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CONTAINER HANDLING
EQUIPMENT
► SHIP/SHORE
CRANE
► TUGMASTER/CHASSIS
► FORK LIFT TRUCK
► REACH STACKER
► STRADDLE CARRIER
► RUBBER TYRED GANTRY (RTG)
► RAIL MOUNTED GANTRY (RMG)
► OVERHEAD BRIDGE CRANE (OHBC)
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JIB CRANE
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CONTAINER CRANE
► (PORTAINER*)
► Panamax
- Post - Super Post
► Capacity:
35 - 65 tons
► Outreach:
35 - 55 mtrs
► Railgauge:
20 - 30 mtrs
► Backreach: 15 - 22 mtrs
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CONTAINER CRANE
► Hoist
Speed: 50/160 m/min
► Lift above rail: 25 - 36 mtrs
► Length:
27 mtrs
► Productivity: 25 - 35 ctrs/hr
► Single Hoist - Double Hoist
► Spreader: Fixed - Telescopic - Twinlift
► Investment: > $ 5.0 mio
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PLUS SHIP’S GANTRY
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Double Hoist Crane + Multi Trailer System
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GIAIO TAURO
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BACK REACH
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OVERHEIGHT SPREADER - FIXED
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SPREADER
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SPREADER
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SPREADER
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SPREADER
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CONTAINER CRANE
► Containership
future development:
8000/10.000/15.000 TEU
► Now: 6690 TEU Ship: 17 rows across
► Future: 18/20/22 rows across
► Port turn around time not to be extended:
► Mega crane (Supertainer)
► Ship in a slip (recess dock) - handling both
sides
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CONTAINER CRANE
► Mega
crane - Supertainer*
► Capacity:
65 tons
► Outreach:
up to 61 mtrs
► Railgauge:
30 - 45 mtrs
► Backreach: 15 - 23 mtrs
► Hoist Speed: 100/200 m/min
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CONTAINER CRANE
► Lift
above rail:
40 mtrs
► Length:
27 mtrs
► Productivity: 65 - 85 ctrs/hr
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CONTAINER CRANE
DOCK
► Ship
in a slip/recess dock
► ECT - Rotterdam;
1992
► FCT - Zeebrugge:
1994
► CMTI - Amsterdam:
1998
► Not (yet) realised
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CONTAINER CRANE
DOCK
► Design:
► Length:
390 mtrs
► Width:
55 mtrs
► Operated by: 5 + 4 = 9 (Super) Post
Panamax cranes
► Total productivity: 300 ctrs/hr
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TUGMASTER
(TRACTOR)
► Horizontal
Transport
► Easy (dis)connecting Chassis
► Easy manoeuvrable
► Pulling force > 80 tons
► 4 x 4 Wheel Drive for Ro-Ro’s
► With Gooseneck -> slavetrailers for Ro-Ro
► Reversable steering system
► Investment:
$ 100.000
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MULTI - TRAILER SYSTEM
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TERMINAL CHASSIS
► Horizontal
Transport - Storage specified
containers
► Extremely strong/sturdy construction
► Guiding devices for easy loading
► Suitable for 2 x 20’
► Two - high ?
