Food Security Presentation to PCA - The KwaZulu

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FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME
1. Empowerment for Food Security
Programme
2. Comprehensive Food Security
Follow up evaluation of Empowerment
for Food Security Project (EFSP)
Kwazulu Natal
Z.J. MCHUNU
I. The program




Empowerment for Food Security (EFSP)
Start: April 2006- 5 years
Sponsor: Flemish Government & KZN government
Where: Kwazulu Natal
Pilot project


4 districts
8 municipalities (out of 51)
I. The program

Partners:





Local responsible for daily activities


Department of agriculture KZN
Department of education & health KZN
Local government
Flemish government (Sponsor)
DAEA KZN
Focus on:



Agricultural production (favourable local conditions)
Training in food security (diet quality & variety)
Access to market (purchasing power)
1. General descriptive analysis

Household Demographics

Household size and age of household head?
Region
North KZN
Household
size
7 (2.8)
Age
household
District
head
54 (13)



56 (12)
household
head
7.2 (2.9)
57 (13)
ePongola
7.9 (2.5)
57 (12)
7 (2.8)
52 (12)
6.8 (3.0)
50 (12)
5.9 (3)
56 (11)
Vulamehlo
6.8 (3.6)
60 (8)
Msunduzi
6.6 (3.8)
46 (9)
Richmond
5.3 (2.1)
59 (8)
Umgeni
4.9 (3.4)
51 (13)
Big 5 False Bay
Umuziwabantu
6 (3.2)
size
Age
eDumbe
Umhlabuyalingana
South KZN
Household
On average: household consists of 7 people
On average: household heads in North are 54 years; in South 56 years
Gender household heads: 55.1% are male
1. General descriptive analysis

Household Demographics

Education status of households (% of households)?
Region
Education Level
District
North KZN
Zululan
d
South KZN
Mkhanyakude
Ugu
Umgungundlovu
No schooling
33.0
51.4
37.3
41.4
Junior primary (0-Std 2)
28.3
20.0
21.7
13.8
Senior primary (Std 3-Std 5)
17.9
12.1
16.9
17.2
Some Secondary (Std 6-Std
14.2
11.4
20.5
17.2
6.6
3.6
3.6
10.3
Courses or Certificates
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
Diploma or Degree
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
9)
Completed
High
School
(Matric)


Low levels of education
25% of households heads obtained some secondary education in the southern
area, while this is only 18% in the northern region
1. General descriptive analysis

Household Food Production

Access to resources (% of households)?

Quite equal access to resources in the northern and southern region
However, access to markets and credits is higher in the South while access to
rivers is higher in the North

1. General descriptive analysis

Household Food Production

Crop production (% of households)?
North KZN
Zululand
Mkhanyakude
Ugu
Umgungundlovu
Spinach
95
90
88
91
Cabbages
97
91
77
88
Onions
89
87
78
58
Beetroot
84
80
69
72
Carrot
53
61
72
67
Maize
39
51
57
54
38.5
56
31
35
Crop Type
Tomato



South KZN
Different types of crops are grown in the study area
On average, each respondent cultivates 8 different crops
80% of respondents sell some of their agricultural production
1. General descriptive analysis

Household Food Production

Livestock production?

Chicken production is most popular
Large number of respondents in Zululand own cattle
Limited presence of livestock sector: cattle owners have on average 2 heads of
cattle; goat owners on average 2 goats; chicken owners on average 10 chickens


1. General descriptive analysis

Household Food Consumption

Diversity in food consumption?

Consumption of maize, other cereals and vegetables is highest: 3 to 5 times/week
Consumption of fruits and protein sources (dairy, eggs) is quite low: 2 times/week

1. General descriptive analysis

Household Food Consumption

Different sources of food products (% of households)?
Purchased
Own production
Other sources
Maize
88
10
2
Other cereals
94
2
4
Roots & tubers
70
24
6
Vit A rich fruits &
22
74
4
Other vegetables
30
68
2
Other fruits
77
10
13
Legumes & nuts
78
17
5
vegetables


Over 70% of participating households indicate that they purchase most of their
food
Exception: vegetables = own production (for over 65% of the households)
1. General descriptive analysis

Household Income and its Sources


Average monthly income is highest in Umgungundlovu (320R; SD: 429) followed
by Ugu (275R; SD: 260)
The southern districts both have an average income per capita per month of
R190 (SD: 122)
1. General descriptive analysis

Household Income and its Sources



Grants (including pension; child support) and gifts are most important income
sources: 72%-88% of households partially depends on this type of income
Income shortage mainly during the months January/February and June/July
Common reasons why household heads not work: old age, inability to find job,…
1. General descriptive analysis

Stresses, shocks and coping strategies

Common shocks (share households experiencing)?
North KZN
South KZN
Shocks and Stresses


Zululand
Umkhanyakude
Ugu
Umgungundlovu
Food cost or food price increase
72
78
81
77
Increase in food production cost
54
47
48
56
Serious injury or chronic illness
39
45
57
44
Drought
25
57
44
28
Increase in household size
35
32
31
42
Death of livestock
35
28
27
23
Most important stresses: increase in food cost and related to that increases in
food production costs
Drought and sudden loss of livestock are the most prevalent stresses
1. General descriptive analysis

