d-strategy analysis-2010

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Manajemen Strategi Industri
Strategy Analysis and Choice
1
Ir. Erlinda Muslim, MEE
Nip. 19601028 198811 2001
Strategy-Formulation
Analytical Framework
Stage 1: The Input Stage
Stage 2: The Matching Stage
Stage 3: The Decision Stage
2
Formulation Framework
External Factor Evaluation
Matrix (EFE)
Stage 1:
The Input Stage
Internal Factor Evaluation
Matrix (IFE)
Competitive Profile
Matrix
3
Input Stage
• Provides basic input information for the
matching and decision stage matrices
• Requires strategists to quantify subjectivity
early in the process
• Good intuitive judgment always needed
4
Formulation Framework
TOWS Matrix
SPACE Matrix
Stage 2:
The Matching Stage
BCG Matrix
IE Matrix
Grand Strategy Matrix
5
Matching Stage
• Match between organization’s internal
resources and skills and the opportunities
and risks created by its external factors.
6
Matching Key Factors to Formulate Alternative Strategies
Key Internal Factor
Resultant Strategy
+
20% annual growth in the
cell phone industry
=
(opportunity)
Insufficient capacity
(weakness)
+
Exit of two major foreign
competitors form the
industry (opportunity)
=
Pursue horizontal integration
by buying competitor's
facilities
Strong R&D (strength)
+
Decreasing numbers of
young adults (threat)
=
Develop new products for
older adults
Poor employee morale
(weakness)
+ Strong union activity
(threat)
Excess working capacity
(strength)
7
Key External Factor
=
Acquire Cellfone, Inc.
Develop a new employee
benefits package
Formulation Framework
Stage 3:
The Decision Stage
8
Quantitative Strategic
Planning Matrix
(QSPM)
Formulation Framework
External Factor Evaluation
Matrix (EFE)
Stage 1:
The Input Stage
Internal Factor Evaluation
Matrix (IFE)
Competitive Profile
Matrix
9
The External Assessment
Prediction is very difficult, especially
about the future.
-- Neils Bohr
10
Nature of External Audit
Purpose:
– Development of Finite List:
• Opportunities
• Threats to be avoided
11
Key External Forces
Five (5) broad categories:
1. Economic forces
2. Social, cultural, demographic, &
environmental forces
3. Political, governmental, and legal forces
4. Technological factors
5. Competitive forces
12
Relationships Between
Key External Forces and an Organization
Key
External
Forces
13
Competitors
Suppliers
Distributors
Creditors
Customers
Employees
Communities
Managers
Stockholders
Labor Unions
Special Interest Groups
Products
Services
Opportunities
&
Threats
Exhibit 2.4
Porter’s Five Forces
Model of Industry Competition
POTENTIAL
ENTRANTS
Threat of
new entrants
Bargaining power
of suppliers
INDUSTRY
COMPETITORS
SUPPLIERS
Bargaining power
of buyers
BUYERS
Rivalry Among
Existing Firms
Threat of
substitute products
or services
SUBSTITUTES
Reprinted with the permission of The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. from Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors by Michael E. Porter.
Copyright © 1980, 1998 by The Free Press.
14
Five Forces Analysis of the
Automotive Industry
Threat of Rivalry
 Oligopolistic industry
 Overcapacity
Global Competitive
Environment
Threat of Market
Entry
 High barriers to entry
 High capital
requirements
 Contrived deterrence
 Cost disadvantages
Threat of Substitutes
 Train, public transport or other
means of transportation
15
 Differentiation on basis
of functional attributes
only temporary
Threat of Suppliers
Automotive
Industry
 Consolidation
 Single Sourcing
 Low level of total value added
Threat of Buyers
 Numerous potential customers
 Industry policy of rebates
 More demanding customers
Industry Analysis (EFE)
External Factor Evaluation Matrix
Summarize & evaluate:
16
Economic
Demographic
Governmental
Social
Environmental
Technological
Cultural
Political
Competitive
External Factor Evaluation (EFE)
Menggambarkan keseluruhan
opportunities dan threats yang ada
untuk mengetahui seberapa besar
pengaruh dari setiap faktor tersebut
terhadap institusi, respons institusi
setiap faktor tersebut dan untuk
mengetahui nilai institusi terhadap
keseluruhan faktor dibandingkan
dengan Institusi lain
17
Industry Analysis (EFE)
Five-Step process:
•
List key external factors (10-20)
Opportunities
•
Assign weight to each (0 to 1.0)
Sum
18
& threats
of all weights = 1.0
Industry Analysis (EFE)
Five-step process:
•
Assign 1-4 rating to each factor
• Firm’s current strategies response to the
factor
•
Multiply each factor’s weight by its rating
• Produces a weighted score
19
Industry Analysis (EFE)
Five-step process:
•
Sum the weighted scores for each
Determines
the total weighted score for
the organization.
•
20
Highest possible weighted score for
the organization is 4.0; the lowest,
1.0. Average = 2.5
UST—Key External Factors
Weight
Rating
Weighted
score
Global markets untapped
.15
1
.15
Increased demand
.05
3
.15
Astronomical Internet growth
.05
1
.05
Pinkerton leader in discount market
.15
4
.60
More social pressure to quit smoking
.10
3
.30
Legislation against the tobacco industry
.10
2
.20
Production limits on tobacco
.05
3
.15
Smokeless market SE region U.S.
.05
2
.10
Bad media exposure from FDA
.10
2
.20
Clinton Administration
.20
1
.20
Opportunities
Threats
TOTAL
21
1.00
2.10
Tabel : Matriks EFE PT. Pos Indonesia
Faktor Eksternal
Bobot
Rating
Nilai
- Jumlah penduduk
0,12
3
0,36
- Bentuk negara yang geografis
0,10
3
0,30
- Perusahaan yang berbentuk Persero
0,08
4
0,32
- Jumlah SDM memadai
0,10
2
0,20
- Tersedianya sarana promosi
0,05
2
0,10
- Perkembangan teknologi
0,10
2
0,20
- Pesaing baru dan lama
0,10
2
0,20
- Munculnya produk substitusi
0,12
2
0,24
- Tuntutan terhadap mutu dan pelayanan
0,08
2
0,16
- Daya beli konsumen
0,05
1
0,05
- Kondisi SDM yang berorientasi
kepada produk
Total
0,10
2
0,20
Peluang (opportunities)
Ancaman (threats)
22
1
2,33
Industry Analysis (EFE)
Total weighted score of 4.0 =
Organization response is outstanding to
threats & weaknesses
Total weighted score of 1.0 =
Firm’s strategies not capitalizing on
opportunities or avoiding threats
23
Industry Analysis (EFE)
Important
•
24
Understanding of the factors used in the
EFE Matrix is more important than the
actual weights and ratings assigned.
