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Present Situation and its Future
Potential of Cassava Production and
Utilization in Thailand
Watana Watananonta
Senior Expert on Field Crops
Department of Agriculture
Cassava growing
area:
1. The eastern region
2. The Northeast region
3. The central region
Area harvested (mil.ha)
2
2
Are a
1
1
0
0
Production (mil.tonnes)
30
30
25
25
Production
20
20
15
15
10
10
5
5
0
0
25
25
Yield (t/ha)
Yie ld
20
20
15
15
10
10
5
5
0
0
1961 63
65
67
69
71
73
75
77
79
81
83
85
87
89
91
93
95
97
99
01
03
05
Figure 1. Cassava harvested area, production and yield in Thailand from 1961 to 2005.
Source: FAOSTAT, 2006.
Cassava products exported (million tonnes )
10
9
8
7
6
5
Pellets +Chips
4
3
2
Starch
1
0
65
70
75
80
85
Year
90
Figure 2. Quantities of cassava products exported from Thailand from
Source : Adapted from TTTA,
2004 ,
95
00
1966 to 2003 .
19
03
Table 3 Cassava production costs (US$/ha) in Thailand in 1990/2000
Ave.
all farmers
Ave.
advanced farmers
1. Labor cost ($/ha)
2. Other costs($/ha)
3. Total variable costs($/ha)
168.48
125.65
294.16
167.18
198.73
365.91
4. Total Production Costs
341.70
414.80
Yield (t/ha)
Root price ($/t fresh roots)
Gross income ($/ha)
Net income ($/ha)
Production costs
($/t fresh roots)
16.52
21.62
357.16
15.46
20.68
23.40
21.62
505.91
91.11
17.71
1 US$ = 37 baht; cost of labor 120 baht/day
Source: TTDI
Table 4. Estimated production and use of cassava roots in Thailand in 2003/04.
Fresh roots (‘000 t)
Fresh root production
22,748 (100%)
Dry product (‘000 t)
Total
Export
Domestic
-
-
-
Chips
6,959 (30%)
3,132
2,470 (79%) 662 (21%)
Pellets
5,811 (26%)
2,557
2,557
Starch
9,978 (44%)
2,744
1,630 (59%) 1,114 (41%)
Source: based on data from TTTA, personal communication, 2004.
0
Table 5. Domestic use of cassava native starch in Thailand in
2003.
Monosodium glutamate
250.000 t
Sweeteners
250.000 t
Food industries
200.000 t
Paper
120.000 t
Modified starch
70.000 t
Sago
60.000 t
Textile
10.000 t
Others (glue, medicine etc.)
20.000 t
Total
980.000 t
Growers
Cassava roots
Small scale enterpreneur
Cassava chips
Starch factories
Cassava starch
Local consumption
Pellet companies
(Pelletization)
Modification
Local consumption
Modified starch
Pellets
Traders
Export market
Export market
Figure 3 Marketing structure of cassava in Thailand.
Local consumption
Cassava fresh root price (baht/tonne)
2500
2500
2000
2000
1500
1500
1000
1000
500
500
0
0
J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
Figure 4. Monthly trend in the price of fresh cassava roots (at 30% starch content) in Nakhon
Ratchasima province of Thailand form 1995 to 2003.
Source: Thai Tapioca Trade Assoc. (TTTA), 2004.
Starch and hard pellet price (US$ tonne)
500
500
400
400
300
300
200
200
Starch
100
100
Hard pellets
0
0
J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N J MM J S N
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Figure 5 Monthly trend in the price (FOB Bangkok) of cassava starch and hard pellets from 1995 to 2003.
Source: Thai Tapioca Trade Assoc. (TTTA), 2004.
2003
Table 6. Road map for production of cassava to satisfy both domestic and export requirements
for cassava chips, pellets, starch and ethanol on Thailand from 2004/05 to 2007/08.
Year
Area
Yield
Production
(mil.ha)
(t/ha)
(mil./ha)
Chips
Pellets
Starch
17.1
16.9
6.59
1.01
9.30
2004/05 0.99
2005/06 1.04
2006/07
2007/08
1.05
1.05
18.2
22.3
26.2
18.9
23..55
27.5
Utilization (mil. tones fresh root equivalent)
-1.18 dom. -0 dom.
-2.88 dom.
-5.41exp.
-1.01 exp.
-6.42 exp.
6.34
1.06
10.86
-0.69 dom.
-0 dom.
-4.08 dom.
-5.65 exp.
-1.06 exp.
-6.78 exp.
7.55
1.05
12.60
-1.19 dom.
-0 dom.
