Developing Building Energy Use Intensity Benchmarks for Standard

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Developing Building Energy
Use Intensity Benchmarks for
Standard 100 Energy Targets
Terry Sharp, PE, CEM
Building Technologies Research & Integration Center
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
865-574-3559
[email protected]
www.ornl.gov
Developing Building Energy Use Intensity
Benchmarks for Standard 100 Energy Targets
June 27, 2010
Presentation Topics
• Current needs for existing buildings energy
performance benchmarks and targets
• Strengths and weaknesses of two
development approaches
• An integrated synergistic approach
• Benchmark results
NOTE: All results shown in this presentation are preliminary.
Existing Buildings Energy Performance
Baselines and Targets Are Needed For:
• ASHRAE Energy Performance Standard
– ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 100-2006 Revision,
Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings
– Need: Benchmark and Targets
• Energy Use Reductions in Federal Buildings
– Energy Independence & Security Act (EISA 2007)
– Need: Benchmark (based on CBECS 2003)
– Targets Established (percent below benchmark)
Option 1: Benchmark Via Commercial Buildings
Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS 2003)
• Strengths:
– National survey of U.S. buildings
– 5215 observations
– 51 building types
•
•
•
•
•
6 Office
5 Education
5 Services
5 Assembly
4 Food sales
4 Lodging
3 Restaurant
3 Retail
Balance: health care, public order, malls, warehouse, etc.
– 5 climate zones
– Real buildings, real energy use data
Option 1: Benchmark Via Commercial Buildings
Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS 2003)
• Weaknesses:
– Need to split observations for 51 building types
across 5 climate zones
– Statistical stability decreases proportional to splits
• Low observation counts occur for many building types
in many climate zones -- decreased reliability
• CBECS sampling weights amplify instabilities
Baseline Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)
Developed From CBECS 2003
Large changes in zonal EUIs
CBECS Building Type
Admin/mixed office
Bank/other financial
Government office
Medical Office
Other office
Laboratory
Distribution
Warehouse
Self-storage
Grocery store
Fire/police station
Other public order
Outpatient health
EUI (source kBtu/sqft-yr)
CBECS Climate Zone
1
2
4
5
134
160
151
159
224
241
303
264
157
196
148
164
177
116
83
111
168
146
62
158
422
781
456
665
90
86
62
48
42
31
31
56
24
18
22
24
531
493
548
600
112
124
108
176
308
148
421
248
185
163
137
287
Change (%)
Zones
1-2
4-5
19
6
8
-13
25
11
-35
34
-13
153
85
46
-5
-22
-27
81
-25
8
-7
10
11
62
-52
-41
-12
110
Small observation counts
Observations
Climate Zone
1
2
4
5
101 184 162 107
12
23
12
7
28
31
24
17
13
21
15
14
13
7
11
10
7
17
10
2
37
46
60
49
31
43
27
24
5
5
12
15
30
30
33
16
10
16
9
3
9
11
7
5
17
29
18
14
Option 2: Benchmark Via Simulation Results
From Dept. of Energy Benchmark Buildings
• Strengths:
– Results readily available
– Proto-typical buildings of different types
– Modeling performed across ASHRAE’s 15 U.S.