Formulation Framework
External Factor Evaluation
Matrix (EFE)
Stage 1:
The Input Stage
Internal Factor Evaluation
Matrix (IFE)
Competitive Profile
Matrix
25
The Internal Assessment
Great spirits have always encountered
violent opposition from mediocre minds.
-- Albert Einstein
26
Nature of an Internal Audit
All organizations –
•
•
27
Strengths
Weaknesses
Nature of an Internal Audit
Basis for objectives & strategies:
– Internal strengths/weaknesses
– External opportunities/threats
– Clear statement of mission
28
Key Internal Forces
Distinctive Competencies
• A firm’s strengths that cannot be easily
matched or imitated by competitors
• Building competitive advantage involves
taking advantage of distinctive competencies
• Strategies designed in part to improve on a
firm’s weaknesses and turn to strengths
29
Internal Audit
• Parallels process of external audit
• Gather & assimilate information from:
•
•
•
•
•
•
30
Management
Marketing
Finance/accounting
Production/operations
Research & development
Management information systems
Functions of Management
Five basic activities –
–
–
–
–
–
31
Planning
Organizing
Motivating
Staffing
Controlling
Functions of Management
32
Function
Stage When Most
Important
Planning
Strategy Formulation
Organizing
Strategy Implementation
Motivating
Strategy Implementation
Staffing
Strategy Implementation
Controlling
Strategy Evaluation
Planning
Forecasting
Establishing objectives
Planning
Devising strategies
Developing policies
Setting goals
33
Organizing
Organizing
Organizing
Organizing
34
Organizational
design
Organizational
Organizational design
design
Job
Job
Job specialization
specialization
specialization
Job
Job
Job descriptions
descriptions
descriptions
Job
Job
Job specifications
specifications
specifications
Span
of
control
Span
Span of
of control
control
Unity
Unity
Unity of
of
ofcommand
command
command
Coordination
Coordination
Coordination
Job
Job
Job design
design
design
Job
Job
Job analysis
analysis
analysis
Motivating
Motivating
35
Leadership
Communication
Work groups
Job enrichment
Job satisfaction
Needs fulfillment
Organizational
change
Morale
Staffing
Staffing
36
Wage & salary admin
Employee benefits
Interviewing
Hiring
Firing
Training
Management development
Safety
Affirmative action
EEO
Labor relations
Career development
Discipline procedures
Controlling
Controlling
37
Quality control
Financial control
Sales control
Inventory control
Expense control
Analysis of variances
Rewards
Sanctions
Marketing
Process of defining, anticipating,
creating, and fulfilling customers’ needs
and wants for products and services
38
Marketing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
39
Customer analysis
Selling products/services
Product and service planning
Pricing
Distribution
Marketing research
Opportunity analysis
Marketing
Customer surveys
Consumer information
Customer analysis
Market positioning
strategies
Customer profiles
Market segmentation
strategies
40
Marketing
Advertising
Sales
Promotion
Selling
Products/services
Publicity
Sales force management
Customer relations
Dealer relations
41
Marketing
Test marketing
Brand positioning
Devising warrantees
Product/service
planning
Packaging
Product features/options
Product style
Quality
42
Marketing
Forward integration
Discounts
Credit terms
Condition of sale
Pricing
Markups
Costs
Unit pricing
43
Marketing
Warehousing
Channels
Coverage
Distribution
Retail site locations
Sales territories
Inventory levels
Transportation
44
Marketing
Data collection
Data input
Marketing research
Data analysis
Support all business
functions
45
Marketing
Assessing costs
Assessing benefits
Opportunity
Analysis
Assessing risks
Cost/benefit/risk
analysis
46
Finance/Accounting
•
•
•
•
47
Determining financial strengths and
weaknesses key to strategy formulation
Investment decision (Capital budgeting)
Financing decision
Dividend decision
Finance/Accounting
Functions of Finance/Accounting –
1.
2.
3.
48
Investment decision (Capital budgeting)
Financing decision
Dividend decision
Basic Financial Ratios
Firm’s ability to meet
its short-term
obligations
Ratios
Liquidity ratios
Current ratio
Quick
(or acid-test)
ratio
49
Basic Financial Ratios
•
Extent of debt
financing
Ratios
Leverage ratios
Debt-to-total-assets
Debt-to-equity
Long-term debt-to-equity
Times-interest earned
50
Basic Financial Ratios
•
Effective use of firm’s
resources
Ratios
Inventory-turnover
Activity ratios
Fixed assets turnover
Total assets turnover
Accounts receivable turnover
Average collection period
51
Basic Financial Ratios
•
Effectiveness shown
by returns on sales
and investment
Ratios
Profitability ratios
Gross profit margin
Operating profit margin
Net profit margin
Return on total assets (ROA)
52
Basic Financial Ratios
•
Effectiveness shown
by returns on sales
and investment
Ratios
Profitability ratios
(continued)
Return on stockholders’ equity
(ROE)
Earnings per share
Price-earnings ratio
53
Basic Financial Ratios
•
Firm’s ability to
maintain economic
position
Ratios
Growth ratios
Sales
Net income
Earnings per share
Dividends per share
54
Production/Operations
•
•
•
•
•
55
Process
Capacity
Inventory
Workforce
Quality
Production/Operations
Design of facility
Choice of technology
Facility layout
Process
Process flow analysis
Facility location
Line balancing
Process control
56
Production/Operations
Forecasting
Facilities planning
Aggregate planning
Capacity
Scheduling
Capacity planning
Queuing analysis
57
Production/Operations
Raw material
Inventory
Work in process
Finished goods
Materials handling
58
Production/Operations
Job design
Work measurement
Workforce
Job enrichment
Work standards
Motivation techniques
59
Production/Operations
Quality control
Sampling
Quality
Testing
Quality assurance
Cost control
60
Research and Development
•
•
•
61
Development of new products before
competition
Improving product quality
Improving manufacturing processes to
reduce costs
Research and Development
Financing as many
projects as possible
Use percentage-of-sales
method
R&D budgets
Budgeting relative to
competitors
Deciding how many
successful new
products are needed
62
Management Information Systems
Purpose –
–
63
Improve performance of an enterprise by
improving the quality of managerial
decisions.
