TRITICALE BREEDING FOR ORGANIC FARMING IN LATVIA A. Kronberga State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute, Latvia www.priekuliselekcija.lv, [email protected] Introduction Triticale in Latvia is well known in conventional growing conditions. Due to its tolerance to marginal conditions, good winterhardiness, high competitive ability against weeds and resistance to many diseases winter triticale is very suitable for organic farming. The lack of varieties suitable for organic growing conditions are the main problem for growing triticale in Latvia in organic fields. Trials made with triticale shows that yield of the same triticale varieties differs in organic and conventional conditions (Pommer and Doleschel, 2003). Results obtained in trials in conventional and organic growing conditions in two locations in Latvia (Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute and Stende Cereal Breeding Institute) show similar results (Fig. 1, 2). It verifies necessity of breeding of triticale varieties especially for organic conditions. Many breeding programmes were started in last years with aim to characterize genotypes adapted and not adapted to organic agriculture and to elaborate selection criteria that facilitate breeding of varieties for organic agriculture (Schneider et al, 2007). For creating winter triticale varieties suitable for organic farming a special breeding programme has been started at Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute starting from 2005. Due to lack of financing, only breeding lines from F8 generation were sown and tested under organic conditions. The first results show that only genotypes with good winterhardiness and resistance to snow mould should be selected. Triticale genotypes with different plant height, growth habit and leaf size would be suitable for organic growing conditions. However, because of expected genotype by environment interaction more research is needed to define the best selection environment for selecting organic varieties, but little research has been done on this issue (Lammerts van Bueren et al, 2007). Because for Yield winter triticale varieties locations (Priekuli Plant Breeding Fig.2. Yield of different winterselection triticale varieties two locations (Priekuli Plant theFig1. present is of notdifferent yet clear the breeding strategy in fortwo different species for organic farming, different experiments comparing results ininorganic and conventional systems have been conducted, inter alia in Latvia with barley, wheat and triticale. European Social Fundand co-financed projectBreeding was started in Priekuli PBI inand 2009. One of thegrowing experiment, included in project evaluating same F6 triticale lines parallel under and conventional conditions, selection of the best lines from both conditions (in breeders Institute Stende Cereal Institute) in organic conventional Breeding Instituteisand Stendethe Cereal Breeding Institute) in organic andorganic conventional opinion) for organic conditions, 2008 and selection and further comparing of selected lines in organic field. growing conditions, 2008 conventional in Priekuli 16 14 16 14 12 organic in Priekuli 10 8 organic in Stende 6 Yield t ha-1 conventional in Stende 4 conventional in Stende organic in Priekuli organic in Stende 12 10 8 6 4 2 yield t ha-1 conventional in Priekuli SW Falmoro SW Valentino Dinaro 9405-23 2 Woltario SW Falmoro SW Valentino Dinaro 9405-23 Woltario Winterhardiness and resistance to snow mould are the most important traits for winter triticale in organic farming Fig. 1 Yield of triticale varieties in different locations and growing conditions, 2008 Fig. 2 Yield of triticale varieties in different locations and growing conditions, 2009 Material and method 100 F5 triticale lines were selected in conventional field in 2009 and sown in two different conditions in conventionally and organically managed fields. The conventional field was treated according to standard agricultural practices, including the use of herbicides and synthetic fertilizers. During the vegetation in 2010 different traits were evaluated for genotypes grown in organic and conventional field (with emphasis on traits essential for organic conditions: winterhardiness, resistance to diseases, weed suppression. Ten triticale genotypes from each field were selected and in autumn 2010 sown in organic field for futher evaluation. Two different points of view are used in selection of genotypes: 1) according breeders experience; 2) by using integral evaluation method (Martinov, 1987), to identify the genotypes which had the lowest deviation from desired value of traits preferable for organic conditions. The desired value and the actual value of a trait, an investment coefficient of each trait and the standart deviation are taken into account, when using this method. The traits taking in to account by using Martinov method are winterhardiness, visually evaluation of genotypes in heading and maturity phases. Results and Discussion: Obtained results show better results of evaluated traits for tested genotypes under conventional conditions (Fig 3., 4.). Significant correlations between plant trait expressions in organic and conventional conditions were stateded for plant height and flag leaf size (Fig.5), but not for winterhardiness It proves, that by breeding triticale varieties for organic conditions, it is necessary to evaluate winterhardiness in organic field, but morphological traits is possible evaluate in conventional field. Based on breeder experience, 10 genotypes from organic growing conditions and 11 genotypes from conventional growing conditions were selected. Results show that 6 genotypes are selected the same in conventional and organic field. By using Martinov (1987) method 7 genotypes had desired value of traits in organic conditions, and 5 of them were selected according breeder experience too. 15 genotypes were selected in conventional conditions using Martinov method and 9 from them were selected according breeder experience too. Other genotypes selected by breeders experience were among the best with integral evaluation method to. The differences in the results of selection in both locations were mainly because of winterhardiness 5.3 100 5.2 90 5.1 80 5 70 4.9 60 Winterhardiness 4.8 Organic 50 Conventional 40 4.7 30 4.6 20 4.5 10 4.4 0 4.3 Plant heigt in heading phase Organic Plant height in maturity Conventional Fig.3. Plant heigt in different growing phases of F6 triticale lines in organic and conventional conditions, cm Fig.3. Winterhardiness of F6 triticale lines in organic and conventional conditions (1-9 points), Plant height in maturity** 0.329 Preliminary conclusions: Selections results for the same breeder both based Flag leaf width** 0.525 Flag leaf length** 0.378 Plant height in heading phase* on it own experience and on statistical methods are very close. In early generations selection of genotypes for organic farming can be done in conventional conditions with similar success 0.306 Winterhardiness 0.206 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Fig.5 Correlation coefficients between different traits of triticale genotypes in organic and conventional conditions •Lammerts van Bueren E.T, Wilbois K-P., Ostergard H. (2007) European pespectives of organic plant breeding and seed production in a genomics era. Journal of Agriculture and Rural development in the Tropics and Subtropics, Supplement 89, p.101-120. •Pommer, G and Doleschel, P (2003) Sind bei Winterroggen und Wintertriticale eigene Ökoversuche erforderlich? [Are separate trials for organic agriculture necessary with winter rye and winter triticale?]. 7. Wissenschaftstagung zum Ökologischen Landbau - Ökologischer Landbau der Zukunft, AWien, 24.-26.2.2003. In: Freyer, Bernhard (Ed.) Ökologischer Landbau der Zukunft - Beiträge zur 7. Wissenschaftstagung zum Ökologischen Landbau, Universität für Bodenkultur, Wien - Institut für ökologischen Landbau, pp. 495-497. •Schneider D., Fossati D. and Mascher F. (2007) Breeding for varieties adapted to low-input conditions: Should we use old varieties? Østergård, H. and Fontaine, L., Eds. (2006) Cereal crop diversity: Implications for production and products. Proceedings of COST SUSVAR workshop, La Besse, Paris (FR), 12-15 Jun 2006. http://www.cost860.dk/activities/workshops/Production/doc/PROCEEDINGS-LaBesse-June06.pdf. ITAB, Paris. •Мартынов С. П. (1987) Метод многокритериального выбора на заключительном этапе селекции растений. Сельскохозяйственная Биология, № 6, с. 122 – 124. Acknowledgements This study was performed with financial support of European Social Fund co-financed project 2009/0218/1DP/184.108.40.206.0/09/APIA/VIAA/099.