
for consumption.
 Some animals, such as those for
companionship, safety, or service, do not produce
products.
What are the components
necessary to provide appropriate
animal care and well-being?
Successful animal production requires
care and management.
 A. Animal well-being is an important part
of care and management.

 Animal
well-being is the result of caring for
an animal so all of its needs are met and it
does not suffer.
 Steps must be taken to make the animal
healthy, such as providing proper feed and
water.
What are the components
necessary to provide appropriate
animal care and well-being?
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
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B. Several areas are important in animal care and
management.
These are related to producing animals successfully.
With study and experience, individuals can develop the
knowledge and skill needed to provide care and
management.
1. Animal selection is the choosing of animals to
achieve desired goals.


This includes the selection of animals for specific characteristics
and of animals adapted to the situation in which they will be
raised.
Profitability for commercial animal producers requires the
production of quality animals.
What are the components
necessary to provide appropriate
animal care and well-being?

2. Animal nutrition is the study of the kind and
amount of feed and water an animal needs and
how the animal uses food substances.
 The
needs of animals are dependent on
age and condition.
 There are several important factors to
an animal’s ration.
 A ration is an animal’s diet or what an animal eats
each day.
 It is important to have a properly balanced ration,
especially for young animals and lactating females.
What are the components
necessary to provide appropriate
animal care and well-being?

3. Animal health is the condition in which the
animal is free of disease and all body systems
are functioning properly.
 Good
nutrition and a good
environment promote health.
 Vaccination and other healthpromoting management are beneficial.
 Producers know the importance of prevention.
 Disease among animals can be difficult to treat, can
be costly, and can decrease production.
What are the components
necessary to provide appropriate
animal care and well-being?

4. Animal reproduction is the process by which
offspring are produced.
 Understanding
reproductive processes of the species
is essential for successful animal production.

5. Animal environment is the surroundings in
which an animal is living.
 Some
animals are adapted to the natural weather
environment; other animals need housing and
protection.
 Animal environment includes the surroundings in
which an animal is placed temporarily, such as in
hauling, handling, penning, and other situations
involved in production.
How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?

Animals are classified by species, age,
and sexual state.
 It
is important to use the
appropriate names when
referring to animals.
A. Age is a means of
determining the difference between
mature animals and immature animals.
 B. Sexual state is another way of
classifying animals.

How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?
1. Male or female is one distinction.
 2. Another distinction is whether an animal
is in its natural sexual state or whether it
has undergone sexual alteration known as
neutering.

 An
animal is neutered to prevent it from
reproducing or to cause it to express desired
traits.
 For example, neutering may increase the rate
of growth and the quality of meat.
How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?
 Two
types of neutering are castration and
spaying.
a. Castration is the removal or destruction of the
testicles of a male so it does not breed.
 b. Spaying is the removal of the ovaries or the
cutting of the fallopian tubes of a female so an egg
cannot enter the uterus, where it may be fertilized
and develop as an embryo and fetus.

How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?

C. The following are common names of cattle.
 1.
A mature male is a bull.
 2. A mature female is a cow.
 3. A young male is a bull.
 4. A young female is a heifer.
 5. A castrated male is a steer.
 6. A newborn is a calf.
 7. A group of cattle is a herd.
 8. Act of giving birth is calving.
How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?

D. The following are common names of goats.
 1.
A mature male is a buck.
 2. A mature female is a doe.
 3. A young male is a buck kid.
 4. A young female is a doeling.
 5. A castrated male is a wether.
 6. A newborn is a kid.
 7. A group of goats is a herd.
 8. Act of giving birth is kidding.
How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?

E. The following are common names of sheep.
 1.
A mature male is a ram.
 2. A mature female is a ewe.
 3. A young male is a ram lamb.
 4. A young female is a ewe lamb.
 5. A castrated male is a wether.
 6. A newborn is a lamb.
 7. A group of sheep is a flock.
 8. Act of giving birth is lambing.
How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?

F. The following are common names of hogs/swine.
 1.
A mature male is a boar.
 2. A mature female is a sow.
 3. A young male is a shoat or
young boar.
 4. A young female is a gilt.
 5. A castrated male is a barrow.
 6. A newborn is a pig or piglet.
 7. A group of hogs/swine is a drove.
 8. Act of giving birth is farrowing.
How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?

G. The following are common names of
chickens.
 1.
A mature male is a rooster.
 2. A mature female is a hen.
 3. A young male is a cockerel.
 4. A young female is a pullet.
 5. A castrated male is a capon.
 6. A newborn is a chick.
 7. A group of chickens is a flock.
 8. Act of giving birth is laying.
How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?

H. The following are common names of
turkeys.
 1.
A mature male is a tom.
 2. A mature female is a hen.
 3. A young male is a tom poult.
 4. A young female is a hen poult.
 5. A newborn is a poult.
 6. A group of turkeys is a flock.
 7. Act of giving birth is laying.
How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?

I. The following are common names of dogs.
 1.
A mature male is a stud.
 2. A mature female is a bitch.
 3. A young male is an intact.
 4. A young female is a bitch.
 5. A castrated male is a neuter.
 6. A newborn is a puppy.
 7. A group of dogs is a pack.
 8. Act of giving birth is whelping.
How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?

J. The following are common names of
cats.
 1.
A mature male is a tom.
 2. A mature female is a queen.
 3. A castrated male is a gib.
 4. A newborn is a kitten.
 5. A group of cats is a bevy.
 6. Act of giving birth is kittening.
How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?

K. The following are common names of horses.
 1.
A mature male is a
stallion.
 2. A mature female is a mare.
 3. A young male is a colt.
 4. A young female is a filly.
 5. A castrated male is a gelding.
 6. A newborn is a foal.
 7. A group of horses is a herd.
 8. Act of giving birth is foaling.
How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?

L. The following are common names of
rabbits.
 1.
A mature male is a buck.
 2. A mature female is a doe.
 3. A newborn is a kit.
 4. A group of rabbits is a group.
 5. The process of giving birth is
kindling.
Review

What is the history of animal
domestication?

What are the important
segments of the animal
industry?
Review

What are the components
necessary to provide
appropriate animal care and
well-being?

How are common livestock and
companion animals classified?
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