# Give the location of the crest of convexivity for the following teeth

```1.) Name the two
dental arches.
Maxillary (Mx)
Mandibular (Mn)
2.) Name the two sets
of teeth for the human.
Primary / Deciduous
Permanent
3.) When does the
Transitional or Mixed
Dentition Period begin
and end?
The Transitional
Dentition Period lasts
from 6 to 12 years of age
The Transitional or Mixed Dentition Period
is defined by the presence of both Primary
and Permanent teeth in the oral cavity
4.) Describe when the
Deciduous Dentition
Period would end.
The Deciduous Dentition
Period ends when the
initial permanent tooth
erupts into the oral cavity
When the initial Permanent Mandibular First
Molar erupts at approx. 6 years of age
5.) In the dental formula,
the letters I, C, P, & M
represent which teeth?
I = Incisor
C = Canine
P = Premolar
M = Molar
6.) What is the dental
formula for the deciduous
dentition?
I 2/2, C 1/1, M 2/2 x 2 = 20
The dental formula for the Primary /
Deciduous Dentition
7.) What is the dental
formula for the
permanent dentition?
I 2/2, C 1/1, P 2/2, M 3/3 x 2 = 32
The dental formula for the permanent
dentition
annotate the
Dentition to
the right using
all 3 systems
presented in
class.
annotate the
Dentition to
the right using
the
International
and Universal
systems.
10.) What tooth tissue
covers the crown of the
tooth?
Enamel
is the tooth tissue that covers the
crown of the tooth
11.) What tooth tissue
covers the root of the
tooth?
Cementum
is the tooth tissue that covers the root
of the tooth
12.) What two terms can
be used to describe the
junction of these two
tooth tissues?
Cemento-enamel Junction
Cervical Line
The Cemento-enamel Junction can be
abbreviated
CEJ
13.) Name the other
two tissues.
Dentin
Pulp
The four tissues of the tooth:
Enamel
Cementum
Dentin
Pulp
14.) Name the portion of
the Maxilla or Mandible
which supports the teeth
within the jaw and
surrounds the root of the
tooth.
The Alveolar Process
The Alveolus is the CAVITY or SOCKET in
the alveolar process of the Mx and Mn in
which the root or roots of the teeth are fixed
15.) Name the surface of
the central incisor facing
the lip.
Labial (La)
surfaces which face the lip on anterior teeth
are called Labial surfaces, and can also be
referred to generically as Facial surfaces
16.) Name the surfaces of
the molars facing the
cheek.
Buccal (B)
surfaces which face the cheek on posterior
teeth are called Buccal surfaces, and can also
be referred to generically as Facial surfaces
17.) Name the surface of
any tooth which faces
the same dental arch.
Proximal
surfaces of the teeth which face
adjoining teeth in the same dental arch
are generically called Proximal surfaces
18.) Name the surface of
the tooth facing toward
the midline while
following the curve of the
dental arch.
Mesial (M)
the surfaces of teeth which face the midline
while following the curve of the dental arch
are called Mesial surfaces
19.) Name the surface of
the tooth facing away
from the midline while
following the curve of the
dental arch.
Distal (D)
the surfaces of teeth which face away from
the midline while following the curve of the
dental arch are called Distal surfaces
20.) Name the surface of
any tooth that faces
toward the tongue.
Lingual (Li)
all teeth have a Lingual surface, it is the
surface facing toward the tongue
21.) Name the teeth
considered to be Anterior
Teeth.
Central Incisors
Lateral Incisors
Canines
these three types of teeth in both the
Mx and Mn are considered to be
Anterior Teeth
22.) Name the teeth
considered to be posterior
teeth.
st
1
Premolars
nd
2 Premolars
st
1 Molars
nd
2 Molars
rd
3 Molars
these five types of teeth in both the Mx and
Mn are considered to be Posterior Teeth
23.) What is the general
term used to describe
quantitative defects in
enamel?
Enamel Hypoplasia
the general term referring to all
quantitative defects of enamel
24.) What is the general
term used to describe
qualitative defects in
enamel?