-5.06 dom.
-6.36 exp.
-1.05 exp.
-7.54 exp.
8.26
1.04
13.50
-1.25 dom.
-0 dom.
-5.41 dom.
-7.01 exp.
-1.04 exp.
-8.09 exp.
Ethanol
0
0.64
2.20
4.70
Cassava Varietal Improvement
Objective:
- High root yield/ high starch yield in
form of dry matter content
- Early harvesting
- Adaptation for unfavorable condition
- For human consumption
- Resistance CBB, brown leaf spot, root
rot, red mite and termite
- Good plant type suitable for cultural
practice and harvesting
hybridization
collection, introduction
(seed)
(seed)
seedling selection
(cuttings)
clonal selection
preliminary yield trial
standard yield trial
regional yield trial
farmer’s field yield trial
farmer’s field test
variety recommendation
Figure 1 Flow chart of cassava varietal improvement
Table 7 Background and outstanding characteristics of 12 released cultivars in
Thailand (including Rayong 1).
Cultivar
Year of release Parents
Background and outstanding characteristics
Rayong 1
1975
Unknown
Selected from a local land race. Excellent
agronomic triats. Relatively high yield, low input
Rayong 3
1983
Rayong 2
1984
(F)MMex55
(M)MVen307
(F)MCol113
(M)MCol22
Selected from CIAT F1 hybrid seeds.
High dry matter content
Selected from CIAT F1 hybrid seeds.
Recommended for human consumption
Rayong 60
1987
(F)MCol1684
(M)Rayong 1
Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds.
Recommended for early harvest, high yield
Sriracha 1
1991
(F)MCol113XMCol22 Selected from KU F1 hybrid seeds. Excellent
(M)R1XMCol22
Agronomic triats. HDMC
Rayong 90
1991
(F)CMC76
(M)V43
Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds.
HDMC, High yield
Table 7 Background and outstanding characteristics of 12 released cultivars in
Thailand (including Rayong 1). (continous)
Cultivar
Year of release Parents
Background and outstanding characteristics
Kasetsart50
1992
(F)Rayong1
(M)Rayong90
Selected from KU F1 hybrid seeds. High yield,
HDMC. Well adapted to unflavorable condition.
Rayong 5
1994
Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds. High dry
matter content, high yield
Rayong 72
1999
(F)MR27-77-10
(M)Rayong3
(F)Rayong1
(M)Rayong5
Huaybong
60
2002
Rayong 7
2005
Rayong 9
2005
Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds. HDMC,
high yield, good germination, drought tolerant
(F)Rayong5
Selected from KU F1 hybrid seeds. High yield,
HDMC,
(M)KU50
(F)CMR30-71-25 Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds. HDMC,
(M)OMR29-20-118 high yield, suitable for late rainy season
(F)CMR31-19-23 Selected from DOA F1 hybrid seeds.HDMC,
(M)OMR29-20-118 High yield, suitable for ethanol industry.
Preserve as In Vitro at
Rayong Field Crops Research
Center
Cultural practices
- Land preparation
- Planting methods, spacing
- Planting times and age
harvest
- Weed control
- Cassava stem storage
- Fertilization and soil
conservation
Pest and diseases
Fortunately, Thailand has not experienced any
serious pest and diseases infestation in cassava.
- Cassava bacteria blight (CBB)
- Cassava brown leaf spot, root rot
- Red mite, termite, white grub
Farmer participatory research and extension
(FPR & FPE)
The use of FPR & FPE showed that farmers become
more aware of the importance of soil conservation. The
most appropriate methods of soil erosion control were
selected by farmers and tested their own fields to develop
the most suitable practices for their own conditions. It was
very effective in developing more suitable varieties and
production practices which farmers could readily adopt and
then disseminate to after farmers in neighboring
communities.
Cassava leaves as animal feed
- Protein content 20 - 27%
- Harvest every 2-3 months for 1 year could produce
dry foliage varied from 4-12 t/ha
- Good profile of amino acid as compound with
soybean meal and alfalfa hay
- Increase the milk thiocyanate content could
enhance milk quality and milk storage
Vision and Development Strategy
of Thai Cassava
1. The whole of fresh root yield go to produce chips
and pellets of 50% and to produce starch of 50%
2. To establish cluster of Thai cassava
3. Government maintain the high price 1.50 baht/kg
of fresh root for farmers
4. Remain farmers’ income oriented policy
5. To change using high yield varieties
6. Short term target yield at 18.75 t/ha medium term
at 31 t/ha
7. Starch export would continue to expand world
wide especially in Asia countries
8. Ethanol production for domestic use
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