Tennessee Master Meat Goat Producer Business and Financial Planning and Management for Meat Goat Operations John Campbell Rob Holland Aaron Robinson Teaching Objectives Producers will learn basic principles of business planning Producers will learn the importance of farm records and how to use them for making management decisions Producers will learn types of business risk and how planning and management can reduce such risk Teaching Objectives Producers will learn the value of developing farm financial plans and utilizing enterprise budgets in decision-making. Producers will learn how herd performance measures are calculated and how these measures can be used as a basis for making improvements in both production and financial management Business and Management Planning Successful business requires solid business planning and management Most successful businesses have some type of business management plan Goat producers should make overall business planning a routine part of the management of their enterprise Mission, Goals & Tactics The mission should clearly state why you have the enterprise and how raising meat goats fits with your personal and professional priorities Goals for meat goat enterprises should be concise statements that describe certain performance measures which, once achieved, will help meet the overall mission of the enterprises Tactics are the production and management activities that must be performed to run the enterprise and meet the goals Mission Refer to Chapter 2, Page 2 in manual ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Mission, Goals & Tactics The mission should clearly state why you have the enterprise and how raising meat goats fits with your personal and professional priorities Goals for meat goat enterprises should be concise statements that describe certain performance measures which, once achieved, will help meet the overall mission of the enterprises Tactics are the production and management activities that must be performed to run the enterprise and meet the goals S. M. A. R. T. Goals Specific - - goals should be well-written, concise, straightforward and definitive Measurable - - goals should be measured in quantitative terms so progress can be monitored Attainable - - goals must be achievable and not in conflict with other goals Rewarding - - the achievement of a goal should be rewarding in some way Timed - - goals should have a time limit for achievement Goals Refer to Chapter 2, Page 3 in manual Increase kid crop percentage by 20% in 2 years ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Mission, Goals & Tactics The mission should clearly state why you have the enterprise and how raising meat goats fits with your personal and professional priorities Goals for meat goat enterprises should be concise statements that describe certain performance measures which, once achieved, will help meet the overall mission of the enterprises Tactics are the production and management activities that must be performed to run the enterprise and meet the goals Tactics Refer to Chapter 2, Page 3 in manual Analyze forage and grain for nutrient levels ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Business Plan Proper identification and written descriptions of a mission, goals and tactics for a meat goat enterprise will provide a strong foundation for the development of a complete business plan A business plan provides a structure that guides the business planning and on-going business management process Business Plan A written business plan is a tool that describes and defines the many details of a meat goat enterprise Development of a business plan should be a basic management practice for goat producers A business plan does not have to be long nor expensive, but it does require an investment of time and attention Business Plan Format Overall description of the business Management overview Description of the products planned to market Market analysis and development of marketing strategies Financial plan Tax returns, legal documents, contracts and agreements Obtaining Financing Insufficient planning and lack of capital are the most frequently cited reasons that businesses fail Whether you are starting or expanding a goat enterprise, sufficient capital is essential But knowledge and planning are required to manage capital well