Hypocalcification
the general term referring to all
qualitative defects of enamel
also referred to as Opacities
25.) What number of
weeks in utero does
calcification normally
begin?
14 weeks in utero
at approximately 14 weeks in utero
calcification has initiated for the Mx and Mn
Central Incisors of the Primary Dentition
26.) At what age can the
emergence or eruption of
the Primary Dentition
usually be observed?
6 months
the Primary Mn Central Incisor is
usually the first Deciduous tooth to erupt
into the oral cavity, it can erupt
as early as 6 months of age
27.) At what age is the
emergence or eruption of
the Primary Dentition
usually completed?
30 months
by 30 months (or 2 ½ years) the Primary
(Deciduous) Dentition has usually
completely erupted into the oral cavity
28.) True or False.
Calcification of the
Primary Dentition occurs
both in utero and
postnatal.
True
The first initiation of calcification of the Primary
Dentition begins at 14 weeks in utero with the
Deciduous Mn Central Incisor, and the crowns are
not fully completed in the Deciduous Mx 2nd Molars
until almost 30 months (or 2 ½ years) of age
29.) True or False.
Calcification of the
Permanent Dentition
occurs both in utero and
postnatal.
False
the calcification of the Permanent
Dentition does not begin until just
after birth (at 0 months of age)
30.) True or False.
Premature loss of
Primary Teeth are of no
significance.
False
premature loss of Primary Teeth can lead to
significant issues in the development and eruption
of the succedaneous teeth that follow, especially
with spacing and alignment issues
31.) Where are the
follicles of the developing
Permanent teeth found
relative to the Primary
tooth roots?
Lingual (Li)
the developing tooth follicles of the
succedaneous teeth are usually found
Lingually and Apically to their
Primary tooth predecessors
32.) Under normal
conditions, what must
happen to the Primary
Incisors before the
Permanent Incisors can
erupt into the oral cavity?
Exfoliation
the Primary Incisors must first
Exfoliate, or be shed from the oral cavity,
before the Permanent Incisors
can erupt into the oral cavity
33.) What are the four or
more centers of
formation of a given
tooth called?
Lobes
the term used to describe the
morphological divisions of the crown
of a tooth
34.) After these centers of
formation coalesce, signs
of these centers are still
evident in the enamel of
the teeth, what are these
remnants on the surface
of the tooth called?
Developmental
Grooves
grooves on the tooth formed during appositional
growth of enamel, dentin, and cementum, often
referred to as those grooves that separate cusps on
posterior teeth
35.) What is the
connective tissue organ
of the tooth that consists
of arteries, veins,
lymphatic system, and
nerves?
Pulp
the cellular, vascular, neural, and connective tissue
that fills the central cavity of a tooth
in development, the dental papilla becomes the
dental pulp as the primary dentin is laid down
36.) What are the four
functions of the Pulp?
Sensation (nerves)
Protection (sclerotic dentin)
Production of Dentin
Vascular Supply (Nutrition)
37.) True or False.
Illness or injury can effect
the development of a
tooth.
True
Mulberry Molar – Congenital Syphilis – lumpy presentation, lots of
little bumps/wrinkles
Hutchinson Incisor – Congenital Syphilis – tapers incisally,
screwdriver shaped
extended fever at the age of 12 months (1 year) will effect the
Calcification of the crowns of the Permanent 1st Molars, Central
Incisors, and Lateral Incisors
38.) True or False.
Primary or Deciduous
Molars are replaced by
Permanent Molars in the
normal exfoliation and
eruption sequence.
False
the Permanent Molars are not succedaneous teeth –
meaning that they do not succeed any other teeth in
the Primary Dentition
the Primary Molars are succeeded by the Permanent
Premolars after their exfoliation
39.) True or False.
Primary teeth do not have
pulp chambers.
False
all teeth have pulp chambers,
and pulp canals
40.) True or False.
The crests of convexity or
cervical ridges for
Primary teeth are more
prominent than for the
Permanent teeth.
True
41.) True or False.
All teeth develop from 4
or more lobes.
True
all human teeth develop from
at lest four lobes
42.) True or False.
The outlines of all teeth
may be represented by
trapezoids of various
dimensions (when viewed
from the Fa or Li aspect).
