Fig.2.

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TRITICALE BREEDING FOR ORGANIC FARMING IN LATVIA
A. Kronberga
State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute, Latvia
www.priekuliselekcija.lv, [email protected]
Introduction
Triticale in Latvia is well known in conventional growing conditions. Due to its tolerance to marginal conditions, good winterhardiness, high competitive ability against weeds and resistance to many diseases winter triticale is very suitable for organic farming. The
lack of varieties suitable for organic growing conditions are the main problem for growing triticale in Latvia in organic fields. Trials made with triticale shows that yield of the same triticale varieties differs in organic and conventional conditions (Pommer and
Doleschel, 2003). Results obtained in trials in conventional and organic growing conditions in two locations in Latvia (Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute and Stende Cereal Breeding Institute) show similar results (Fig. 1, 2). It verifies necessity of breeding of triticale
varieties especially for organic conditions.
Many breeding programmes were started in last years with aim to characterize genotypes adapted and not adapted to organic agriculture and to elaborate selection criteria that facilitate breeding of varieties for organic agriculture (Schneider et al, 2007). For
creating winter triticale varieties suitable for organic farming a special breeding programme has been started at Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute starting from 2005. Due to lack of financing, only breeding lines from F8 generation were sown and tested under organic
conditions. The first results show that only genotypes with good winterhardiness and resistance to snow mould should be selected. Triticale genotypes with different plant height, growth habit and leaf size would be suitable for organic growing conditions.
However, because of expected genotype by environment interaction more research is needed to define the best selection environment for selecting organic varieties, but little research has been done on this issue (Lammerts van Bueren et al, 2007). Because for
Yield
winter
triticale varieties
locations
(Priekuli
Plant Breeding
Fig.2.
Yield of different
winterselection
triticale varieties
two locations
(Priekuli Plant
theFig1.
present
is of
notdifferent
yet clear
the breeding
strategy in
fortwo
different
species
for organic
farming, different
experiments
comparing
results ininorganic
and conventional
systems have been conducted, inter alia in Latvia with barley, wheat and triticale. European
Social
Fundand
co-financed
projectBreeding
was started
in Priekuli
PBI inand
2009.
One of thegrowing
experiment, included
in project
evaluating
same
F6 triticale
lines parallel
under
and conventional conditions, selection of the best lines from both conditions (in breeders
Institute
Stende Cereal
Institute)
in organic
conventional
Breeding
Instituteisand
Stendethe
Cereal
Breeding
Institute)
in organic
andorganic
conventional
opinion)
for organic
conditions,
2008 and selection and further comparing of selected lines in organic field.
growing conditions, 2008
conventional
in Priekuli
16
14
16
14
12
organic in
Priekuli
10
8
organic in
Stende
6
Yield t ha-1
conventional
in Stende
4
conventional in Stende
organic in Priekuli
organic in Stende
12
10
8
6
4
2
yield t ha-1
conventional in Priekuli
SW
Falmoro
SW
Valentino
Dinaro
9405-23
2
Woltario
SW Falmoro
SW
Valentino
Dinaro
9405-23
Woltario
Winterhardiness and resistance to snow mould are the most
important traits for winter triticale in organic farming
Fig. 1 Yield of triticale varieties in different locations and growing conditions, 2008
Fig. 2 Yield of triticale varieties in different locations and growing conditions, 2009
Material and method
100 F5 triticale lines were selected in conventional field in 2009 and sown in two different conditions in conventionally and organically managed fields. The conventional field was treated according to standard agricultural practices, including the use of herbicides
and synthetic fertilizers.
During the vegetation in 2010 different traits were evaluated for genotypes grown in organic and conventional field (with emphasis on traits essential for organic conditions: winterhardiness, resistance to diseases, weed suppression. Ten triticale genotypes from
each field were selected and in autumn 2010 sown in organic field for futher evaluation.
