Low Stress Cattle Handling - The Agricultural Health and Safety

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Low Stress Cattle Handling
Outline
Background
Animal science research
Understanding
cattle behaviour
Moving cattle
Special hazards
A word about bulls
Livestock facilities
Conclusion
2
Background
Livestock related
deaths and injuries are
a major problem.
20% of all farm
injuries serious enough
to need hospitalization
are livestock related.
__ Canadians died in
work-related livestock
incidents between
1990 and 2000.
Hospitalized Livestock Injuries
21%
46%
Horses
Cows
33%
Other
3
Animal Science Research
Dr. Temple Grandin, an
animal science researcher
at Colorado State
University, developed low
stress livestock handling
theory in the 1980’s.
Alberta rancher Bud
Williams turned theory
into practice and
became the world’s
leading cattle handling
expert in the 1990’s.
Today, many trainers,
offer classes in low
stress livestock
handling.
4
Animal Science Research
Dr. Temple Grandin
also showed that low
stress cattle handling
improves productivity.
 Faster weight gain
 More milk in dairy
cows
 Less disease and
injury
5
Understanding cattle behaviour
Sensory characteristics
Sight:
 Poor depth perception:
Cattle need time to adjust to
changes in lighting, flooring etc.
 Blind spot and kick zone
Hearing:
 Sensitive hearing:
Cattle are agitated by shouting,
barking dogs and any sudden noise.
6
Understanding cattle behaviour
Blind spot and kick
zone
 All grazing animals have
wide-angle vision but
can’t see behind
themselves.
 Nature’s way of
protecting the blind
spot is for the animal to
kick into that space.
7
Understanding cattle behaviour
Temperament
 Animal personality =
genetics + life
experience.
 Forehead whorl can
help identify
temperament.
 Proper handling and
selective culling
create a manageable
herd.
 Signs of aggression
include:
• Quick, erratic
movements
• Raised, flicking tail
Pawing the ground
• Turning sideways
• Raised ears
• Snorting
8
Understanding cattle behaviour
Instincts:
 Herding instinct
 Follow the leader
instinct
 Maternal instinct
 Territorial instinct
 Habitual instinct:
“enjoy routine”
9
Understanding cattle behaviour
Flight zone
 Corresponds to the animal’s
personal space.
 To locate edge of flight
zone, approach animal and
note when it starts to move
away in opposite direction.
 Deep invasion causes fear
and agitation.
 Size of flight zone
diminishes with frequent,
gentle handling.
10
Understanding cattle behaviour
Point of balance
 Is at the animal’s
shoulder or chest area.
 Cow will move in the
opposite direction to
the direction the
handler is moving as
the handler passes the
cow’s point of balance.
11
General rules:
Moving cattle
 Work with another
person.
 Avoid quick movements
and loud noises.
 Respect the size of the
animal.
 Plan an escape route.
 Avoid leading cattle into
an enclosed area (eg:
truck) without an escape
route.
 Don’t wrap or tie a lead
rope to yourself.
 Remove distractions
before moving cattle.
12
Moving cattle
More general rules:
 Stand beside a gate, not
behind it.
 Avoid electric prods and
physical force. A stick
with bells or plastic
ribbons alerts cattle
where you are.
 Dress appropriately:
• Leather gloves
• Steel-toed boots with
metatarsal guards
• Rubber gloves if
animal is ill or injured
13
Moving cattle
To initiate
movement:
 Apply gentle pressure at
the edge of the flight
zone
 Do not continue to
pressure the animal once
it is moving away from
you.
 Don’t push an animal to
move if it has no place to
go.
14
Moving cattle
To get an animal to
move forward
(or backward):
 Walk past the animal in the
direction opposite to the
direction you want the
animal to move.
 As you cross the animals
point of balance, it will
begin moving forward (or
backward).
15
Moving a herd
To drive a herd:
 Pace or ride back and
forth behind the
group at a 90* angle
to the direction you
want it to move.
 Keep this up as the
cattle move forward.
16
Special hazards
Separation from the
herd
 May cause anxiety and
unpredictable behaviour
New situations
 May cause anxiety and
unpredictable behaviour.
 Cattle form a lasting
impression of painful or
frightening events – may
result in future handling
problems.
Illness or injury
 May cause unpredictable
behaviour.
 Kick toward injured side.
Calving
 Cows can be aggressive
when protecting their
young.
17
A word about bulls
Everyone knows bulls
are dangerous – but,
just how dangerous
are they?
 Bull attacks account for
over 40% of all
livestock fatalities on
Canadian farms and
ranches.
 Only 1 in 20 victims
survives a bull attack.
18
Bulls, cont’d.
Most bull attacks occur
in stockyards or open
fields – not in barns.
Bulls have a “pecking
order” and may bolt to
avoid a more dominant
bull.
Mating season is a highrisk time for bull
attacks.
Safety tips:
1.
Avoid unnecessary
exposure to bulls.
2. Work with another
person.
3. Be aware of a bull’s
position at all times.
4. Know your escape route.
19
Livestock facilities
Keep facilities in good
repair
Provide adequate lighting –
shadows can spook an
animal.
Make sure floors, chutes
and ramps have non-slip
footing and keep floors
dry.
Don’t fill holding pens more
than ½ to ¾ full for easy
movement and sorting.
20
Livestock facilities
Make ramp slopes
gradual.
Keep chutes narrow
enough cattle can’t turn
around.
Curved chutes encourage
cattle to move forward.
Consider investing in
devices that reduce
stress for cattle and
handler, such as back-up
restraints.
21
Conclusion
Low stress cattle handling is:
 Safe
 Enjoyable
 Productive
 Humane
22
Other Resources
I.ARE.H “Low Stress
Cattle Handling” video
“Livestock Handling
Safety” press kit from
Canadian Federation of
Agriculture
Safe Animal Handling
CD-ROM, available from
B.C.4-H
“Leading the Way” video,
available from MB 4-H.
NAGCAT Guidelines
“Animal Care” Best
Practices Booklet
23
Program Partners
Institute of Agricultural Rural and Environmental
Health (I.ARE.H)
– University of Saskatchewan
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Canadian Agricultural Safety Association
24
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