True
43.) True or False.
The shortest of the
uneven sides of these
trapezoids would
represent the Incisal or
Occlusal surface of the
teeth.
False
44.) Where can the
Interdental Papillae be
found?
A)
C)
D)
Posterior surface of the tongue
B)
On the Hard Palate
Cervical to the Proximal Contact
C) Cervical to the
Proximal Contact
Filling the interdental void, or interproximate
space of the
cervical embrasure which lies
cervical to the contact point
45.) Name the widest
Anterior tooth.
Permanent Maxillary
Central Incisor
the widest Anterior tooth is the
Permanent Maxillary Central Incisor
measuring 8.5 mm in M-D dimension
46.) Name the narrowest
Anterior tooth.
Deciduous Mandibular
Lateral Incisor
the narrowest Anterior tooth is the
Deciduous Mandibular Lateral Incisor
measuring just 4.1 mm in M-D dimension
47.) Which of the Incisor
Class of teeth has the
most prominent marginal
ridges?
Permanent Maxillary
Lateral Incisor
the Incisor class tooth with the most
prominent marginal ridges is the
Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor
48.) Which of the Incisor
class of teeth has the
most well developed
middle developmental
lobe?
Permanent Maxillary
Lateral Incisor
the Incisor class tooth with the most well
developed middle developmental lobe is the
Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor
49.) Name the set and
arch of the Incisor Class
of teeth that exhibit
poorly developed
marginal ridges and a less
prominent Cingulum and
Lingual Fossa.
Permanent Mandibular
the Permanent Mandibular Incisors exhibit
poorly developed marginal ridges and a less
prominent Cingulum and Lingual Fossa
50.) Name the tooth
which when viewed from
the Labial (Facial) has M
and D crests of convexity
that are found incisally
placed in the Incisal third
of the crown.
Permanent Mandibular
Central Incisor
The proximal contacts on both the Mesial and
Distal when viewed from the Labial (Facial) are
found incisally in the Incisal third of the crown on
the Permanent Mandibular Central Incisor
51.) Which of the Incisal
class of teeth has a
distinct twisting of the
incisal ridge relative to
the root base of the
tooth?
Permanent Mandibular
Lateral Incisor
a prominent annotational feature of the
Permanent Mandibular Lateral Incisor is the
distinct twist of the incisal ridge relative to
the root base
52.) Which class of Anterior
teeth has a cusp in addition
to a cingulum, marginal
ridges, fossa, a single root
with only one pulp canal (as
the most prevalent form) and
develops from four
developmental lobes?
Permanent Canine
both the Mx and Mn Permanent Canine presents
with a single cusp tip, a cingulum, marginal ridges,
fossa, a single root with only one pulp canal (as the
most prevalent form), and develops from four
developmental lobes
53.) When viewed from
the M and D aspects
(proximally) which teeth
most commonly have an
incisal ridge that is
slightly offset to the
Lingual?
Permanent Mandibular
Incisors and Canine
both the Permanent Mandibular Central and Lateral
Incisors as well as the Permanent Mandibular
Canine present with an incisal ridge slightly offset to
the Lingual when viewed from the M and D
54.) Which of the
Maxillary Anterior teeth
has greater Labiolingual
dimension than
Mesiodistal dimension?
Permanent Maxillary
Canine
the Permanent Maxillary Canine is the
Maxillary Anterior tooth with greater
Labiolingual dimension than Mesiodistal
dimension
55.) How many cusp
ridges are found in the
Maxillary Canine?
Two
while every cusp theoretically has four ridges when
counting the Facial or Lingual ridge and/or the
triangular ridge along with the M and D cusp ridges,
here the question is asking specifically for the
number of “cusp ridges” present on the Mx Canine
56.) How many marginal
ridges are found on the
Mandibular Canine?
Two
although they are not as predominant as on
the Maxillary Canine, there are two marginal
ridges present on the Mandibular Canine
57.) There is a ridge of
enamel found on the Li
surface of the Mx Canine
running from the cusp tip
to the cingulum, name
this ridge.
