13_Farm Animals(I) 農場動物福利

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Module 13
模組13
Livestock: welfare assessment
and issues (1)
農場動物:福利評估與論述(1)
This module will enable you to
本模組教學目標
• Identify the primary causes of poor farm animal
welfare 認識造成農場動物福利不良的主要原因
• Differentiate between inherent and avoidable
welfare problems 區分先天的和可避免的福利問題
• Use the Five Freedoms to assess the welfare of
farm animals on farm, using the example of sows
in three different husbandry systems 使用五大自由
來評估農場動物福利,並以三種不同牧場系統飼養的母豬
為例說明
Farm animal welfare: 農場動物福利
Why is it important? 為何重要?
• Large numbers involved 牽涉到的動物數
量很大
• Completely under human dominion 完全
在人類的管轄之下
• Valued only as commodities 只是日用品
的價值
Farm animal welfare:農場動物福利
Causes of poor welfare 貧乏福利成因
• Extensive versus intensive systems
廣闊的系統vs集約的系統
But is it that simple? 事情有這麼簡單?
Extensive versus intensive systems
廣闊的系統vs集約的系統
“So far as animals are concerned it matters
not what we think or feel but what we do”
“到目前為止動物所關心的不是我們如何感想
而是我們如何做”
Webster 1994
韋伯斯特 1994
Extensive versus intensive systems
廣闊的系統vs集約的系統
Welfare
動物福利
Intensification
集約飼養
Hill sheep
山坡上的綿羊
Single suckled
cow on grass
單獨在草原吃草
的泌乳牛
Battery hens
籠飼母雞
Extensive versus intensive – 廣闊vs集約
how do we assess welfare?
如何評估福利?
Battery cages 籠架飼養
Extensive versus intensive – 廣闊vs集約
how do we assess welfare?
如何評估福利?
The Five Freedoms: the battery hen 以籠飼雞為例說明五大自由
Freedom 自由
Assessment 評估
From Hunger and thirst
免除飢渴
Adequate – although possible metabolic hunger due to genetic
selection for high production 足夠的 – 雖然可能會因為要挑選
高產量雞隻而進行基因篩選所導致的代謝飢餓
From Discomfort 免除
不適
Very poor physical comfort– wire floors, poor air quality 生理感
覺非常差 – 金屬線構成的地板,空氣品質不佳
From Pain, injury and
disease 免除痛傷病
Very poor in cage (amputated beaks; wire floors allow injury to
feet and legs). Very poor during removal – bone fractures 籠飼
狀況下非常差(剪喙、地板上的鐵絲造成腳和腿的傷害),特別在
搬運雞隻時 – 造成骨折
To Express normal
behaviour 能夠表現正
常行為
Very poor in cage– inability to move, wing flap, nest, forage or
dust bath all cause frustration 籠飼狀況下非常差 – 無法行動,
展翅,築窩,尋找草料食物或清洗灰塵都造成雞隻挫折
From Fear and distress
免除恐懼焦慮
Poor in cage because of frustration. Very poor during removal
from houses – bone fractures and fear 因為挫折使得籠飼狀況
差,特別在搬運雞隻時 – 骨折和恐懼
How do we assess welfare?
如何評估動物福利?