Internal Analysis (IFE)
Menggambarkan keseluruhan
strength dan weakness yang ada
untuk mengetahui seberapa besar
pengaruh dari setiap faktor tersebut
terhadap institusi, respons institusi
setiap faktor tersebut dan untuk
mengetahui nilai institusi terhadap
keseluruhan faktor dibandingkan
dengan Institusi lain
64
Internal Analysis (IFE)
Five-Step Process:
•
List key internal factors (10-20)
Strengths
•
Assign weight to each (0 to 1.0)
Sum
65
& weaknesses
of all weights = 1.0
Internal Analysis (IFE)
Assign 1-4 rating to each factor
 Firm’s
current strategies response to the
factor
•
Multiply each factor’s weight by its rating
 Produces
66
a weighted score
Internal Analysis (IFE)
•
Sum the weighted scores for each
 Determines
the total weighted score for the
organization
 Highest
possible weighted score for the
organization is 4.0; the lowest, 1.0. Average =
2.5
67
Internal Analysis (IFE)
Mandalay Bay
Weight
Rating
Weighted
score
Largest casino company in world
.05
4
.20
Room occupancy rates over 95%
.10
4
.40
Increasing free cash flows
.05
3
.15
Owns 1 mile on Las Vegas strip
.15
4
.60
Strong management team
.05
3
.15
Buffets at most facilities
.05
3
.15
Minimal comps provided
.05
3
.15
Long-range planning
.05
4
.20
Reputation as family-friendly
.05
3
.15
Financial ratios
.05
3
.15
Internal Strengths
68
Internal Analysis (IFE)
Mandalay Bay
Weight
Rating
Weighted
score
Most properties located in Las Vegas
.05
1
.05
Little diversification
.05
2
.10
Family reputation, not high rollers
.05
2
.10
Laughlin properties
.10
1
.10
Recent loss of joint ventures
.10
1
.10
TOTAL (including Strengths)
1.0
Internal Weaknesses
69
2.75
Tabel : Matriks IFE PT. Pos Indonesia
Faktor Internal
Bobot
Rating
Nilai
- Keragaman jenis jasa pengiriman
0,09
4
0,36
- Harga murah
0,10
4
0,40
- Jaringan pos yang sangat luas
0,10
3
0,30
- Sebaran lokasi pelayanan
0,10
3
0,30
- Kemudahan mencapai tempat pelayanan &
pengiriman
Kelemahan (weaknesses)
0,11
3
0,33
- Ketepatan waktu pengiriman
0,11
1
0,11
- Kecepatan pengiriman
0,11
1
0,11
- Kecepatan pelayanan petugas
0,10
1
0,10
- Informasi biaya dan waktu pengiriman
0,09
2
0,18
- Kemudahan memperoleh info promosi
dan iklan
Total
0,09
2
0.18
Kekuatan (strengths)
70
1
2,37
Menentukan Distinctive Competencies
Diantara sejumlah strengths yang
dimiliki suatu institusi dapat saja
beberapa diantaranya merupakan
distinctive competencies.
Untuk mengevaluasi apakah suatu
strength adalah distinctive
competency dapat digunakan
metode Barney yaitu dengan konsep
VRIO
71
VRIO
 Value : apakah faktor tersebut memberikan
keunggulan kompetitif pada institusi ?
 Rareness : apakah pesaing tidak memiliki faktor
tersebut ?
 Imitability : apakah tidak mudah untuk
memiliki faktor tersebut ?
 Organization : apakah institusi memanfaatkan
faktor tersebut secara maksimal ?
Jika jawab dari keempat : Ya
distinctive competency
72
Formulation Framework
External Factor Evaluation
Matrix (EFE)
Stage 1:
The Input Stage
Internal Factor Evaluation
Matrix (IFE)
Competitive Profile
Matrix
73
Industry Analysis (CPM)
Competitive Profile Matrix
•
74
Identifies firm’s major competitors
and their strengths & weaknesses in
relation to a sample firm’s strategic
position
(CPM)
Critical Success
Factor
75
Avon
L’Oreal
Procter
& Gamble
Weight Rating Score Rating Score Rating Score
Advertising
0.20
Product Quality
0.10
Price Competition
0.10
Management
0.10
Financial Position
0.15
Customer Loyalty
0.10
Global Expansion
0.20
Market Share
0.05
Total
1.00
1
4
3
4
4
4
4
1
0.20
0.40
0.30
0.40
0.60
0.40
0.80
0.05
3.15
4
4
3
3
3
4
2
4
0.80
3
0.60
0.40
3
0.30
0.30
4
0.40
0.30
3
0.30
0.45
3
0.45
0.40
2
0.20
0.40
2
0.40
0.20
3
0.15
3.25
2.80
Competitive Profile Matrix
Critical Success Factors
Brand Recognition
Market Share
Financial Strength
R&D
Product Quality
Advertising
Number of Retail Outlets
Product Mix
Depend on Suppliers for
Quality
Total
76
Weight
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.10
0.10
0.12
0.05
0.11
0.10
1.00
Nike
Weighted
Rating Score
4
0.60
4
0.56
3
0.39
4
0.40
3
0.10
4
0.48
4
0.20
4
0.44
2
0.20
3.37
Adidas
Weighted
Rating Score
4
0.60
2
0.28
2
0.26
2
0.20
3
0.30
3
0.36
1
0.05
3
0.33
3
0.30
2.68
Reebok
Weighted
Rating Score
4
0.60
3
0.42
2
0.26
3
0.30
3
0.30
4
0.48
3
0.15
3
0.33
2
0.20
3.04
Formulation Framework
TOWS Matrix
SPACE Matrix
Stage 2:
The Matching Stage
BCG Matrix
IE Matrix
Grand Strategy Matrix
77
Strategy Analysis & Choice
Whether it’s broke or not, fix it—make it
better. Not just products, but the whole
company if necessary.
-- Bill Saporito
78
SWOT ANALYSIS
 Asumsi: Suatu strategi yang efektif akan memaksimalkan
kekuatan (Strength) dan peluang (Opportunities), dan
meminimalkan kelemahan (Weaknesses) dan ancaman
((Threat)
 Opportunities: Situasi penting dari faktor eksternal yang
menguntungkan perusahaan. (perubahan teknologi,
membaiknya hubungan pembeli & pemasok, dll)
 Threat: faktor internal yang tidak menguntungkan
perusahaan. (masuknya pesaing baru, lambatnya pertumbuhan
pasar, meningkatnya kekuatan pembeli & pemasok, dll)
 Strength: Kekuatan internal meliputi sumberdaya,
keterampilan/ keunggulan lainnya relatif terhadap pesaing
dan kebutuhan pasar yang dilayani/ ingin dilayani perusahaan.
(sumber daya keuangan, citra, dll)
 Weaknesses: Kekurangan/ keterbatasan daam sumber daya,
keterampilan dan kapabilitas yang menghambat kinerja
perusahaan.