Lingual Ridge
the ridge of enamel found on the lingual
surface of the Mx Canine running from the
cusp tip to the cingulum
58.) What is the longest
tooth in the human
dentition, and how long is
it on average?
Permanent Maxillary
Canine = 27 mm
the longest tooth in the human dentition is
the Permanent Maxillary Canine, which
averages 27 mm in overall length
59.) True or False.
A tooth root may have
multiple Apical
Foramina.
True
60.) True or False.
Incisors have multiple
roots and multiple pulp
canals, more often than
not.
False
Incisors normally present with a single
root and a single pulp canal
61.) True or False.
Mandibular Canines are
more likely to have two
pulp canals than
Maxillary Canines.
True
Mandibular Canines present with a single canal 70%
of the time,
20% have 2 canals, 1 foramen, and 1 root
10% have 2 canals, 2 foramina
6% may have 2 canals, 2 foramina, and 2 roots
Maxillary Canines present with a single canal 100%
of the time
62.) Describe the location
of the La and Li Crests of
Convexity when viewed
from the proximal for all
anterior teeth.
Cervical
all anterior teeth have La and Li Crests of
Convexity in the Cervical third of their
crowns when viewed from the proximal
63.) Name the ridges that
along with the incisal
ridge and the cingulum
form or border the
Lingual Fossa of the
permanent Mx Central
Incisor.
Mesial and Distal
Marginal Ridges
form the border of the Li Fossa on the
Mx Central Incisor along with the
Incisal Ridge and the Cingulum
64.) For the Permanent
Mx Lateral Incisor, when
viewed from the Fa,
which profile will more
likely be convex?
Distal
65.) Which Permanent
Mx Incisor is most likely
to have a Li Pit?
Permanent Maxillary
Lateral Incisors
are the Permanent Mx Incisor most
likely to have a Li Pit
66.) What percentage of
Permanent Mx Lateral
Incisors have a bifurcated
root?
0%
100% of Permanent Mx Lateral Incisors
have a single pulp canal and root, while up to
10% exhibit lateral root canals
67.) Which Permanent
Mx Incisor Type is the
narrowest Mesio-distally?
Lateral
Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisors
are the narrowest Maxillary Incisors
Mesio-distally
68.) Which Permanent
Mn Incisor Type is the
narrowest Mesio-distally?
Central
Permanent Mandibular Central
Incisors are the narrowest Mandibular
Incisors Mesio-distally
69.) List the time of eruption
for the following teeth:
Permanent Mx Central Incisor
Permanent Mn Central Incisor
Permanent Mn First Molar
Permanent Mn Canine
Permanent Mx Canine
Permanent teeth eruption dates
Mx Central Incisor 7-8 years
Mn Central Incisor 6-7 years
Mn First Molar 6-7 years
Mn Canine 9-10 years
Mx Canine 11-12 years
70.) Name the classes of
teeth that have occlusal
surfaces.
Premolars
Molars
posterior teeth have occlusal surfaces
anterior teeth have incisal or cusp
ridges
71.) Name the Classes of
teeth that have Marginal
Ridges and Fossae.
Incisors
Canines
Premolars
Molars
72.) Name the four major
functions of the Incisor
and Canine classes of
teeth.
Mastication
Aesthetics
Phonetics
Guidance
73.) Name the ridges
running from the MBO or
DBO point angles toward
the Lingual. These
ridges form the M and D
borders of the occlusal
table on Premolars and
Molars.
Marginal Ridges
74.) Describe the location
of the Li crest of
st
convexity for the Mx 1
Premolar when viewed
from the mesial aspect.
Middle Third
the Li crest of convexity for the Mx 1st
Premolar when viewed from the Mesial
is in the middle third
75.) Describe the location
of the B crest of
st
convexity for the Mx 1
Premolar when viewed
from the proximal aspect.
Cervical Third
the B crest of convexity for the Mx 1st
Premolar when viewed from the
Proximal is in the cervical third
76.) When viewed from
the facial which profile of
st
the Mx 1 Premolar will
most likely include a
concavity from proximal
contact to cervical line?
Mesial
77.) When viewed from
the buccal which profile
st
of the Mx 1 Premolar
will most likely be
described as convex from
proximal contact to
cervical line?