Broiler chickens 肉雞
Using the Five Freedoms to assess
welfare: What to look for
利用五大自由評估福利:注意的重點
Freedom from:
Assessment of:
自由種類
評估項目
Hunger and thirst
Metabolic needs 代謝需求
免除飢渴
Gut physiological
requirements 腸道生理需求
Feed palatability 食物適口性
Body condition 身體狀況
www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/welfare/
Using the Five Freedoms to assess
welfare: What to look for
利用五大自由評估福利:注意的重點
Freedom from: Assessment of:
自由種類
評估項目
Discomfort
Air quality 空氣品質
免除不適
Air quantity 空氣量
Thermal comfort 溫度舒適度
Physical comfort 生理舒適度
Light – levels and programmes
光線 – 水準和強迫換羽等計畫
Using the Five Freedoms to assess
welfare: What to look for
利用五大自由評估福利:注意的重點
Freedom from:
Assessment of:
自由種類
評估項目
Pain, injury and
disease
Veterinary programme 獸醫計畫
免除痛傷病
Genetic selection 基因篩選
Mutilations & veterinary
procedures 毀損和獸醫的程序
Treatment facilities 治療設施
Euthanasia 安樂死
Biosecurity 生物安全性
Using the Five Freedoms to assess welfare:
What to look for
利用五大自由評估福利:注意的重點
Freedom to:
Assessment of:
自由種類
評估項目
Express normal
behaviour
Animals’ behaviour 動物行為
表現正常行為
Life cycle requirements 生活週期所需
Social grouping 社會化群聚
Competition for resources 競爭資源
Environmental enrichment 環境豐富化
Stocking densities 動物密度
Using the Five Freedoms to assess
welfare: What to look for
利用五大自由評估福利:注意的重點
Freedom from:
Assessment of:
自由種類
評估項目
Fear and distress
Stockmanship 動物管理員素質
免除恐懼和焦慮
Predator control 控制掠食者
Equipment 設備
Stocking densities 飼養密度
Causes of poor welfare
動物福利貧乏的原因
•
Inherent to husbandry system 牧場先天問題
– Difficult/impossible to rectify 困難/無法矯正的
– System-specific 系統特有的
•
Poor management/insufficient resources
經營效率不佳/資源不夠
– More easily rectified 比較容易矯正的
– May be poor in any system 全系統可能都貧乏的
Causes of poor welfare
動物福利貧乏的原因
• Neglect 忽視
• Production pressures 生產壓力
• Genetic unsuitability 遺傳不適性
Causes of poor welfare: Neglect
動物福利貧乏的原因:忽視
• Lack of resources 缺乏資源
• Insufficient knowledge/training 知識/訓
練不足
• Subsidy bias 補貼偏頗
• Low stockperson:animal ratio 動物管理
員:動物之比率低
Causes of poor welfare:
Production pressures
動物福利貧乏的原因:生產壓力
• Low stockperson:animal ratio動物管理員:
動物之比率低
• High stocking densities/group sizes 飼養
密度/族群大小之值高
• Fast growth/production rates 快速生長/生
產速率
– E.g. Forced moulting 例如:強迫換羽
Comparison in chick growth (movie)
比較小雞生長速度
Causes of poor welfare:
Genetic unsuitability
動物福利貧乏的原因:遺傳不適性
• Unsuited to environmental or climatic
conditions 不適合當地環境或氣候條件
• Unsuited to husbandry system/diet 不適
合飼養系統/飲食
• Breeding programmes 繁殖計畫
– Underemphasis of health traits (Ashwell et
al 2002; Oltenacu et al 2005)
The welfare potential of
husbandry systems 1
牧場系統的福利潛力 1
•
•
•
•
Housing system 房舍系統
Breed type 繁殖種類
Feeding regime 餵食方式
Husbandry practices that cause pain 造成
疼痛的飼養習慣
The welfare potential of
husbandry systems 2
牧場系統的福利潛力 2
The welfare potential of
husbandry systems 3
牧場系統的福利潛力 3
The welfare potential of
husbandry systems 4
牧場系統的福利潛力 4
Farm animal welfare – sows
農場動物福利 – 母豬
Sow husbandry systems
母豬牧場系統
• Loose housed (fully or partially slatted; concrete;
or with bedding) 寬欄舍(有完全或部份鋪木板;水泥
地;或是有墊料)
– Electronic sow feeder (ESF) 電子式的母豬餵食裝置
– Scatter feeding 分散的餵食
– Free access stalls 自由進出的欄舍
– Ad lib feeding 任意餵食裝置
• Stalls +/- tethers 畜舍加上有/無栓鍊
• Free range 田野放牧
Sow husbandry systems:
Loose housed – straw yards
母豬牧場系統:寬欄舍 - 麥稈床
Five Freedoms assessment of the welfare of
sows in a deep straw yard
五項自由評估深厚麥稈床的母豬福利
Freedom 自由種類
Assessment 評估項目
From Hunger and thirst
Body condition score. Inspect feed quality and quantity.