► Investment:
$ 10.000
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ROAD CHASSIS
► Brakes
- Lights - Regulations
► Storage:
USA
► Advantage: No additional yardhandling
equipment -Easy access for roadtruckers
► Disadvantage: Extremely area consuming
(up to 45 m2/TEU) - Availability of
chassis from Container Operator
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STRADDLE CARRIER
► Straddling
one container row
► Stacking 1 over 2/3
► Storage:
14/16 m2/TEU
► Productivity: 10 - 15 ctrs/hr
► Weight:
55 tons (+container)
► Wheelloads: 10 tons
► Investment: $ 0.6 mio
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STRADDLE CARRIER
► Systems:
► All
Straddle Carrier: Transport and Stacking
► Straddle Carrier/Chassis: Stacking only
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STRADDLE CARRIER
► Advantages:
► Flexibility
- Relatively low wheelloads
► Disadvantages:
► Flexibility (Safety) - Long travel distances Damage sensitivity - Less suitable for
automation - (Reliability)
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RUBBER TYRED GANTRY
► Straddling
6 - 8 containers plus trucklane
► Stacking:
1 over 3/4/5
► Storage:
10 - 12 m2/TEU
► Productivity: 20 - 25 ctrs/hr
► Weight:
>110 tons
► Wheelloads: up to 40 tons (8 wheels)
► Investment: $ 1.3 mio
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RUBBER TYRED GANTRY
► Advantages:
► Ample
flexibility (transferable from stack to
stack by turning wheels 90 degrees)
► High productivity: One RTG can match one
Ship/shore container crane
► Reliability - Less sensitive to damage Suitable for automation - Efficient stacking
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RUBBER TYRED GANTRY
► Disadvantages:
► High
wheelloads ( to be reduced by
applying 16 wheels)
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RUBBER TYRED GANTRY
► Automated
steering systems:
Damage prevention
► Inductive loop in wheelpath
► Optical
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RUBBER TYRED GANTRY
► Auto
- steering plus Positioning:
► Magnetic plates
► Metal strips - sensors
► DGPS - Satellite navigation/positioning
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RAIL MOUNTED GANTRY
► Straddling
15 + containers plus trucklane(s)
(and railtrack)
► Stacking:
1 over 5/6
► Storage:
7 - 9 m2/TEU
► Productivity: 25 ctrs/hr
► Railtracks
► Investment: > $ 1.5 mio
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RAIL MOUNTED GANTRY
► Advantages:
► Reliability
- High productivity - Less sensitive
to damage - Suitable for automation (ASC)
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RAIL MOUNTED GANTRY
► Disadvantages:
► Not
flexible - not transferable to other stack
► High investments
► High Throughput Terminals
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RMG
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RAIL MOUNTED GANTRY
► ECT
- Delta Sea Land Terminal
► Double hoist Super Post Panamax
ship-shore cranes
► Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV)
► Automated Stacking cranes (ASC)
(3-high/5 wide)
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OVERHEAD BRIDGE CRANE
► OHBC
► Rigid
construction
► Fully automated
► Transfer area sea/land side served by
Straddle carrier - ? ► High stacking capacity
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OVERHEAD BRIDGE CRANE
► High
Throughput Terminals: (Pasir Panjang
Terminal PSA - Design capacity: 35 mio
TEU/yr
► (Mid
1980 constructed by Container Repair
Company in Rotterdam for servicing its MT
depot)
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MISCELLANEOUS
► FLT
+ Attachments
► Side stacker/loader
► Reach Stacker
► Container Freight Station (CFS)
► MT Depot (Storage)
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COMMUNICATION
► Mobilophone
System
► Mobilophone: Yard Operator - Handling
Equipment
► Portophone: Ass. Manager - Foreman Checker
► Separate Portophones for Ship - Shore
cranes (driver and radioman - safety)
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COMMUNICATION