Distal
78.) What is the age of
emergence (eruption) for
st
the Mx 1 Premolar?
10-11 years
the Maxillary 1st Premolar usually
emerges (erupts) at approximately 1011 years of age
79.) Which Mx Premolar
is likely to present with a
distinctive mesial
concavity in the cervical
third of the tooth crown
and root?
Maxillary
st
1
Premolar
commonly presents with a distinctive
mesial concavity on the cervical third
of the tooth crown and root
80.) What percentage of
st
Mx 1 Premolars present
with a bifurcated root?
61%
of Mx 1st Premolars present with a
bifurcated root
81.) Which Mx Premolar
commonly presents with
a shorter central groove,
more supplemental
grooves, wider marginal
angle concavities?
Mx
nd
2
Premolar
the Mx 2nd Premolar commonly presents with a
shorter central groove, more supplemental grooves,
wider marginal ridges, and broader line angle
concavities than the Mx 1st Premolar
82.) How many roots are
usually found in the Mx
versus the Mn Molars in
the common
presentations?
Mx Molars = 3 roots
Mn Molars = 2 roots
st
1
83.) For the Mx Molar,
name the characteristic
feature formed by the
confluence of the
triangular ridge of the
DB cusp with the D cusp
ridge of the MLi cusp.
Oblique Ridge
st
1
84.) For the Mx Molar,
describe the location of
the facial or buccal crest
of convexity when viewed
from the mesial.
Cervical Third
st
1
85.) For the Mx Molar,
name the groove that
extends from the central
groove and separates the
MB and DB cusps
terminating on the buccal
surface.
Buccal Developmental
Groove
st
1
86.) For the Mx Molar,
describe the location of
the Lingual crest of
convexity when viewed
from the proximal.
Middle Third
st
1
87.) For the Mx Molar,
when viewed from the
facial, which profile will
most likely include a
slight concavity, and
which profile will most
likely be convex, from
crest to cervical line?
Mesial Profile – concavity
Distal Profile – convex
the Mx 1st Molar, when viewed from the facial, will
most likely include a slight concavity on the mesial
profile, and will most likely be convex on the distal
profile, from crest to cervical line
88.) From which arch
would you most likely
find a premolar with three
cusps and one pulp
canal?
Mandibular
The Mandibular 2nd Premolar is most
likely to present with three cusps and
only a single pulp canal
89.) Which type of
Mandibular Premolar has
a Lingual cusp that is ½
2
to /3 as long as the Bu
cusp?
Mandibular
Premolar
st
1
usually presents with a lingual cusp tip
that is ½ to 2/3 as long as the Bu cusp
90.) Which Mx Premolar
has narrower marginal
ridges when compared to
the other type in its class?
Mx
st
1
Premolar
the Mx 1st Premolar has narrower
marginal ridges that the Mx 2nd
Premolar
91.) At what age does the
st
Mn 1 Premolar erupt?
10-12 years
the Mn 1st Premolar normally erupts
into the oral cavity at 10-12 years of
age
92.) At what age does the
nd
Mn 2 Premolar erupt?
11-12 years
the Mn 2nd Premolar normally erupts
into the oral cavity at 11-12 years of
age
93.) Name the occlusal
curve which runs laterally
across the arch, and helps
to explain the Buccolingual inclination of the
Mx and Mn Posterior
teeth.
Curve of Wilson
the occlusal curve which runs laterally across
the arch, and helps to explain the Buccolingual inclination of the Mx and Mn
Posterior teeth is the Curve of Wilson
94.) Name the occlusal
curve that can be viewed
from the lateral view of
the skull and runs anteroposterior from the canine
cusp tip and along the Bu
cusps of the posterior
teeth.
Curve of Spee
the occlusal curve that can be viewed from the
lateral view of the skull and runs antero-posterior
from the canine cusp tip and along the Bu cusps of
the posterior teeth is the Curve of Spee
95.) List the three terms
that describe the different
methods for loss of tooth
structure (or wear of
tooth structure).