79
ANALISA SWOT (TOWS) MATRIX
Dikemukakan oleh : Thomas L. Wheelen dan J. David Hunger
Menggunakan matrix untuk menghasilkan strategi alternatif dengan
memanfaatkan EFE dan IFE
Langkah-Langkahnya :
 Pada blok opportunities cantumkan sejumlah opportunities yang
diambil dari tabel EFE
 Pada blok threats cantumkan sejumlah threats yang diambil dari
EFE
 Pada blok strength, cantumkan sejumlah strength yang diambil
dari IFE
 Pada blok weakness cantumkan sejumlah weakness yg diambil dari
IFE
 Dapatkan sejumlah strategi-strategi yang mungkin untuk
perusahaan berdasarkan kombinasi dari 4 elemen tersebut
80
Matching Stage
TOWS Matrix
– Threats
– Opportunities
– Strengths
– Weaknesses
81
TOWS Matrix
Develop four types of strategies
– Strengths-Opportunities (SO)
– Weaknesses-Opportunities (WO)
– Strengths-Threats (ST)
– Weaknesses-Threats (WT)
82
Kuadran SO, ST, WO, WT
 Kuadran SO : posisi yang paling menguntungkan dimana institusi
sedang melihat peluang-peluang dan memiliki kekuatan untuk
meraihnya
 Kuadran ST : institusi dengan beberapa kekuatan yang dimilikinya
sedang menghadapi ancaman dari luar. Institusi dapat
menggunakan kekuatan untuk menciptakan peluang di masa yang
akan datang
 Kuadran WO : institusi sedang melihat peluang tetapi mengalami
kendala dalam meraihnya karena perusahaan memiliki kelemahan.
Institusi harus dapat mengeliminir kekurangan-kekurangan supaya
lebih efektif dalam meraih peluang
 Kuadran WT : posisi yang paling tidak menyenangkan dimana
perusahaan sedang menghadapi ancaman dari luar bersamaan
dengan posisinyapun sedang lemah. Institusi bertahan sambil
mengkaji ulang keterlibatan institusi dalam pelayanan yang sedang
terancam tersebut
83
STRATEGI SO, ST, WO, WT
 Strategi SO : strategi memanfaatkan peluang
dengan mendayagunakan kekuatan internal
 Strategi ST : strategi untuk menghadapi atau
menghidarkan ancaman dengan mendayagunakan
kekuatan yang dimiliki
 Strategi WO : strategi untuk mengatasi
kelemahan dengan cara memanfaatkan peluang
yang ada
84
 Strategi WT : strategi yang meminimalkan
kelemahan sambil mencegah ancaman yang ada di
luar
SO Strategies
Threats
Opportunities
Weaknesses
Strengths
(TOWS)
85
SO
Strategies
Use a firm’s
internal
strengths to
take advantage
of external
opportunities
WO Strategies
Threats
Opportunities
Weaknesses
Strengths
(TOWS)
86
WO
Strategies
Improving
internal
weaknesses by
taking
advantage of
external
opportunities
ST Strategies
Threats
Opportunities
Weaknesses
Strengths
(TOWS)
87
ST
Strategies
Using firm’s
strengths to
avoid or
reduce the
impact of
external
threats.
WT Strategies
Threats
Opportunities
Weaknesses
Strengths
(TOWS)
88
WT
Strategies
Defensive
tactics aimed
at reducing
internal
weaknesses
and avoiding
environmental
threats.
TOWS Matrix
Steps in developing the TOWS Matrix
1.
2.
3.
4.
89
List the firm’s key external opportunities
List the firm’s key external threats
List the firm’s key internal strengths
List the firm’s key internal weaknesses
TOWS Matrix
Developing the TOWS Matrix
5.
6.
7.
8.
90
Match internal strengths with external opportunities
and record the resultant SO Strategies
Match internal weaknesses with external opportunities
and record the resultant WO Strategies
Match internal strengths with external threats and
record the resultant ST Strategies
Match internal weaknesses with external threats and
record the resultant WT Strategies
TOWS Matrix
Leave Blank
91
Strengths-S
Weaknesses-W
List Strengths
List Weaknesses
Opportunities-O
SO Strategies
WO Strategies
List Opportunities
Use strengths to take
advantage of opportunities
Overcome weaknesses
by taking advantage of
opportunities
Threats-T
ST Strategies
WT Strategies
List Threats
Use strengths to avoid
threats
Minimize weaknesses
and avoid threats
SWOT MATRIX
STRENGHTS (S)
List Internal
Strenghts Here
WEAKNESSES (W)
List Internal
Weaknesses Here
OPPORTUNITIES (O)
List External
Opportinities Here
S-O Strategies
Generate strategies
here that use
Strenghts to take
adventage of
opportunities
W-O Strategies
Generate strategies
here that take
adventage of
opportunities by
overcoming weaknesses
THREATS (T)
List External
Threats Here
S-T Strategies
Generate strategies
here that use
strenghts to avoid
threats
W-T Strategies
Generate strategies
here that minimize
weaknesses and
avoid threats
EXTERNAL
FACTORS
92
TOWS Matrix
Strengths
1. Customer satisfaction.
2. Copyright to one-click
method.
3. Humanitarian efforts.
4. Strong Research &
Development.
5. Exclusive agreements
with Internet sites.
6. Ability to track
customer interests.
7. Formation of strategic
alliances with physical
retailers.
93
Weaknesses
1. Accumulated deficits.
2. Anticipates further losses.
3. Slowing growth, core
business, U.S. Books,
Music, & Video.
4. Lawsuit with Barnes &
Noble over patent for oneclick method.
5. Class Action Suits filed
with stockholders.
6. Doses not have a mission
statement.
7. Financial position.
TOWS Matrix
S-O Strategies
Opportunities
1. Expand European presence
1. Continuous increase of
through strategic alliances
internet users.
with established online
2. Increasing business to
retailers or physical
consumer e-commerce.
retailers
3. U. S. Internet economy
(S1,O1,O2,O3,O5).
2. Refocus on core business
projections 3.1 trillion
by taking full advantage of
by 2004.
e-books sales projection
4. Brick & Mortar
(S1,S2,S6,O1,O2,O3).
companies lack
technology expertise.
5. European on-line
projections 3.1 trillion
by 2004.
94
W-O Strategies
1. Enter into more strategic
agreements with U. S.
physical retailers possibly
Wal-mart
(W2,W3,W7,O4,O5).
TOWS Matrix
Threats
1. Seasonality of internet
usage & revenue
generation.
2. Economic downturn &
global recession.
3. Low consumer confidence
levels.
4. Competition.
5. Security/Privacy of
information concerns.
6. Internet Taxation.
7. Market valuation .
95
S-T Strategies
1. Establish direct order link
with
publishers/manufacturers
(S5, T4).
2. Enhance attractiveness of
platform
(S1,S2,S4,S6,T4,T7).
3. Promote ease of use
(S2,T4,T5).
W-T Strategies
1.
Reduce fulfillment costs by
reduction in number of
fulfillment centers
(W1,W2,W3,W7,T1,T2,T3,T7).
