Animal Science Industry

advertisement
Animal Science
Industry
Chris Ellason
World Livestock and Poultry
billions of
animals:
Chickens:
14.1
Cattle & Buffalo:
1.5
Sheep:
1.1
Pigs:
0.9
Goats:
0.7
Horses & Mules:
0.08
Food Production in the US
billions of pounds
produced, 2000:
Milk:
Broilers:
Beef:
Pork:
Turkey:
Eggs:
168
30.8
25.4
18.6
5.3
4.7
Per Capita
Consumption Beef







1970
1996
1998
2000
2002
2005
2007
84.6 lbs
64.0 lbs
63.6 lbs
64.5 lbs
64.5 lbs
62.4 lbs
62.2 lbs
Per Capita
Consumption Pork







1970
1996
1998
2000
2002
2005
2007
56.0 lbs
45.2 lbs
48.2 lbs
47.8 lbs
48.2 lbs
46.5 lbs
47.3 lbs
Per Capita
Consumption Lamb







1970
1996
1998
2000
2002
2005
2007
2.9 lbs
0.8 lbs
0.9 lbs
0.8 lbs
0.9 lbs
0.8 lbs
0.8 lbs
Per Capita
Consumption
Broilers







1970
1996
1998
2000
2002
2005
2007
48.7 lbs
63.1 lbs
64.3 lbs
67.9 lbs
70.7 lbs
73.6 lbs
73.7 lbs
Per Capita
Consumption Fluid
Milk and Cream







1970
1996
1998
2000
2002
2005
2007
275.3 lbs
213.9 lbs
207.4 lbs
203.6 lbs
199.3 lbs
193.9 lbs
191.4 lbs
Per Capita Consumption
Cheese







1970
1996
1998
2000
2002
2005
2007
11.4 lbs
27.3 lbs
27.8 lbs
29.8 lbs
30.5 lbs
31.4 lbs
32.7 lbs
The Changing
Industry
Farm Population






1951
1961
1971
1981
1991
2001
14.2%
11.1%
4.6%
2.6%
1.8%
1.6%
Farm Size





1951
1971
1981
1991
2005
225 acres
384 acres
425 acres
467 acres
445 acres
When and How Farms
Have Changed
 Major shifts occurred in the 40’s and 50’s
 Farms became more specialized
 Increased efficiency as a result of
specialization
 In 1940 one farm could support 18.5
people
 Today one farm can support 135 people
Why US Farms are so
Productive




Our Economic System
Land and Climatic Conditions
Our Educational Systems
Specialized Agribusiness
Significant Agriculture
Legislation
 Morrill Act 1862
 Provide a portion of federal land in each state to
establish a college
 Land-Grant College Act 1862
 Established the “agricultural college” concept
 Hatch Act 1887
 Established research funding for Land-Grant
colleges (Experiment station)
 Smith - Lever Act 1914
 Financed the county agent extension system to get
research information to the people (Cooperative
Extension)
Sources of Agricultural
Information
 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
 Established by the United Nations in 1945
 Collects, evaluates, and disseminates
information on world trends in food and
population
 Council for Agricultural Science and
Technology (CAST)
 Formed in 1972 to identify food-related
issues and interpret related scientific
research
Role of Animals





High Quality Protein Foodsource
Diet Palatability
Land Use and Conservation
Food Economy
Companion Animals
Concerns for Animal
Production:
 Can the earth’s land and water produce
enough food for the growing population?
 Should we feed animals as
intermediaries in the food chain?
 Why do humans “prefer” animal products
in their diet?
Beef Industry
 Seedstock Producers
 Commercial Cow-Calf Producers
 Yearling/Stocker Operator
Seedstock
 Purebred producers
 Concerned with genetics
 Concerned with appearance
 Body composition
 Color
 Show cattle
Cow-Calf Production
 Involves some 33 million head of beef cows
distributed throughout the country
 Most are concentrated in areas where
forage is abundant
 16 states have over 700,000 hd each
 75% of the US total
 Approx. 60% of the 850,000 beef cattle
operations have less than 50 hd per
operation
US Beef Cow Operations and
Inventory
Operations
Herd Size (No. Cows)
Percent of Total
Inventory
Percent of Total
1-49
78
28
50-99
12
19
100-499
9
38
500+
1
15
Stocker/Yearling Production
 Cattle are fed for growth prior to their
going into the feedlot for finishing
 Primary basis is to market available
forage and high-roughage feeds
 Grass, crop residue, wheat pasture, silage
 More desirable for early maturing cattle
 Larger framed, later maturing cattle are
more efficient and profitable if they go
directly into the feedlot
Stocker/Yearling
Production
Feedlot
Weaned
Cattle
Packer
Wintered or
Custom Lot
Summer
Grazing
Summer
Grazing
Wintered
Feedlot
 Cattle fed in small pens where feed is
brought to them on a daily basis
 Approx. 23 million feedlot cattle are fed in
various states
 Fed a high grain diet
 95% of feedlot cattle are fed in feedlots
with over 1000 head capacity
 A few have capacities over 100,000 head
Beef Industry