► Mobilophone
System:
► Disadvantage:
► Too many frequencies - external
disturbances - hifg degree of discipline
required - sensitive to mistakes
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CONTROL
► Automated
Container Terminal Control
System
► NAVIS - SPARCS/EXPRESS
► COSMOS
► Radio Data Transmission
► Instructions and confirmations via LCD
screen/keyboard. Equipment: fixed units others mobile hand held terminals
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COMMUNICATION
► Mobilophone/Portophone
► For
“normal”verbal communication and
safety reasons
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LABOUR
► Less
physical functions
► Increasing need specialist/combi functions
► Flexibility/Employability
► Automation:
Administration - Planning - Operations
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LABOUR
COMBI FUNCTIONS
► Mainfunction
Tugmaster
+A
Checker
RTG
ugmaster
Checker
Ctr. Crane
RTG
Tugmaster
Checker
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EQUIPMENT CAPACITY ANNUAL
► Ship-Shore
Container Crane:
3-4000 hrs x 25 ctrs/hr = 75-100.000 ctrs
► Straddle Carrier:
3000 hrs x 12 ctrs/hr = 36.000 ctrs
► Rubber Tyred Gantry:
3000 hrs x 20 ctrs/hr = 60.000 ctrs
► Rail Mounted Gantry:
3000 hrs x 25 ctrs/hr = 75.000 ctrs
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EQUIPMENT CAPACITY
STORAGE
► Chassis:
► Straddle
Carrier
► RTG
► RMG
► FLT
(MT)
► FLT (Full)
► Reachstacker
45 m2/TEU
16 m2/TEU
12 m2/TEU
9 m2/TEU
7 m2/TEU
25 m2/TEU
15 m2/TEU
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EQUIPMENT CAPACITY
► EQUIPMENT:
Containers/Moves per Hour/Shift/Year
► STORAGE:
TEU’s
► SHIPS:
TEU’s
► TEU = Twenty feet Equivalent Unit
► FEU = Fourty feet Equivalent Unit
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EQUIPMENT COSTS
EXAMPLE
► CONTAINER
CRANE
Investment:
► Annual:
► Depreciation 25 yrs
Interest Costs (8%)
M&R 2.5% I
Power
Total
$ 6.0 mio
$
$
$
$
$
240.000
260.000
150.000
100.000
750.000
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EQUIPMENT COSTS
EXAMPLE
► TOTAL
PER YEAR: $ 750.000
► Running
► Per
Hours:
Hour:
3000
$ 250
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EQUIPMENT COSTS
EXAMPLE
► RUBBER
TYRED GANTRY
► Investment:
$
► Annual:
► Depreciation 12 yrs
$
Interestcosts 8%
$
M&R 7.5 % I
$
20 ltr/hr
$ 45.000
$ 312.000
1.3 mio
108.500
61.000
97.500Fuel
Total
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EQUIPMENT COSTS
EXAMPLE
► TOTAL
PER YEAR: $ 312.000
► Running
► Per
Hours:
Hour:
3000
$ 104
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EQUIPMENT COSTS
EXAMPLE
► TUGMASTER
► Investment:
$ 100.000
► Annual:
► Depreciation
10 yrs:
Interestcosts 8 %
M&R 15% I:
Fuel 10 ltr/hr:
Total
$
$
$
$
$
10.000
4.800
15.000
22.500
52.300
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EQUIPMENT COSTS
EXAMPLE
► TOTAL
PER YEAR:
► Running
► Per
Hours:
Hour:
► Chassis:
$ 52.300
3000
$ 17.50
$
2.50
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GANG COST STRUCTURE
EXAMPLE
► Per
Gang/hr:
► a) Labour:
1 Foreman
2 Cranedrivers
2 Checkers
5 Tugm. Drivers
1 RTG Driver
3 Lashers
Total Labour:
$ 50
$ 80
$ 60
$ 150
$ 40
$ 60
$ 440
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GANG COST STRUCTURE
EXAMPLE
► b)
Equipment:
1 Contr. Crane
5 Tugmasters + Chassis
1 RTG
Total Equipment
► c) Working Area etc.
TOTAL
$ 250
$ 100
$ 104
$ 454
$ 106
$ 1000
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RATE STRUCTURE
EXAMPLE
► Total
Gang Costs
Overhead 40%
Total Costs
Profit 20%
Grand Total
$ 1000
$ 400
$ 1400
$ 280
$ 1680 per Hour
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RATE STRUCTURE
EXAMPLE
► Total
Gangcosts per hour:
Total Gangcosts per shift:
$ 1680
$ 13440
► Productivity:
Gross
200 ctrs/shift
Lost Labour etc. 30%
60 ctrs/shift
Net
140 ctrs/shift
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RATE STRUCTURE
EXAMPLE
► Net
productivity:
140 ctrs/shift
► Rate
per container/move:
13440 : 140 =
$ 96.-
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