免除飢渴
藉由狀態評分和檢查食物的品質與數量來評估
From Discomfort
Physical comfort very good. Thermal comfort very
good – controlled by sow. Air quality – is it dusty?身體上
免除不適
的舒適度非常好,溫度上的舒適度非常好 – 主要由豬隻所控制;
空氣品質 – 會不會有很多灰塵?
From Pain, injury and
disease 免除痛傷病
Clinical examination – skin sores or swollen joints?
Veterinary records – is she wormed, vaccinated and
treated when ill?臨床檢驗 – 皮膚潰瘍或關節腫脹? 獸醫紀錄 –
有做驅蟲處理,疫苗注射以及生病時治療?
To express normal
behaviour 表現正常行為
Very good – she might prefer a peat or wood-bark
substrate很好 – 牠可能寧願用泥炭或樹木皮為基質
From Fear and distress
May be subject to aggression from animals in same
group可能遭受到同群動物的攻擊
免除恐懼和焦慮
Primary welfare issues –
sows in loose housed systems
主要福利議題 — 母豬在寬欄舍飼養系統
• Loose-housed – aggression/fear,
discomfort, boredom 寬鬆的房舍 – 攻擊/恐懼,
不適,單調
– Fighting 打架
– Vulva biting 生殖器咬傷
– Restriction of normal behaviour in nonsubstrate systems (full/partial slats or concrete
floors)在非基質系統中限制正常的行為 (全部/部份鋪木
板條或水泥的地板)
Sow husbandry systems: Stalls
母豬牧場系統:畜舍
Five Freedoms assessment of the welfare of
sows in stalls
五項自由評估畜舍的母豬福利
Freedom 自由種類
Assessment 評估項目
From Hunger and thirst
Body condition score. Inspect feed quality and quantity藉
免除飢渴
由狀態評分和檢查食物的品質與數量來評估
From Discomfort
Physical comfort very poor. Thermal comfort may be
good – not controlled by sow. Air quality – no dust but
may be high ammonia身體上的舒適度非常差,溫度上的舒適
免除不適
度可能是好的 – 不是由豬隻所控制;空氣品質 – 沒有灰塵但可能
有高濃度氨氣
From Pain, injury and
disease 免除痛傷病
Clinical examination – skin sores or swollen joints?
Veterinary records – is she wormed, vaccinated and
treated when ill?臨床檢驗 – 皮膚潰瘍或關節腫脹? 獸醫紀錄 –
有做驅蟲處理,疫苗注射以及生病時治療?
To express normal
behaviour 表現正常行為
Very poor – no ability to: turn around or root. This causes
frustration.非常差 –不能轉身、拱土、築窩,使得動物挫敗
From Fear and distress
免除恐懼和焦慮
Poor: protected from predators and animals in same
group, but very frustrated by restrictions on behaviour.
Stockmen may cause fear好,可受到保護免於掠食者和同群
動物攻擊。 動物管理員可能招致恐懼。
Primary welfare issues –
sows in stall and tether systems
主要福利議題 — 母豬在畜舍和栓練飼養系統
– Boredom/restriction
of normal behaviour
單調環境/限制正常行為
– Restriction of
movement 行動限制
– Physical discomfort
生理不舒適
– Urinary tract infection
尿道感染
– Feet injuries 蹄受傷
– Tether sores栓鍊處潰
爛
Sow husbandry systems: Free range
母豬牧場系統:田野放養
Five Freedoms assessment of the welfare of
free-range sows
五項自由評估自由放養的母豬福利
Freedom 自由種類
Assessment 評估項目
From Hunger and thirst
免除飢渴
Body condition score. Inspecting feed quality and
quantity藉由狀態評分和檢查食物的品質與數量來評估
From Discomfort
免除不適
Physical comfort very good. Thermal comfort may be
poor (depth of bedding; sow may be genetically unsuited
to weather). Air quality good. 生理上的舒適度非常好,溫度
上的舒適度可能不佳,床的深度,母豬可能在先天的遺傳上不適
應天氣;空氣品質好
From Pain, injury and
disease 免除痛傷病
Clinical examination – skin sores or swollen joints? Foot
lesions on stony ground? Veterinary records – is she
wormed, vaccinated and treated when ill? 臨床檢驗 – 皮膚
潰瘍或關節腫脹? 在石頭地上腳傷? 獸醫紀錄 – 有做驅蟲處理,
疫苗注射以及生病時治療?