FORMULATION FRAMEWORK
TOWS Matrix
SPACE Matrix
Stage 2:
The Matching Stage
BCG Matrix
IE Matrix
Grand Strategy Matrix
96
SPACE Matrix
•SPACE
=
The Strategic Position and
ACtion Evaluation
•Dikemukakan oleh : R. Howe, R. Mason & K. Dickel
•Diadaptasi oleh : Fred R. David
•Menilai seluruh strategic factors
•Mengolah
–
97
Ditampilkan pada sistem
koordinat 2 dimensi
SPACE Matrix
Strategic Position and Action Evaluation Matrix


Four quadrant framework
Determines appropriate strategies




98
Aggressive
Conservative
Defensive
Competitive
SPACE Matrix
Two Internal Dimensions
Financial Strength [FS]
 Competitive Advantage [CA]

Two External Dimensions
Environmental Stability [ES]
 Industry Strength [IS]

99
SPACE Matrix
Overall Strategic position determined by:
Financial Strength [FS]
– Competitive Advantage [CA]
– Environmental Stability [ES]
– Industry Strength [IS]
–
100
SPACE Matrix
Developing the SPACE Matrix:
•
•
•
•
•
•
101
EFE Matrix
IFE Matrix
Financial Strength
Competitive Advantage
Environmental Stability
Industry Strength
SPACE Matrix
•
•
•
102
Select variables to define FS, CA, ES, &
IS
Assign numerical ranking from +1
(worst) to +6 (best) for FS and IS; Assign
numerical ranking from –1 (best) to –6
(worst) for ES and CA.
Compute average score for FS, CA, ES, &
IS
SPACE Matrix
Internal Strategic Position
103
External Strategic Position
Financial Strength (FS)
Environmental Stability (ES)
Return on investment
Leverage
Liquidity
Working capital
Cash flow
Ease of exit from market
Risk involved in business
Technological changes
Rate of inflation
Demand variability
Price range of competing products
Barriers to entry
Competitive pressure
Price elasticity of demand
SPACE Matrix
Internal Strategic Position
104
External Strategic Position
Competitive Advantage CA
Industry Strength (IS)
Market share
Product quality
Product life cycle
Customer loyalty
Competition’s capacity utilization
Technological know-how
Control over suppliers & distributors
Growth potential
Profit potential
Financial stability
Technological know-how
Resource utilization
Capital intensify
Ease of entry into market
Productivity, capacity utilization
SPACE
Matrix
FS
Conservative
Aggressive
+6
+5
+4
+3
+2
+1
CA
IS
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
+1
-1
+2 +3
+4
+5
+6
-2
-3
-4
-5
Defensive
105
Competitive
-6
ES
SPACE Matrix : NIKE
INTERNAL STRATEGIC POSITION
Financial strength
Environmental stability
+4
-3
+1 best to +6 worst
-6 worst to –1 best
Y axis: 4 + (-3) = 1
EXTERNAL STRATEGIC POSITION
Competitive advantage
Industry strength
Conservative
-2
+3
-6 unstable to –1 stable
+1 best to +6 worst
FS
X axis: 3 + (-2) = 1
Aggressive
CA
IS
Defensive
106
ES
Competitive
SPACE Matrix : AMAZON
FS
Conservative
Aggressive
CA
Defensive
IS
ES
Competitive
Y axis
Financial strength
Environmental stability
+1
-2
+1 worst to + 6 best
-1 best to –6 worst
Y axis: 1 + (-2) = -1
X axis
Industry strength
107 Competitive advantage
3
-2
+1 worst to +6 best
-1 best to -6 worst
X axis: 3 + (-2) = 1
Opportunities
Posisi Strategis
SO
+ 0,59 ; + 0,60
+2,75
Weakness
-2,50
Rata-Rata Opportunities
= +33/12 = + 2,75
Rata-Rata Threats
= -28/13 = - 2,15
Rata-Rata Strength
= +34/11 = + 3,09
108
Strength
+0,60
Rata-Rata Weakness
= -15/6 = - -2,50
+0,59
+3,09
-2,15
Koordinat X =
+3,09 + (-2,50) = 0,59
Threats
Koordinat Y =
+2,75 + (-2,15) = 0,60
SPACE MATRIX POSISI STRATEGIS PERUSAHAAN
OPPORTUNITIES
Supports an
Aggressive Strategy
Supports a Turn
Oriented Strategy
WEAKNESSES
STRENGTHS
Supports a
Difensive Strategy
Supports a
Diversification Strategy
THREATS
109
Formulation Framework
TOWS Matrix
SPACE Matrix
Stage 2:
The Matching Stage
BCG Matrix
IE Matrix
Grand Strategy Matrix
110
BCG Matrix
Boston Consulting Group Matrix
•
•
•
•
•
•
111
Enhances multidivisional firms’ efforts to formulate strategies
Autonomous divisions (or profit centers) constitute the
business portfolio
Firm’s divisions may compete in different industries requiring
separate strategy
Graphically portrays differences among divisions
Focuses on market share position and industry growth rate
Manage business portfolio through relative market share
position and industry growth rate
BCG Matrix
Relative Market Share Position
Industry Sales Growth Rate
High
1.0
112
Medium
.50
Low
0.0
High
+20
Stars
II
Question Marks
I
Cash Cows
III
Dogs
IV
Medium
0
Low
-20
Kondisi Bisnis Perusahaan
113
Perusahaan dengan satu
bisnis
Diversifikasi perusahaan
yang berhubungan
Diversifikasi perusahaan
yang tak ada hubungan
Bersaing sebagai satu bisnis
Membagi kompetensi bisnis satu
sama lain
Tiap unit bisnis otonom pada
pasar yang berbeda-beda
Apple Computer
McDonald’s Corp.
Wrigley
Maytag
Texas Air
Ford Motor
P&G
Philip Morris
Dow-Corning
Johnson & Johnson
Du Pont
Gilette
ITT
Rockwell
GE
LTV
Textron
Litton
Pendekatan Portofolio
Pendekatan portofolio ditandai ciri berikut :
 Menguji setiap bisnis perusahaan yang terpisah sebagai
elemen portofolio dari total bisnis.
 Suatu unit bisnis dalam portofolio perusahaan, pada derajat
tertentu, adalah merupakan penghasil (generators) atau
penerima (recipients) dari sumber-sumber (resources)
perusahaan.
114
 Pendekatan portofolio merupakan cara yang sederhana dan
visual untuk mengidentifikasi dan mengevaluasi alternatif
strategi guna dapat menghasilkan dan mengalokasikan
sumber-sumber perusahaan (corporate resources)
SUSUNAN MATRIKS BCG
• Matrix BCG ini dibentuk dari empat sel (Matriks
2 X 2) yang mengukur laju pertumbuhan pasar
(market growth) pada sumbu vertikal, dan
pangsa pasar relatif (relative market share)
pada sumbu horizontal
• Didalam matriks BCG, setiap unit bisnis
menempati salah satu dari kategori “tanda
tanya”
115




Question mark
Star
Cash cow
Dogs
MATRIKS BCG
• Matrixs BCG merupakan model yang sederhana
dan paling banyak digunakan.