Two different points of view are used in selection of genotypes: 1) according breeders experience; 2) by using integral evaluation method (Martinov, 1987), to identify the genotypes which had the lowest deviation from desired value of traits preferable for organic
conditions. The desired value and the actual value of a trait, an investment coefficient of each trait and the standart deviation are taken into account, when using this method. The traits taking in to account by using Martinov method are winterhardiness, visually
evaluation of genotypes in heading and maturity phases.
Results and Discussion:
Obtained results show better results of evaluated traits for tested genotypes under conventional conditions (Fig 3., 4.). Significant correlations between plant trait expressions in organic and conventional conditions were stateded for plant
height and flag leaf size (Fig.5), but not for winterhardiness It proves, that by breeding triticale varieties for organic conditions, it is necessary to evaluate winterhardiness in organic field, but morphological traits is possible evaluate in
conventional field.
Based on breeder experience, 10 genotypes from organic growing conditions and 11 genotypes from conventional growing conditions were selected. Results show that 6 genotypes are selected the same in conventional and organic field.
By using Martinov (1987) method 7 genotypes had desired value of traits in organic conditions, and 5 of them were selected according breeder experience too. 15 genotypes were selected in conventional conditions using Martinov method
and 9 from them were selected according breeder experience too. Other genotypes selected by breeders experience were among the best with integral evaluation method to. The differences in the results of selection in both locations were
mainly because of winterhardiness
5.3
100
5.2
90
5.1
80
5
70
4.9
60
Winterhardiness
4.8
Organic
50
Conventional
40
4.7
30
4.6
20
4.5
10
4.4
0
4.3
Plant heigt in heading phase
Organic
Plant height in maturity
Conventional
Fig.3. Plant heigt in different growing phases of F6 triticale lines in organic and
conventional conditions, cm
Fig.3. Winterhardiness of F6 triticale lines in organic and conventional conditions
(1-9 points),
Plant height in maturity**
0.329
Preliminary conclusions: Selections results for the same breeder both based
Flag leaf width**
0.525
Flag leaf length**
0.378
Plant height in heading phase*
on it own experience and on statistical methods are very close.
In early generations selection of genotypes for organic farming can be done in
conventional conditions with similar success
0.306
Winterhardiness
0.206
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Fig.5 Correlation coefficients between different traits of triticale genotypes in organic and
conventional conditions
•Lammerts van Bueren E.T, Wilbois K-P., Ostergard H. (2007) European pespectives of organic plant breeding and seed production in a genomics era.
Journal of Agriculture and Rural development in the Tropics and Subtropics, Supplement 89, p.101-120.
•Pommer, G and Doleschel, P (2003) Sind bei Winterroggen und Wintertriticale eigene Ökoversuche erforderlich? [Are separate trials for organic
agriculture necessary with winter rye and winter triticale?]. 7. Wissenschaftstagung zum Ökologischen Landbau - Ökologischer Landbau der Zukunft, AWien, 24.-26.2.2003. In: Freyer, Bernhard (Ed.) Ökologischer Landbau der Zukunft - Beiträge zur 7. Wissenschaftstagung zum Ökologischen Landbau,
Universität für Bodenkultur, Wien - Institut für ökologischen Landbau, pp. 495-497.
•Schneider D., Fossati D. and Mascher F. (2007) Breeding for varieties adapted to low-input conditions: Should we use old varieties? Østergård, H. and
Fontaine, L., Eds. (2006) Cereal crop diversity: Implications for production and products. Proceedings of COST SUSVAR workshop, La Besse, Paris (FR),
12-15 Jun 2006. http://www.cost860.dk/activities/workshops/Production/doc/PROCEEDINGS-LaBesse-June06.pdf. ITAB, Paris.
•Мартынов С. П. (1987) Метод многокритериального выбора на заключительном этапе селекции растений. Сельскохозяйственная Биология,
№ 6, с. 122 – 124.
Acknowledgements
This study was performed with financial support of
European Social Fund co-financed project
2009/0218/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/099.
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