Significant start-up costs can make the early days (and years) of a new enterprise stressful Funding the Enterprise Comes from either one or a combination of two primary sources Equity Debt Equity The owner’s contribution to the start up of the enterprise Money that stays in the business and does not have a definite repayment schedule Critical component of an enterprise that is in need of additional funds Debt Debt funding (or a loan) is critical for enterprises that do not have sufficient equity to finance the business needs Loans are generally set-up with a fixed payment schedule Lenders may require that equity represent 25 to 50 percent of the total start-up costs for a new business Loans Generally obtained from commercial banks, government agencies or some other third party that sets a specific repayment schedule Secured or non-secured Non-secured loans are based entirely on the borrower’s financial strength and past performance Secured loans require that assets be used as collateral to secure the loan Where do you get the money? Sources of Start-Up Capital for Starting a New Business Venture Personal Resources Commercial Lending Friends & Relatives Other Sources Outside Investors Government Agencies 60% 23% 9% 4% 3% 1% Five C’s of Credit Character Capacity Collateral Conditions Capital See manual for additional details. “Keeping records and preparing budgets is about as exciting as watching paint dry.” Rosemary Harter, Illinois farm wife who helped save the farm by improving records and developing marketing plans. Farm Financial Record-Keeping Effective management of a farming operation today requires that records be kept so managers can make informed decisions affecting the profitability of their farms Farm business decisions that are not based on accurate farm records may lead to less profit Why keep records? Proof Decision-aids Institutional requirements Environmental regulations Record Tips Selecting a record-keeping system should depend on the expected use of the records; no "best" system Record systems should emphasize decision making, not tax preparation Regularly and accurately post transactions Make all financial transactions through checking account; reconcile checkbook with records Whole Farm Record System INCOME Date Description Kids 10/1 Sold 20 kids @ 65 lbs/hd $1,300 10/1 10/3 Cull Does Corn Purchased feed (1 ton) Sold 2 does @ 75 lbs/hd 10/6 Purchased supplies 10/8 Purchased 1500 gals of diesel 10/11 EXPENSE Sold 2000 bu of corn Feed Supplies Fuel $165 $105 $165 $3,900 $4,600 Enterprise Record System INCOME Date Description Kids 10/1 Sold 20 kids @ 65 lbs/hd $1,300 10/1 Purchased feed (1 ton) 10/3 Sold 2 does @ 75 lbs/hd 10/6 Purchased supplies 10/8 Purchased 1500 gals of diesel 10/11 Sold 2000 bu of corn EXPENSE Cull Does Corn Feed ENTERPRISES Supplies Fuel Breeding Goats Corn Income Income Expense Expense $1,300 $165 $165 $105 $105 $165 $3,900 $4,600 $125 $40 $150 $3,750 $4,600 Contain all the income and expenses associated with a single enterprise. Enterprise Record System INCOME Date Description Kids 10/1 Sold 20 kids @ 65 lbs/hd $1,300 10/1 Purchased feed (1 ton) 10/3 Sold 2 does @ 75 lbs/hd 10/6 Purchased supplies 10/8 Purchased 1500 gals of diesel 10/11 Sold 2000 bu of corn EXPENSE Cull Does Corn Feed ENTERPRISES Supplies Fuel Breeding Goats Corn Income Income Expense Expense $1,300 $165 $165 $105 $105 $165 $3,900 $125 $40 $150 $3,750 $4,600 An enterprise can be any crop or type of livestock produced on the farm. $4,600 Enterprise Record System INCOME Date Description Kids 10/1 Sold 20 kids @ 65 lbs/hd $1,300 10/1 Purchased feed (1 ton) 10/3 Sold 2 does @ 75 lbs/hd 10/6 Purchased supplies 10/8 Purchased 1500 gals of diesel 10/11 Sold 2000 bu of corn EXPENSE Cull Does Corn Feed ENTERPRISES Supplies Fuel Breeding Goats Corn Income Income Expense Expense $1,300 $165 $165 $105 $105 $165 $3,900 $4,600 $125 $40 $150 $3,750 $4,600 Should contain all cash income and direct cash expenses for that particular enterprise. Enterprise Record System INCOME Date Description Kids 10/1 Sold 20 kids @ 65 lbs/hd $1,300 10/1 Purchased feed (1 ton) 10/3 Sold 2 does @ 75 lbs/hd 10/6 Purchased supplies 10/8 Purchased 1500 gals of diesel 10/11 Sold 2000 bu of corn EXPENSE Cull Does Corn Feed ENTERPRISES Supplies Fuel Breeding Goats Corn Income Income Expense Expense $1,300 $165 $165 $105 $105 $165 $3,900 $4,600 $125 $40 $150 $3,750 $4,600 In-direct enterprise expenses are more difficult to assign. Types of Expenses Direct Goat feed Goat medicine Auction fees Trucking Seed Fertilizer Lime In-direct Fuel Repairs Labor Insurance Utilities Rent Uses of Enterprise Records Compare the profitability of different enterprises Developing enterprise budgets or Sales Records Estimating income from sales is an important aspect of overall management Income estimates are almost always more accurate when there is historical information on which to base projections The dollar amount of sales may not tell a farm manager much about what was really sold Information in Sales Records Date Description of animal/animals sold Number sold Weight (if sold by pound) Price Sale expenses Market name/buyer Whole Herd Sales Record Date Description No. Head Total Weight Price Per Unit Price Unit Gross Sales 4-15 Kids 2 100 125.00 Cwt 125.00 5-2 Cull Doe 1 70 71.75 Cwt 50.23 6-24 Breeding Doe 1 90.00 Head 90.00 8-20 Kids 25 115.00 Cwt 1868.75 1625 Sale Costs 7.00 175.00 Net Sales Buyer/Market 113.00 John Jones 43.23 TLP 90.00 Lazy G Farm 1693.75 TLP Kid Sales Record Price No. Total Per Date Description Head Weight Unit Price Gross Unit Sales 4-15 Kids 2 100 125.00 Cwt 125.00 8-20 Kids 25 1625 115.00 Cwt 1868.75 175.00 1693.75 TLP Sale Cost Net Sales Buyer/Market 113.00 John Jones Cull Breeding Stock Sales Record Price No. Total Per Date Description Head Weight Unit Price Gross Sale Net Unit Sales Cost Sales Buyer/Market 5-2 Cwt Cull Doe 1 70 71.75 50.23 7.00 43.23 TLP Breeding Stock Sales Record Date Description No. Total Head Weight Price Per Unit Price Gross Unit Sales 6-24 Breeding Doe 1 90.00 Head 90.00 Sale Cost Net Sales Buyer/ Market 90.00 Lazy G Farm Assessing Risk Agricultural enterprises are subject to both price and production risk Higher returns are generally consistent with higher levels of risk Goal is to manage risk and reduce risk to an acceptable level Can not completely eliminate all risk What are some types of risk? ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ What are some types of risk? Types of Risk Production and yield risk Market and price risk Business and financial risk Technology and obsolescence Casualty loss risk Social and legal risk Human risk Developing Farm Plans An outline of the proposed operation of the farm business Indicates what to produce, how much to produce and how to produce it Two types of farm plans Long-run plan Short-run plan Long-run Plans Estimate of the resource allocation that is likely to yield greatest net returns over a period of years Based on family goals Shows the changes in farm business organization that must take place to attain those goals Revise if technology or input or output prices change materially Short-run (Annual) Plans Made to fit the individual year Implements the transition from the present farming system to the proposed long-run plan Intensive Planning Long-run and short-run farm plans must be flexible if they are to be realistic and serve the purpose for which they are intended UT Extension’s MANAGE Program assists in developing farm plans Helps producers understand their financial situation and make informed decisions Answers to these questions Where am I? Where do I want to be? How do I get there? Addresses Major Financial Objectives Profitability – ability to generate net income Liquidity – provide cash when needed Solvency – financial growth and security Intensive Planning Tools Long-range Planning - compares alternative farm plans Cash Flow Planning - projects farm cash flows monthly or annually for up to ten years Year-End Analysis - analyzes financial performance of a farm business in the past year; generates a historical data base Enterprise Budgets Estimate of projected income and expenses associated with the production of a commodity Analyze the effects of changes within the operation Determine which commodity is contributing to profitability and which commodity is losing money Enterprise Budgets Usually based on some production unit such as one breeding doe or one acre of a specific crop Either historical or projected Historical enterprise budgets are created using actual income and expense information Projected enterprise budgets attempt to estimate income and expenses in the future