• Model ini berguna bagi top manager yang
membawahi unit bisnis yang berbeda-beda
(diversified forms), khususnya untuk
mengalokasikan sumber-sumber (resources)
dari satu unit ke unit bisnis lainnya.
116
• Matriks ini juga digunakan untuk
memperkirakan posisi pasar suatu unit bisnis
beberapa tahun ke depan bila tidak dilakukan
perubahan kebijakan (policies) selama ini
Bentuk BCG Matrix
High
Market
Growth
Star
Question Mark
Cash Cow
Dog
Low
Strong
117
Relative Market Share
Weak
Market Growth Rate
The Boston Consulting Group’s
Growth-Share Matrix
20%18%16%14%12%10%8%6%4%2%0
Stars
4
5
3
?2
?
Dogs
Cash cows
1
8
7
6
10x 4x 2x 1.5x 1x
118
Question marks
.5x .4x .3x .2x .1x
Relative Market Share
Indikator Cash Flow
Beberapa indikator berikut diperlukan dalam penyusunan matriks BCG:
 Cash flow merupakan indikator kunci pada matriks BCG
 Cash flow merepresentasikan kemampuan dari unit bisnis untuk
membangun portofolio-nya
 Cash flow dalam matriks BCG dapat dibagi atas:
 Pemakaian kas (cash use) karena pangsa pasar relatif (relative market
share) di sumbu horizontal
 Penerimaan kas (cash generated) karena pertumbuhan pasar (market
growth rate) di sumbu vertikal
 Relative market share dapat dihitung dari ratio market share unit bisnis
dengan market share pesaing tertinggi
119
 Market growth atau pertumbuhan pada industri bersangkutan.
Asumsi Cash flow vs. posisi bisnis
Hubungan antara cash flow perusahaan dengan portofolio
bisnisnya dapat terjadi berdasarkan beberapa asumsi :
 Profit margin dan penerimaan kas (cash generation) makin besar dengan
bertambahnya relative market share, akibat learning curve
 Market growth membutuhkan uang tunai (cash used) guna membiayai modal
kerja, penambahan kapasitas, dan investasi lainnya
 Sebagian unit bisnis membutuhkan uang tunai lebih besar dari pendapatannya,
sedang sebagian lain menghasilkan lebih besar dari yang digunakannya
 Dalam portofolio perusahaan, cash flow keseluruhan perusahaan harus
seimbang, yaitu antara kebutuhan tunai total dengan kemampuan unit-unit usaha
dalam menghasilkan uang tunai ditambah pembiayaan dari luar.
120
Analisa Cash Flow
High
Star
Question Mark
Cash generated +++
Cash use
Market
Growth
--0
Cash Cow
Cash generated +++
Cash use
++
Low
Strong
121
Relative Market Share
Cash generated +
Cash use
----
Dog
Cash generated +
Cash use
0
Weak
4 Strategi Utama BCG Matrix
 Build market share
 Hold market share
 Harvest
 Divest
122
BCG Matrix:
Karakteristik Kuadran
30% Star
Market
Growth
-10%
Earnings: high stable, growing
Cash flow: neutral
Strategy: hold or invest for
growth
Earnings: low, unstable, growing
Cash flow: negative
Strategy: build market share
or harvest/divest
Cash Cow
Dog
Earnings: high stable
Cash flow: high stable
Strategy: hold or add market
share
Earnings: low, unstable
Cash flow: neutral or negative
Strategy: harvest/divest
10
123
Question Mark
1.0
Relative Market Share
.1
Penggunaan Model : Simbol
Product A
Total
Market
Product A
Previous
Market Size
and Position
Market
Share
B
124
Product B
Market
Smaller but firm
has greater
share
Plotting Your SBU’s
30% Star
Question Mark
C
Market
Growth
C
B
A
Cash Cow
Dog
A
B
-10%
10
125
1.0
Relative Market Share
.1
Traditional SBU or Product Path
30% Star
Question Mark
2
Market
Growth
Cash Cow
1
Dog
3
4
-10%
10
126
2
1.0
Relative Market Share
.1
Question mark
???
MATRIKS BCG &
BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE
Berada pada kuadran 1, dimana relative market share-nya
rendah (low), namun dengan market groqth rate yang tinggi
(high)
Ini mengingat posisi market share yang rendah, menunjukkan
cash generated yang rendah pula, dan cash use yang tinggi
pada market growth yang tinggi.
Dalam kondisi bisnis “question mark” ini perusahaan harus
memutuskan untuk memperkuat diri dengan strategi intensif
(penetrasi pasar, pengembangan pasar, atau pengembangan
produk) atau menjualnya bila pelaksanaan strategi terlalu mahal.
Misi yang dituntut dari anak perusahaan ini adalah
membangun (build) market share. Dalam daur hidup bisnis,
posisi ini terletak pada masa perkenalan atau masa-masa
awal bisnis (introduction) perusahaan
127
Star
MATRIKS BCG &
BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE
Berada pada kuadran II, menunjukkan baik relative market
share dan market growth yang tinggi, serta menunjukkan cash
generated maupun cash use yang tinggi pula.
Posisi star merupakan posisi dominan yang dikejar setiap
perusahaan dan posisi yang paling kuat, namun harus
dipertahankan dengan investasi yang memadai.
Hal tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan strategi integrasi, strategi
intensif atau joint ventures, melalui integrasi ke hilir (forward),
ke hulu (backward) atau ke pesaing (horizontal), serta melalui
penetrasi pasar, pengembangan pasar, atau pengembangan
produk dan joint ventures.
Misi yang perlu dilakukan adalah mempertahankan (hold)
market share. Posisi “hold” sama dengan siklus
pertumbuhan (growth) pada business life cycle.
128
Cash cow
MATRIKS BCG &
BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE
Berada pada kuadran III, yaitu dengan relative market share yang tinggi
namun market growth-nya rendah.
Pada market share yang tinggi, biaya per unit cenderung rendah dan
berarti menghasilkan laba yang tinggi.
Sebaliknya dengan market growth yang rendah, bisnis dalam keadaan
menurun sehingga kurang di perlukan uang tunai untuk keperluan
investasi.
Unit bisnis ini memiliki keuntungan dan cash flow yang tinggi
129
Misi yang di emban adalah memanen (harvest) keuntungan dan
cash flow jangka pendek untuk membiayai bisnis anak perusahaan
yang lainnya, dengan pendapatan yang besar, namun dengan
pertumbuhan yang rendah
Dog
MATRIKS BCG &
BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE
Berada pada kuadran IV, berada pada posisi yang lemah
dan industri sudah tidak menarik.