climate zones (ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007)
– Building models well accepted for R&D purposes
– Stable predictions
Climate Zones for Benchmark Buildings
Energy Use Intensities for Benchmark
Buildings by Climate Zone
Houston
Phoenix
Atlanta
Los Angeles
Las Vegas
San Francisco
Baltimore
Albuquerque
Seattle
Chicago
Denver
Minneapolis
Helena
Duluth
Fairbanks
Building Type
Medium Office
Warehouse
Stand-alone Retail
Strip Mall
Primary School
Secondary School
Supermarket
Fast Food
Restaurant
Hospital
Outpatient
Motel
Hotel
Mid-Rise Apartmt
Miami
City & Climate
Zone
DOE/NREL Benchmarks from Simulations (total site EUI in kBtu/sqft)
1A
39
30
62
56
57
56
158
535
404
145
280
70
99
39
2A
42
19
62
58
57
57
167
549
423
147
279
69
108
39
2B
40
19
60
57
55
55
159
538
409
138
278
68
100
38
3A
41
18
61
62
55
57
170
561
440
142
274
68
116
38
3B
33
14
44
44
46
42
153
496
374
137
254
63
105
31
3B
37
18
56
57
52
53
158
541
417
135
277
66
105
36
3C
38
15
50
53
51
50
166
524
415
76
240
64
101
33
4A
45
21
72
74
61
68
184
609
488
148
278
71
127
42
4B
38
20
61
64
54
58
168
566
446
127
274
68
119
37
4C
42
18
65
69
54
61
180
575
467
139
247
66
124
38
5A
48
24
81
85
65
76
195
657
527
148
271
74
138
47
5B
41
23
69
72
58
64
179
604
481
130
271
70
130
41
6A
54
29
93
99
75
89
208
713
570
153
280
79
150
54
6B
50
27
83
89
66
77
197
662
532
137
275
74
144
48
7
57
33
104
111
79
97
223
765
617
155
279
83
163
59
8
77
52
145
156
113
141
266
949
763
185
324
99
196
76
Option 2: Benchmark Via Simulation Results
From Dept. of Energy Benchmark Buildings
• Weaknesses:
– One building represents population
– One city represents a climate zone
– Limited building types
– Simulated values = real building values?
Option 3: The Integrated Approach
• Derive CBECS national median EUIs
– Provides real building basis
– Retains large sample sizes
• Derive ratios of zonal to national average EUIs
from building simulations (Department of
Energy benchmark buildings)
• Use ratios to proportion the CBECS national
medians to the 15 ASHRAE climate zones
CBECS – National Median Energy Use Intensities
by Building Type (kBtu/sqft-yr)
Building Type
Administrative office
Bank/other financial
Government office
Medical office (non-diagnostic)
Mixed-use office
Other office
Laboratory
Distribution/shipping center
Non-refrigerated warehouse
Convenience store
Convenience store + gas
Grocery store/food market
Other food sales
Fire station/police station
Other public order and safety
Medical office (diagnostic)
Clinic/other outpatient health
Refrigerated warehouse
Religious worship
Entertainment/culture
Library
Recreation
Social/meeting
Other public assembly
Mobile Home
Single-family detached
Single-family attached
2003 CBECS
National
Median
EUI
Building Type
61
College/university
87
Elementary/middle school
77
High school
52
Preschool/daycare
71
Other classroom education
59
Fast food
266
Restaurant/cafeteria
34
Other food service
16
Hospital/inpatient health
232
Nursing home/assisted living
187
Dormitory/fraternity/sorority
193
Hotel
58
Motel or inn
98
Other lodging
89
Vehicle dealership/showroom
44
Retail store
67
Other retail
103
Post office/postal center
35
Repair shop
35
Vehicle service/repair shop
92
Vehicle storage/maintenance
40
Other service
41
Strip shopping mall
42
Enclosed mall
2005 RECS
66
Apartments in 2-4 unit buildings
44
Apartments in 5+ unit buildings
50
National
Median
EUI
97
55
71
71
40
419
229
125
199
126
74
76
74
71
82
47
82
64
43
49
21
90
94
90
76
54