Feeders
Packers
Retailers
Consumers
Dairy Industry
 Larger Farms Dominate
 9% of Dairies produce over 1/2 total milk
 70% of the US dairy herd is concentrated in
large dairies of over 100 cows
 These dairies represent just 20% of all US
dairies
 Movement of dairies
 Specialization of Farms
 Feeding systems
Horse Industry
 1997 approximately 6.9 million horses in
US
 Used primarily as recreation or companion
animal




43% recreational activities
29% show
10% racing
Remainder used for rodeos and work
 In 1997, 200,000 Horses slaughter in US
 How many are slaughtered today?
Poultry Industry
 Dramatic changes in 60’s and 70’s
 Integration
 Corporate owned operations
 Control of all segments of the growing and
processing is by one company
Broiler Production
 Most are contract grown for a company
 ConAgra
 Tyson
 Pilgrims
 Operator owns houses, equipment and
furnishes labor
 Contractor furnishes, birds, feed, field
service, dressing and marketing
Broiler Production
 Payment is made in relation to a group of
producers assigned as a contemporary
group
 The better the operation does in relation
to its contemporaries the higher the
bonuses
Sheep and Goat Industry
 Versatile and efficient, especially in
developing countries
 Tend to be more well adapted to arid
tropical climates than cattle
 Often grazed in tandem with cattle
because they utilize different forage
sources
Sheep and Goat Industry
 Goats tend to be more efficient browsers
 Sheep prefer short grasses and some
broadleaf weeds and other plants
 World sheep numbers in 1999 were the
highest on record
 Primarily in China, Australia, India, Iran
and New Zealand
Sheep and Goat Industry
 Purebred breeders
 Commercial market lamb producers
 Commercial feedlots
Swine Industry
 Beginning to go the direction of the
poultry industry
 Corporate contracted growing
 China is far and away the leader in swine
numbers
 As in dairy industry farm number is
declining while production increases
Swine Industry
 Four major swine operations




Feeder pig production
Feeder pig finishing
Farrow to finish
Seedstock producer
Other Significant Animal
Industries




Aquaculture
Bison
Elk
Wildlife
Adaptation
 Adaptation – the sum of the adjustments that
occur in an organism that promotes its welfare
and survival in a specific environment
 Agricultural animals must have the ability to
adapt to both the natural and man made
environments
 The symbiotic relationship is key in
domestication of animals
5 Classes of Stresses





Climatic
Nutritional
Internal
Geographical
Social
3 Ways to Change or
React to Stressors
 Morphological or anatomical changes
 Physiological changes
 Behavioral changes
Biotechnology and New
Advancements







Bovine Somatotropin (bST)
Sexed Semen
Gene Splicing - DNA manipulation
Embryo Transfer, splitting, freezing
Bypass nutrients
Enzyme feeding
Taste alterations by feedstuffs
Animal Science
Disciplines







Nutrition
Reproductive Physiology
Animal Health
Environmental Physiology
Genetics
Environmental Sciences
Food Science and Technology
Jobs in Animal Science







College Professor
Veterinarian
Consulting Nutritionist
Meat Inspector
Feed Company Sales/Nutrition
Animal Health Sales/R&D
Allied Industry Sales/R&D
Jobs in Animal Science






Graduate School
Extension Service
Ag Teacher
USDA
State Chemist Departments
Natural Resources Management
Download
Related flashcards

Languages of Morocco

19 cards

Japanese martial arts

19 cards

Languages of Tunisia

14 cards

Languages of Togo

34 cards

Create Flashcards