To express normal
Good, but nose rings prevent rooting and cause
behaviour 表現正常行為 discomfort. 好,但是鼻環會阻礙拱土的動作
From Fear and distress
免除恐懼和焦慮
Piglets may be subject to predation. Aggression from
animals in same group? 豬仔可能會遇到掠食者。被同群動物
攻擊?
Primary welfare issues –
sows in free range systems
主要福利議題 — 母豬在自由放養系統
• Free range systems – heat/cold stress,
sunburn, feet injuries and nose rings 田野放
養系統 – 熱/冷壓力,日曬,蹄受傷和穿鼻環
– Genetic unsuitability 遺傳不適性
– Lack of shelter/wallows 缺乏庇護所/泥中打滾場所
– Feet injuries due to stony ground 多石頭的地面
導致蹄受傷
– Nose ringing to prevent pasture damage 被迫
穿鼻環以防止牧場損害
Primary welfare issues –
sows in farrowing crates
主要福利議題 — 母豬哺乳欄系統
Primary welfare issues –
sows in farrowing crates
主要福利議題 — 母豬哺乳欄系統
• Crates are required due to genetic unsuitability
(large litters) 遺傳上不適應所以需要使用哺乳欄
• Severe restriction of normal behaviour 嚴重限制正
常的行為
– Lack of substrate and space for nesting 缺乏築窩的材料
和空間
– Nesting is strongly motivated 但築巢行為受強烈刺激
• Disease 疾病
– Increased levels of dystocia and urinary tract infections
增加難產及尿道感染的機會
• Discomfort 不適感
On-farm welfare assessment –
summary
總結農場動物福利評估
• Can assess welfare in terms of the Five
Freedoms – what are the problems? 利用五項自
由可以評估福利 – 問題有哪些?
• For each problem – why is it occurring? 針對每一
個問題 – 為什麼它會發生?
• Is it an inherent or avoidable problem? 這是一個
先天的或者是可以避免的問題?
• What action can be taken to prevent it? 可以採取
哪些行動來預防它?
• For other assessment methods, see Module 8
其他的評估方法,詳見模組8
Welfare improvement
農場動物福利的改善
• Advice 忠告
– Improve husbandry system 改善牧場系統
– Change husbandry system 改變牧場系統
• Legislation 立法
– Minimum requirements for each system 每個系統的
最低要求
– Prohibiting certain systems 禁止某些系統
• Marketplace 市場
– Consumers may seek higher welfare standards
消費者可能會尋找更高的福利標準
Further Reading
進階讀物
• Arey D, Brooke P. 2006. Animal Welfare Aspects of Good
Agricultural Practice: pig production. Compassion in World
Farming, Petersfield.
• Ashwell MS, Sonstegard TS, Van Tassell CP, 2002: Mapping
Genes Related To Disease Resistance And Milk Production In
U.S. Holsteins Conference Proceedings: American College of
Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum 2002
• Compassion in World Farming website at www.ciwf.co.uk
• Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) reports on website
www.fawc.org.uk
• Fraser AF & Broom DM 1996: Farm Animal Behaviour and
Welfare. 3rd Ed. CABI Publishing, ISBN 0851991602
• Oltenacu T, Algers B. 2005: Selection for increased production
and the welfare of dairy cows: are new breeding goals needed?
Ambio 34: 311-315.
Further Reading
進階讀物
• Rauw WM, Kanis E, Noordhuizen-Stassen EN, Grommers FJ.
1998 Undesirable side effects of selection for high production
efficiency in farm animals: a review. Livest Prod Sci 56: 15-33
• Webster J. 1994: Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye towards Eden.
Oxford, Blackwell Science ISBN 0632039280
• Webster J. 2005: Animal Welfare: Limping Towards Eden.
Oxford, Blackwell Science ISBN 1405118776
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