Benchmark Buildings: Ratios of Zonal
to Average EUIs by Building Type
Benchmark Building
Medium Office
Warehouse
Stand-alone Retail
Strip Mall
Primary School
Secondary School
Supermarket
Fast Food
Restaurant
Hospital
Outpatient health
Motel
Hotel
Mid-Rise Apartment
1A
0.92
1.44
0.90
0.83
0.98
0.87
0.87
0.91
0.86
1.00
1.03
0.95
0.81
0.95
Ratios of climate zone EUI to average of all zonal EUIs by building type (site basis)
ASHRAE Climate Zone
2A
2B
3A
3B
3B
3C
4A
4B
4C
5A
5B
6A
6B
7
0.98 0.94 0.95 0.77 0.87 0.89 1.06 0.90 0.98 1.11 0.96 1.26 1.11 1.32
0.92 0.95 0.90 0.70 0.87 0.75 1.02 0.96 0.90 1.19 1.11 1.42 1.30 1.63
0.90 0.87 0.89 0.64 0.80 0.71 1.04 0.88 0.94 1.17 0.99 1.35 1.20 1.50
0.87 0.85 0.93 0.66 0.85 0.79 1.11 0.95 1.03 1.26 1.08 1.47 1.33 1.65
0.97 0.94 0.94 0.78 0.89 0.87 1.04 0.93 0.92 1.12 0.99 1.27 1.12 1.35
0.89 0.86 0.89 0.65 0.83 0.77 1.06 0.89 0.95 1.17 0.99 1.38 1.19 1.51
0.93 0.88 0.94 0.84 0.88 0.92 1.02 0.93 1.00 1.08 0.99 1.15 1.09 1.23
0.93 0.91 0.95 0.84 0.92 0.89 1.03 0.96 0.97 1.11 1.02 1.21 1.12 1.30
0.90 0.87 0.94 0.80 0.89 0.88 1.04 0.95 1.00 1.12 1.02 1.22 1.13 1.31
1.02 0.96 0.98 0.95 0.94 0.98 1.02 0.88 0.96 1.02 0.90 1.06 0.95 1.07
1.02 1.02 1.00 0.93 1.02 0.88 1.02 1.00 0.91 0.99 0.99 1.03 1.01 1.02
0.95 0.93 0.95 0.83 0.91 0.86 1.01 0.94 0.93 1.07 0.99 1.17 1.07 1.24
0.89 0.82 0.95 0.86 0.87 0.92 1.05 0.98 1.02 1.14 1.07 1.23 1.18 1.34
0.95 0.93 0.94 0.77 0.89 0.80 1.04 0.92 0.94 1.16 1.02 1.34 1.19 1.46
8
1.79
2.55
2.10
2.33
1.92
2.19
1.47
1.61
1.63
1.28
1.19
1.51
1.61
1.87
Draft Commercial and Residential Building
Energy Performance Benchmarks Based on
Integrated Development Approach (kBtu/ft2-yr)
CBECS
CBECS Estimated Zonal Site EUIs by Building Type (kBtu/sf-yr)
Median
ASHRAE Climate Zone
1A 2A 2B 3A 3B 3B 3C 4A 4B 4C 5A 5B 6A 6B
Building Type
EUI
Admin office
61
57 58 56 55 46 51 50 61 53 56 66 57 73 64
Bank
87
80 83 80 79 65 73 71 87 75 79 93 81 103 92
Govt office
77
71 73 70 69 57 64 63 76 66 70 82 71 91 80
Medical office
52
48 50 48 47 39 44 43 52 45 48 56 48 62 55
Mixed-use office
71
65 68 65 64 53 59 58 71 61 65 76 66 84 75
Other office
59
55 56 55 53 44 49 48 59 51 54 64 55 70 62
Warehouse
16
24 15 16 15 12 14 12 17 16 15 20 18 23 21
Convenience store
232
202 214 203 218 196 203 213 235 216 231 249 230 266 252
Convenience store+gas
187
163 173 164 176 158 163 172 189 174 186 201 185 215 203
Grocery store
193
168 179 170 182 163 169 178 196 180 193 208 192 222 210
Other food sales
58
51 54 51 55 49 51 54 59 54 58 63 58 67 64
RECS
RECS Estimated Zonal Site EUIs by Building Type (kBtu/sf-yr)
Median
ASHRAE Climate Zone
1A 2A 2B 3A 3B 3B 3C 4A 4B 4C 5A 5B 6A 6B
Building Type
EUI
Mobile home
66
63 63 61 62 51 59 53 69 61 62 77 67 89 79
SF-detached
44
42 42 41 41 34 39 35 46 41 41 51 45 59 52
SF-attached
50
47 48 46 47 38 44 40 52 46 47 58 51 67 59
Aptmt-in 2-4 unit
76
72 72 70 71 58 67 61 79 70 71 88 77 102 90
Aptmt in 5+ unit
54
51 51 50 50 41 47 43 56 49 50 62 55 72 64
Note: Results shown for 11 commercial building types due to limited space.
7
76
108
95
65
88
74
27
285
230
238
72
8
103
147
129
88
119
100
42
341
275
284
86
7
8
96 124
64 82
73 93
111 142
78 100
Zonal EUI = CBECS/RECS National Median EUI x Zonal Ratio
Summary
• Integrated approach combines strengths of
different options
• Approach produces regional benchmarks
(leading to energy targets)
• Provides results for both commercial and
residential buildings
• Process is straight-forward
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