Biasanya strategi yang baik adalah melakukan divestasi,
kecuali masih ada kemungkinan memperbaikinya dengan
biaya yang tidak terlalu mahal.
Misi yang dilakukan adalah melakukan (divest) bisnis
tersebut. Disini perusahaan berada dalam keadaan
“declining” atau mengalami siklus menurun.
130
HUBUNGAN ANTARA
KATEGORI BISNIS, MISI DAN DAUR HIDUP
131
KUADRAN
KATEGORI
MISI
DAUR HIDUP
I
Question Mark (“?”)
Build
Introduction
II
Stars
Hold
Growth
III
Cash Cows
Harvest
Mature
IV
Dogs
Divest
Decline
Keuntungan MATRIKS BCG
 Pendekatan yang sederhana pemakaiannya dan disajikan secara
visual
 Memudahkan penentuan portofolio bisnis dari divisi atau anak
perusahaan
 Merangsang minat dalam perencanaan strategi
 Mendorong perusahaan untuk melihat formulasi strategi sebagai
hubungan kerjasama antara unit-unit bisnis yang ada didalam
perusahaan
 Memperlihatkan bagaimana setiap unit perusahaan memiliki
penerimaan dan penggunaan dana tunai (cash flow) yang berbedabeda terhadap pencapaian tujuan perusahaan.
132
KELEMAHAN MATRIKS BCG
• Penggunaan tinggi dan rendah pada growth-share matriks
untuk empat kategori, terlalu menyederhanakan masalah
bisnis.
• Hubungan antara market share dengan profitabilitas tidak
selalu linier karena market share unit bisnis yang rendah
masih bisa mendapatkan keuntungan yang besar, bila di
pasarkan pada “niche market”
• Tingkat perrumbuhan yang tinggi tidak selalu yang terbaik.
• Matriks ini hanya memperhitungkan pesaing yang kuat
dengan mengabaikan pesaing-pesaing kecil yang sedang
tumbuh dengan cepat.
• Market growth hanyalah salah satu saja dari faktor daya
tarik industri (industry attractiveness) dan market share
adalah juga salah satu dari posisi kompettif bisnis.
133
GE Multifactor Portfolio
Matrix
High
Business Strengths
Medium
Low
High
Invest/Grow
Medium
Low
134
Selectivity
/earnings
Harvest
/Divest
GE/McKinsey Matrix &
Arah Strategis
135
Memposisikan berbagai divisi organisasi dalam
9-sel berdasarkan analisa SWOT dengan weighted
scores (dari matriks EFE and IFE). Strategi yang dapat
ditempuh, adalah:
Grow and build (divisi pada sel 1, 2 or 4): market
penetration, market development, product development
or backward, forward and horizontal integration.
Hold and maintain (divisi pada sel 3, 5, 7): market
penetration or product development.
Harvest or divest (divisi pada cells 6, 8, 9): divest,
liquidate, or retrench.
GE Multifactor Portfolio
Matrix
Business Strengths
High
High
Low
Invest/Grow 1 Invest/Grow 2 Dominate/ 3
Strongly
Selectively
Delay/
(build)
(build)
divest
Invest/Grow 4
Medium Selectively
(build)
Earn/ 5
Protect
(hold)
Harvest/ 6
divest
Earn/ 7
Protect
(hold)
Harvest/ 8
divest
Harvest/ 9
divest
Low
136
Medium
ADL Portfolio Matrix
Industry Maturity (Attractiveness)
Embrionic
Dominant
Invest
Improve
137
Maintain
Harvest
Niche
Selective
Aging
Hold
Selective
Tenable
Weak
Mature
Consolidate
Strong
Favorable
Growing
Liquidate
Divest
Penggunaan ADL Matrix
ADL Matrix adalah matriks yang dibuat oleh
konsultan Arthur D. Little sebagai
penyempurnaan dari GE/McKinsey Matrix
Perbedaannya:
Pada ADL Matrix di-plotkan posisi daya saing
(competitive position) perusahaan terhadap tahaptahap siklus hidup (life cyclus dari produk, pasar,
dan industri.
Penggunaan ketiga matriks dalam proses
portofolio bisnis barangkali akan memberikan
hasil yang lebih baik.
138
Illustrasi: Analisa
Portofolio Internasional
Competitive Strengths
High
High
Medium
Low
139
Medium
Low
Dominate/
Divest/
Joint Venture
Invest/Grow
Selective
Strategies
Harvest/
Divest/
Combine/
License
Country’s
Attractiveness:
Market size,
Market rate of growth,
 Regulasi pemerintah,
Faktor ekonomi,
Politik, dll.
Product’s
Competitive
Strength:
 Market share,
Product fit,
Contribution margin,
Market support, dll.
Formulation Framework
TOWS Matrix
SPACE Matrix
Stage 2:
The Matching Stage
BCG Matrix
IE Matrix
Grand Strategy Matrix
140
INTERNAL EXTERNAL (IE) MATRIX
•
Matriks Internal-External adalah salah satu alat yang dapat digunakan untuk
memposisikan perusahaan kedalam matriks yang terdiri atas 9 sel, untuk menyusun
strategi perusahaan/grand strategy.
•
IE Matrix terdiri atas sumbu X yang menyatakan skor total dari IFE matrix (IFAS)
dan sumbu Y yang menyatakan skor total EFE matrix (EFAS)
•
Arti posisi internal pada sumbu X dan posisi eksternal pada sumbu Y adalah sebagai
berikut :
POSISI PADA SUMBU X
POSISI INTERNAL
LEMAH
POSISI INTERNAL
RATA-RATA
POSISI EXTERNAL
RENDAH
POSISI EXTERNAL
SEDANG
POSISI INTERNAL
KUAT
POSISI EXTERNAL
TINGGI
POSISI PADA SUMBU Y
141
9 SEL POSISI
MATRIKS INTERNAL-EKSTERNAL
POSISI I, II, IV
•
Posisi perusahaan yang menempati sel I, II & IV dapat digambarkan
sebagai GROW & BUILD. Strategi yang cocok untuk masing-masing posisi
sel ini adalah : Intensive (market penetration, market development &
product development) atau integration (backward integration, forward
integration, horizontal integration)
POSISI III, V, VII
•
Posisi yang menempati sel III, V & VII dapat digambarkan sebagai HOLD &
MAINTAIN. Strategi yang cocok untuk masing-masing posisi sel ini adalah
: Market penetration & product development.
