Med Term: Muscular

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The Muscular System
Chapter 4
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Overview of Structures, Combining Forms,
and Functions of the Muscular System
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Muscles
• Primary Function
– Make body movement possible
– Hold body erect
– Move body fluids
– Produce body heat
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Muscles
• Related Word Parts (Combining Forms)
– my/o, myos/o
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Fascia
• Primary Function
– Cover, support, and separate muscles
• Related Word Parts (Combining Forms)
– fasci/o
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Tendons
• Primary Function
– Attach muscles to bones
• Related Word Parts (Combining Forms)
– ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
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Types of Muscle Tissue
Skeletal muscles:
• Attached to bones of the skeleton
• Make body motions possible
• Voluntary muscles
• Striated muscles
(continues)
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Types of Muscle Tissue
(continues)
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Types of Muscle Tissue
Smooth muscles:
• Located in walls of internal organs, blood
vessels, and ducts leading from glands
• Move and control the flow of fluids through
these structures
• Involuntary, unstriated, and visceral muscles
(continues)
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Types of Muscle Tissue
(continues)
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Types of Muscle Tissue
Myocardial Muscle
• Form the muscular walls of the heart
• Myocardium or cardiac muscle
(continues)
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Types of Muscle Tissue
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Muscle Contraction and Relaxation
• Muscle innervation: stimulation of a muscle by
an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve
• Neuromuscular: pertaining to the relationship
between a nerve and muscle
(continues)
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Muscle Contraction and Relaxation
• Antagonistic Muscle Pairs
– Contraction
– Relaxation
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Contrasting Muscle Motion
• Abduction: movement of a limb away from the
midline of the body
• Adduction: movement of a limb toward the
midline of the body
(continues)
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Contrasting Muscle Motion
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(continues)
Contrasting Muscle Motion
• Flexion: decreasing the angle between two
bones by bending a limb at a joint
• Extension: increasing the angle between two
bones or the straightening out of a limb
• Hyperextension: the extreme or overextension
of a limb or body part beyond its normal limit
(continues)
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Contrasting Muscle Motion
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Rotation and Circumduction
• Rotation: a circular movement around an axis
such as the shoulder joint
• Circumduction: the circular movement at the
far end of a limb
(continues)
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Rotation and Circumduction
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Supination and Pronation
• Supination: the act of rotating the arm or leg so
that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is
turned forward or upward
• Pronation: the act of rotating the arm or leg so
that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is
turned downward or backward
(continues)
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Supination and Pronation
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Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion
• Dorsiflexion: the movement that bends the foot
upward at the ankle
• Plantar flexion: the movement that bends the
foot downward at the ankle
(continues)
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Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion
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Key Word Parts and Definitions
• bi– twice, double, two
• -cele
– hernia, tumor, swelling
• dys– bad, difficult, or painful
• fasci/o
– fascia, fibrous band
(continues)
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Key Word Parts and Definitions
• fibr/o
– fibrous tissue, fiber
• -ia
– abnormal condition, disease, plural of -ium
• -ic
– pertaining to
• kines/o, kinesi/o
– movement
(continues)
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Key Word Parts and Definitions
• my/o
– muscle
• -plegia
– paralysis, stroke
• -rrhexis
– rupture
• tax/o
– coordination, order
(continues)
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Key Word Parts and Definitions
• ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
– tendon, stretch out, extend, strain
• ton/o
– tone, stretching, tension,
• tri– three
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Questions
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Question
The largest muscle in the human body is found
in the buttocks.
True or False?
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Answer
True. The gluteus maximus in the buttocks is the
largest muscle in the body.
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Question
How many muscles are required to raise
your eyebrows?
a. 15
b. 8
c. 30
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Answer
c. 30
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Question
Pronation is the act of rotating the arm so that
the palm of the hand is turned upward.
True or False?
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Answer
False. Supination is the act of rotating the arm
so that the palm of the hand is turned upward.
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Question
Singultus is the medical term for:
a. A facial tick
b. Hiccups
c. Cramps
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Answer
b. Hiccups
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Answers to Learning Exercises
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Chapter 4 Answers
Matching Word Parts 1
4.1. -ia
4.2. fasci/o
4.3. fibr/o
4.4. -cele
4.5. kines/o, kinesi/o
4.6. tax/o
4.7. my/o
4.8. -rrhexis
4.9. tend/o
4.10. ton/o
Matching Muscle
Directions and Positions
4.11. transverse
4.12. sphincter
4.13. oblique
4.14. rectus
4.15. lateralis
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Chapter 4 Answers
Definitions
4.16. skeletal
4.17. heel spur
4.18. supination
4.19. bradykinesia
4.20. physiatrist
4.21. myofascial
4.22. tendon
4.23. adhesion
Definitions
4.24. paraplegia
4.25. tenodesis
4.26. myocardial
4.27. gluteus maximus
4.28. tendon
4.29. deltoid
4.30. sphincter
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Chapter 4 Answers
Which Word?
4.31. strain
4.32. neuromuscular blocker
4.33. dystonia
4.34. impingement syndrome
4.35. deltoid
Spelling Counts
4.36. antispasmodic
4.37. singultus
4.38. gravis
4.39. ganglion
4.40. pronation
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Chapter 4 Answers
Abbreviation Identification
4.41. carpal tunnel syndrome
4.42. deep tendon reflexes
4.43. range of motion
4.44. repetitive stress
disorder
4.45. spinal cord injury
Term Selection
4.46. myorrhexis
4.47. myolysis
4.48. hyperkinesia
4.49. hamstring
4.50. myofascial release
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Chapter 4 Answers
Sentence Completion
4.51. epicondylitis
4.52. flexion
4.53. intermittent claudication
4.54. myoparesis
4.55. spasmodic torticollis
Word Surgery
4.56. electr/o, my/o, -graphy
4.57. hyper-, kines, -ia
4.58. my/o, clon, -us
4.59. poly-, myos, -itis
4.60. sarc/o, -penia
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Chapter 4 Answers
True/False
4.61. True
4.62. False
4.63. True
4.64. False
4.65. False
Clinical Conditions
4.66. ganglion cyst
4.67. myocele
4.68. atrophy
4.69. hypotonia
4.70. chronic fatigue
4.71. Achilles tendinitis
4.72. myalgia
4.73. shin splint
4.74. quadriplegia
4.75. hemiparesis
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Chapter 4 Answers
Which Is the Correct Medical
Term?
4.76. dystrophy
4.77. carpal tunnel release
4.78. adduction
4.79. myotomy
4.80. dorsiflexion
Challenge Word Building
4.81. myopathy
4.82. polymyalgia
4.83. myonecrosis
4.84. fasciorrhaphy
4.85. polymyectomy
4.86. fasciodesis
4.87. myocarditis
4.88. fasciectomy
4.89. herniorrhaphy
4.90. sphincterotomy
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Chapter 4 Answers
Labeling Exercises
4.91. flexion
4.92. extension
4.93. abduction
4.94. adduction
4.95. pronation
4.96. supination
4.97. dorsiflexion
4.98. plantar flexion
4.99. circumduction
4.100. rotation
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