Attrition
Abrasion
Erosion
Attrition – tooth to tooth wear which occurs normally, such as
at the proximal contact points
Abrasion – wear induced by a third party, such as brushing and
such induce
Erosion – chemical removal of tooth structure, such as with
tobacco use
96.) How many pulp
canals are most often
found for the Permanent
Mx First Molar?
Four (4)
Three canals = 41%
Four canals = 57%
Five canals = 2%
97.) Which root of the
st
Permanent Mx 1 Molar
is most likely to have
multiple pulp canals?
Mesio-buccal Root
20% 1 canal, 1 foramen
40% 2 canals, 1 foramen
20% 2 canals, 2 foramina
(this = 60% with 2 canals, and therefore 60% of Mx
1st Molars have four or more pulp canals)
98.) How many pulp
canals are most
commonly found for the
st
Mn 1 Molar?
Three (3)
100% of Mn 1st Molars have at least 3 pulp canals but only 2 roots
70% have three canals, two of which are in the Mesial Root
30% have four canals, with two in each root
Frequency of canals in Mesial root –
40% 2 canals, 1 foramen
60% 2 canals, 2 foramina
Frequency of canals in Distal root –
70% 1 canal, 1 foramen
20% 2 canals, 1 foramen
10% 2 canals, 2 foramina (may show bifurcation)
99.) Where can the
Maxillary Tuberosity be
found?
rd
3
Posterior to the Mx
nd
Molar (or the Mx 2
rd
Molar if the Mx 3 Molar
was extracted)
100.) Where can the
found?
rd
3
Posterior to the Mn
nd
Molar (or the Mn 2
rd
Molar if the Mn 3 Molar
was extracted)
101.) What teeth in the
comprised of five lobes?
nd
2
Mn
Premolar
st
Mn 1 Molar
both the Mn 2nd Premolar and the
Mn 1st Molar develop from five lobes
the rest of the teeth in the permanent
dentition develop from four lobes
102.) Name the three
types of Oral Mucosa.
Masticatory
Lining
Specialized
Oral Mucosa = the mucous membrane that lines the oral
cavity
Masticatory – gingiva is tightly held down mucous membrane
and fibrous connective tissue that covers the alveolar process
Lining – not tightly held down
Specialized – tissue covering the tongue – papillae and taste
buds
103.) What are the five
functions of embrasures?
Spillway for food materials – reduces force on the
teeth
Part of self-cleansing process of the teeth
Stimulation of the pariodontium
Aesthetics – especially anterior embrasures
Prevent food impaction – contact areas
104.) What is the name
given to a horizontal
connection between pulp
canals?
Anastomosis
a horizontal connection between
pulp canals
105.) What is the name
given to the entire central
space in the dentin of a
tooth which contains the
pulp tissues?
Pulp Cavities
the entire central space in the dentin of a tooth
which contains the pulp tissues is called the pulp
cavities, which are composed of the Pulp Chamber,
Pulp Canal(s), Apical Foramen, Lateral (accessory)
Canal(s), Supplemental Canal, and Anastomosis’
106.) What significant role
do the Fa and Li heights
of contour play?
The Fa and Li heights of
contour provide protection and
stimulation of the gingival
tissue by deflecting food away
from the tissues
107.) Which Permanent
identifiable by a Mesiobuccal Cervical
Protrusion?
Mn
nd
2
Molar
is most readily identifiable by a Mesiobuccal Cervical Protrusion
108.) Which anterior tooth
is most likely to have a
bifurcated root?
Mn Canine
Is the anterior tooth most likely to
bifurcate, but still only bifurcates 6%
of the time
109.) What is the primary
function of the soft
palate?
to close off the nasal
pharynx
the primary function of the soft palate
is to close off the nasal pharynx
110.) What two structures
combine to create the
oblique ridge on the Mx
molars?
The triangular ridge of
the disto-buccal cusp and
the distal cusp ridge of
the Mesio-lingual cusp
converge to create the oblique ridge of
Mx Molars
111.) What trend is
noticeable among
proximal contacts as you
move from anterior to
posterior?
proximal contacts
become larger and are
positioned more
cervically and facially
as you move from anterior to posterior
112.)
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