Stresses, shocks and coping strategies

Coping strategies for sudden and severe decrease in income?
Coping Strategies


North KZN
South KZN
Borrow/ lending
77
68
Reduce food consumption
51
50
Reduce spending
46
39
Selling assets
41
31
Use savings
18
8
Find additional work (income)
19
14
Other coping strategies
18
20
Borrowing from friends/ relatives seems to be most important coping strategy
 negative coping strategy: leads to increased debts and asset depletion
Only 20% is able to use their savings or looks for additional income sources
2. Vulnerability analysis

Food insecurity (% of households)
Region
Food Security Status


District
North KZN
Zulul
and
South KZN
Mkhanyakude
Ugu
Umgungundlovu
Food secure
7.3
3.4
9.1
2.4
Mild food insecure
11.9
2.8
6.8
9.5
Moderate food insecure
37.6
28.3
34.1
16.7
Severe food insecurity
43.1
65.5
50.0
71.4
Total
100
100
100
100
Across full sample: 5.6% food secure; 55.4% severly food insecure; 6.9% mild food
insecure
Most affected district is Umgungundlovu where about 70% of respondents are
faced with food insecurity
2. Vulnerability analysis

Poverty measure
Region
North KZN
South KZN

District
Zululand
Mkhanyakude
Ugu
Umgungundlovu
Percent people
Percent people
living on less than living on less than
1 US$ per day
2 US$ per day
71.6
96.3
75.0
93.2
55.6
90.0
53.5
81.4
Northern region has larger share of poor households compared to the southern
region
2. Vulnerability analysis

Food insecurity and Poverty

Notice negative correlation between food security and poverty level.
Households in the north seem to be more food secure but poorer while
households in the south seem less poor but more food insecure
Overall outcome evaluation
150 households were interviewed both in 2007 & 2010
Comparison of characteristics of these households
 Evolution of these households



General food
security

Has not improved
Overall outcome evaluation
Food security indicator
2007 (N=149)
2010 (N=149)
test
Less then 1$ per day per person
85%
66%
**
Less then 2$ per day per person
93%
92%
**
HDDS (Household Diet Diversity Score)
9.03
10.16
**
Hunger Index (n° of hungry months)
3.91
2.96
**
Crop index (n° of crops)
4.40
8.13
-
Livestock index (TLU)
50.08
47.32
-
Food expenditure per capita (RAND)
119
333
-
Food expenditure in total household budget
30%
58%
**

Positive impact on
 Most severe poverty measures (20% less households on <1$ per pers day)
 Diet diversity
 Hunger index
IV.Conclusions

Outcome analysis shows positive outcomes:



Diet diversity
Hunger index
Poverty rates

However actual impact on food security is not there

EFSP has positive outcomes but has not yet improved
actual food security levels
PARTNERSHIP WITH IDT
TRAINING OF ONE HOME ONE
GARDEN BENEFICIARIES
Introduction
The IDT is in partnership with the DAEA&
RD in the implementation of Flagship
Programme in the 57 priority wards.
 DAEA&RD provide training to 40 000
beneficiaries and
 Provide catering for all 1600 groups

IDT Role

To provide Social Facilitation Role

To mobilise 40 000 beneficiaries
 Organise seeds beneficiaries to groups of 25




700 beneficiaries per ward
Ensure state of readiness of beneficiaries to
receive training
Stakeholders engagement
Organise Logistics : e.g. venues
Social Mobilisation & Training
Dates
06-Dec-10
13-Dec-10
17-Jan-11
24-Jan-11
31-Jan-11
07-Feb-11
14-Feb-11
21-Feb-11
Total
Extension Assistants/
Extension Officers
120
17
11
38
186
Beneficiaries
175
200
1600
495
585
2174
3360
8589
Gardens

The following gardens have been established.

174

93

12

508
Number of community gardens
number of school gardens
number of clinic gardens
number of homestead gardens
HOUSEHOLD GARDEN IN
SISONKE – MZIMKHULU
HH 1
Other interventions
 20 Tunnels
have been established in
the following areas
 Mbangweni
 Bhekabantu
 Ladysmith
 Seed
5
5
10
distributed to 1 Million Households
TUNNELS
FoodBank & Technoserve
Initiative
The Intergrated Agri-FoodBank
Sustainable model
Retailers
Smallholder
farmers
Other
Transport
to
market
Fertiliser Agriculture Equipment
and seed mentoring and
infrastructure
subsidy and
training
programme
Business
Crop and
and
stock
bookkeeping insurance
service
Procurement
Programme
Guaranteed
off-take
agreements
Processors/
Manufacturers
PACKING /
PROCESSING
FACILITY
AGRI
FOODBANK
Donated
Foods
FoodBank
agencies
Procurement
Programme
FOODBANK
COMMUNITY
DEPOT
Procurement
Programme
FOODBANK
COMMUNITY
DEPOT
Donated
Foods
FOODBANK
SATELLITE
National
FoodBank
Fund
Community
Education
&
Health,
DSD
Progress
 Phase
1 business plan by 14 March
2011
 Task
team to Link to the NSNP ,
DOH and DSD has been established
THANK YOU
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