Enterprise Budgets If the budget is for a new enterprise, research on expected income and expenses should be the basis of the budget Estimates of changing costs or income should be conservative Variable Costs (Expenses) Directly tied to the enterprise and can be changed in the short-run Feed Health Marketing Fertilizer Shown as per unit rate Fixed Costs (Expenses) Committed to pay regardless of whether livestock is raised during the current planning period Depreciation and insurance on machinery, equipment and buildings Interest on machinery, equipment, buildings and land Property taxes Recovering Costs Both fixed and variable costs are considered when deciding whether to continue production In the short run, the producer should stay in production if it appears that revenue will at least cover variable costs All costs must be recovered over time Budgeting for Kid Production Estimates goat sales and economic costs and returns Includes interest expenses for resources used in the goat enterprise Assumes existing land resources are used Producers should use their own information when available Personalized adjustments should be made as needed Kidding Production Budget Page 20 in manual Table 8 Herd Assumptions For Budget 50 Does 1 Buck 150% kid crop 10 doe kids held for replacements 20% does replaced each year Sell 9 cull does; assume 1 dies Revenue Sales of kids Sales of cull does Variable Expenses Hay – 3.5 lbs./day for does & buck for 120 days Corn Kids – 1 lb./day for 120 days Does – ½ lb./day for 90 days Pasture – 3.3 does/acre Salt & Minerals Variable Expenses Veterinary & Medicine Marketing Hauling Machinery Operating Interest Depreciation & Repairs (Fixed) Table 9 Buildings & equipment Fences Machinery Buck (depreciation only) Interest Expenses Reflect the fact that capital invested is costly, regardless of its source Borrowed capital entails a cash interest charge for repayment to lenders Capital provided by the owner results in a non-cash opportunity cost Capital could have been invested elsewhere and earned interest Interest Expenses Does & Buck Buildings & Equipment Fences Machinery Labor Expenses Reflect the cost of hired and/or owner labor Owner provided labor is a non-cash opportunity cost for earnings foregone if time spent on another paying job or enterprise Hired labor is cash expense Kidding Sensitivity Table 10Production & Price Price Per Cwt. 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 1.2 -1211.28 -1048.78 -886.28 -723.78 -561.28 -398.78 -236.28 1.3 -990.35 -811.60 -632.85 -454.10 -275.35 -96.60 82.15 Kids Weaned Per Doe 1.4 1.5 -769.41 -548.47 -574.41 -337.22 -379.41 -125.97 -184.41 85.28 10.59 296.53 205.59 507.78 400.59 719.03 1.6 -327.53 -100.03 127.47 354.97 582.47 809.97 1037.47 1.7 -106.60 137.15 380.90 624.65 868.40 1112.15 1355.90 1.8 114.34 374.34 634.34 894.34 1154.34 1414.34 1674.34 Kidding Sensitivity Table 11Production & Market Weight Market Weight 56.00 59.00 62.00 65.00 68.00 71.00 74.00 1.2 -1173.78 -1023.78 -873.78 -723.78 -573.78 -423.78 -273.78 1.3 -949.10 -784.10 -619.10 -454.10 -289.10 -124.10 40.90 Kids Weaned Per Doe 1.4 1.5 -724.41 -499.72 -544.41 -304.72 -364.41 -109.72 -184.41 85.28 -4.41 280.28 175.59 475.28 355.59 670.28 1.6 -275.03 -65.03 144.97 354.97 564.97 774.97 984.97 1.7 -50.35 174.65 399.65 624.65 849.65 1074.65 1299.65 1.8 174.34 414.34 654.34 894.34 1134.34 1374.34 1614.34 Personalize Budget The basis for many decisions depends on an estimate of annual enterprise costs and returns This budget is intended only for a guide Producers should use their own information when available Personalized adjustments to this budget should be made as needed The "your farm" column should be used to calculate your own production costs and breakeven prices Finishing Feeder Goat Production Budget Page 24 in manual Table 12 Budgeting for Finishing Feeder Goat Production Similar format to kidding budget 50 head unit Purchase 35 lb. feeder kid Sell 65 lb. kid Gain 0.33 lb./day for 90 days Death loss 5% Revenue Sale of slaughter goat Minus 5% death loss Calculated on value at time of sale Variable Expenses Feeder kid Interest on feeder Feed Pasture – 6 kids/acre Salt & Minerals Veterinary & Medicine Marketing Hauling Machinery Operating Interest Depreciation & Repairs (Fixed) Table 13 Buildings & equipment Fences Machinery Interest & Labor Assumptions same as for kidding budget Labor – ¾ hour per kid Break-even Analysis Finisher of feeder kids would like for returns to cover total cost Not always achievable Want to recover at least the variable cost of production at any particular time Over the long term, the finisher must cover all costs for the enterprise to be profitable Break-even Price per Cwt. Sold COST INCLUDED Variable (Cash Expenses) Death Loss Depreciation and Repairs Interest on Buildings & Equipment Labor Total All Costs AMOUNT 49.27 3.25 5.49 1.99 6.00 66.00 PRICE/CWT. 75.84 5.00 8.45 3.07 9.24 101.59 Feeder Sensitivity Table 14Purchase Price and Sale Price Sale Price Per Cwt. 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 60.00 -4.95 -1.86 1.22 4.31 7.40 10.48 13.57 65.00 -6.73 -3.64 -0.56 2.53 5.61 8.70 11.79 Purchase Price Per Cwt. 70.00 75.00 80.00 -8.51 -10.29 -12.07 -5.42 -7.21 -8.99 -2.34 -4.12 -5.90 0.75 -1.03 -2.81 3.83 2.05 0.27 6.92 5.14 3.36 10.01 8.23 6.44 85.00 -13.85 -10.77 -7.68 -4.59 -1.51 1.58 4.66 90.00 -15.63 -12.55 -9.46 -6.37 -3.29 -0.20 2.88 Feeder Sensitivity Table 15Average Daily Gain and Sale Price Sale Price Per Cwt. 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 0.18 -21.19 -18.75 -16.30 -13.86 -11.41 -8.97 -6.52 0.23 -17.56 -14.90 -12.24 -9.58 -6.92 -4.27 -1.61 Average Daily Gain 0.28 0.33 -13.92 -10.29 -11.05 -7.21 -8.18 -4.12 -5.31 -1.03 -2.44 2.05 0.44 5.14 3.31 8.23 0.38 -6.66 -3.36 -0.06 3.24 6.54 9.84 13.14 0.43 -3.02 0.49 4.00 7.52 11.03 14.54 18.06 0.48 0.61 4.34 8.06 11.79 15.52 19.25 22.97 Herd Performance Measures Evaluate the efficiency of the doe herd Track progress of the herd over time Indicate potential problems Assist in establishing goals for the operation Number of Exposed Females Number of mature does and replacements in the herd at the beginning of the breeding season. Each female has the potential to conceive, raise and wean offspring. Adjusted Exposed Females Adjusted Lower Females sold or transferred from the herd. Adjusted Higher Exposed or pregnant females purchased or transferred into the herd. Kidding Percentage Measure of success of the breeding season. Number of Kids Born__ X 100 Adjusted Exposed Females Kid Death Loss Percentage Indicator of the success of the kidding season and growing phase Number of Kid Deaths__ X 100 Number of Kids Born Affected by kidding difficulty, kidding season, environment, herd health, condition of doe herd Goal: 4% or less Weaning Percentage (Kid Crop Percentage) Measure of the overall reproductive efficiency of the doe herd. Number of Kids Weaned X 100 Adjusted Exposed Females Determine the optimal level of weaning percentage for the operation. Average Weaning Weight An indication of the productive ability of the sire(s) and the doe herd. Total Pounds Weaned__ Number of Kids Weaned Indicate improvement in performance Reflect changes in management and/or environmental conditions Higher weaning weights do not always result in higher profits Measuring Performance of a Commercial Doe Herd Two 50 doe herds Weaning Weights Weaning Percentage No. Kids Weaned Total Lbs. Weaned Lbs. Weaned / Doe Exposed A B 75 110 55 4125 65 130 65 4225 82.5 84.5 Pounds Weaned per Exposed Female Measure of overall performance and efficiency Combines reproductive performance and productive ability Total Pounds Weaned__ Adjusted Exposed Females Weaning Percentage X Average Weaning Weight Effect of Weaning Percentage and Average Weaning Weight on Pounds Weaned per Exposed Female - - - - - Average Weaning Weight (lbs.) - - - - 75 70 65 60 55 50 Wean. % - - - - Pounds Weaned per Exposed Female - - - 170% 127.5 119.0 110.5 102.0 93.5 85.0 150% 112.5 105.0 97.5 90.0 82.5 75.0 130% 97.5 91.0 84.5 78.0 71.5 65.0 110% 82.5 77.0 71.5 66.0 60.5 55.0 Summary Sound business planning improves chances for success, but there are no guarantees Availability of capital plays major role in determining the long-term success or failure of a business Summary Must have accurate, detailed records in order to make sound business and production decisions Risk can be managed, but not eliminated Summary Developing sound financial plans has proven success in improving management skills Performance measure calculations provide a base from which to measure improvements and progress toward goals Final Note No one plans to fail. But many fail to plan.