POSISI VI, VIII, IX
•
142
Posisi perusahaan yang menempati sel VI, VIII & IX dapat menggunakan
strategi HARVEST or DIVESTITURE
9 SEL POSISI
MATRIKS INTERNAL-EKSTERNAL
SKOR TOTAL IFE/IFAS
4,0
KUAT
3,0
RATA-RATA 2,0 LEMAH
4,0
TINGGI
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
3,0
SKOR
TOTAL
EFE/
EFAS
RATA
RATA
2,0
RENDAH
1,0
143
1,0
IE MATRIX : AMAZON
The IFE Total Weighted Score
High
3.0 to 3.99
Strong
3.0 to 4.0
I
Average
2.0 to 2.99
II
Weak
1.0 to 1.99
III
1
3
2
The EFE
Total
Weighted
Score
144
Medium
2.0 to 2.99
IV
V
VI
Low
1.0 to 1.99
VII
VIII
IX
Segments
1. U. S. Books, Music-Dom
2. Early-Stage Businesses and
Other
3. International
Revenue
$1,700 million
683 million
EFE
2.5
3.5
IFE
1.9
2.5
381 million
3.6
2.5
Formulation Framework
TOWS Matrix
SPACE Matrix
Stage 2:
The Matching Stage
BCG Matrix
IE Matrix
Grand Strategy Matrix
145
Grand Strategy Matrix
•
Popular tool for formulating alternative
strategies
•
All organizations (or divisions) can be
positioned in one of four quadrants
•
Based on two evaluative dimensions:
Competitive position
– Market growth
–
146
RAPID MARKET GROWTH
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
WEAK
COMPETITIVE
POSITION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
147
Quadrant II
Market development
Market penetration
Product development
Horizontal integration
Divestiture
Liquidation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Quadrant III
Retrenchment
1.
Concentric diversification
2.
Horizontal diversification
3.
Conglomerate
diversification
4.
Liquidation
SLOW MARKET
Quadrant I
Market development
Market penetration
Product development
Forward integration
Backward integration
Horizontal integration
Concentric diversification
Quadrant IV
Concentric diversification
Horizontal diversification
Conglomerate
diversification
Joint ventures
GROWTH
STRONG
COMPETITIVE
POSITION
Grand Strategy Matrix
Quadrant I
Excellent strategic position
• Concentration on current markets and
products
• Take risks aggressively when necessary
•
148
Grand Strategy Matrix
Quadrant II
• Evaluate present approach seriously
• How to change to improve competitiveness
• Rapid market growth requires intensive
strategy
149
Grand Strategy Matrix
Quadrant III
•
•
•
•
150
Compete in slow-growth industries
Weak competitive position
Drastic changes quickly
Cost and asset reduction indicated
(retrenchment)
Grand Strategy Matrix
Quadrant IV
Strong competitive position
• Slow-growth industry
• Diversification indicated to more promising
growth areas
•
151
Grand Strategy Matrix : Amazon
RAPID MARKET
GROWTH
Quadrant II
Quadrant I
Amazon
WEAK
STRONG
COMPETITIVE
COMPETITIVE
POSITION
POSITION
Quadrant III
Quadrant IV
SLOW MARKET
GROWTH
152
Formulation Framework
Stage 3:
The Decision Stage
153
Quantitative Strategic
Planning Matrix
(QSPM)
QSPM
Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix
•
154
Only technique designed to determine the
relative attractiveness of feasible alternative
actions
QSPM
Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix
•
•
•
155
Tool for objective evaluation of
alternative strategies
Based on identified external and internal
crucial success factors
Requires good intuitive judgment
QSPM
Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix
156
•
List the firm’s key external opportunities &
threats; list the firm’s key internal strengths and
weaknesses
•
Assign weights to each external and internal
critical success factor
QSPM
Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix
157
•
Examine the Stage 2 (matching) matrices and
identify alternative strategies that the
organization should consider implementing
•
Determine the Attractiveness Scores (AS)
QSPM
Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix
158
•
Compute the total Attractiveness Scores
•
Compute the Sum Total Attractiveness
Score
QSPM
Strategic Alternatives
Key External Factors
Economy
Political/Legal/Governmental
Social/Cultural/Demographic/
Environmental
Technological
Competitive
Key Internal Factors
Management
Marketing
Finance/Accounting
Production/Operations
Research and Development
Computer Information
159Systems
Weight
Strategy 1
Strategy 2
Strategy 3
QSPM
Strategic Alternatives
Key Internal Factors
Strengths
Customer satisfaction
Copyright to One-click online shopping
Humanitarian efforts
Strong Research & Development
Exclusive agreements with Internet sites (Associates)
Ability to track customized interests through
customized home page
Formation of strategic alliances
Agreement with AOL
Weaknesses
Accumulated deficits/Anticipates further losses
Financial position
Slowing growth, core business-U.S. Books, & Music
Video
Lawsuit with Barnes & Noble over patent to 1 click
method
Class action suits filed by stockholders
Does not have a mission statement
SUBTOTAL
160
Weight
0.10
0.08
0.03
0.09
0.01
0.02
Enter into strategic
agreements
w/physical retailers
AS
TAS
4
0.40
2
0.02
-
Expand European
presence through
strategic alliances
AS
TAS
2
0.20
4
0.04
-
0.11
0.09
4
3
0.44
0.27
2
2
0.22
0.18
0.11
0.07
0.08
1
3
2
0.11
0.21
0.16
2
2
4
0.22
0.14
0.32
0.03
-
-
-
-
0.04
0.05
1.00
4
-
0.16
1.77
3
-
0.12
1.44
QSPM
Limitations:
161
•
Requires intuitive judgments and
educated assumptions
•
Only as good as the prerequisite inputs
QSPM
Positives:
162
•
Sets of strategies examined simultaneously or
sequentially
•
Requires the integration of pertinent external
and internal factors in the decision-making
process
Cultural Aspects of Strategy Choice
Culture:
•
163
The set of shared values, beliefs,
attitudes, customs, norms, personalities,
heroes, and heroines that describe a firm
Cultural Aspects of Strategy Choice
Culture:
•
164
Successful strategies depend on degree
of support from a firm’s culture
Politics of Strategy Choice
Politics in organizations:
•
•
•
165
Management hierarchy
Career aspirations
Allocation of scarce resources
Politics of Strategy Choice
Political tactics for strategists:
•
•
•
•
•
166
Equifinality
Satisfying
Generalization
Focus on Higher-Order Issues
Provide Political Access on Important Issues
Role of A Board of Directors
Duties and Responsibilities:
1.
2.
3.
4.
167
Control and oversight over management
Adherence to legal prescriptions
Consideration of stakeholder interests
Advancement of stockholders’ rights
Discussion
Nike vs Reebok
Kijang vs Kuda
Nokia vs Sony Ericson
What type’s of strategies?
Discussion
Pepsi vs Coke
Mc Donald vs KFC
Who will be winner?
This is the end of the PRESENTATION
Strategy Analysis and Choice
Ir. Erlinda Muslim, MEE
Nip. 19601028 198811 2001
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