第二章PPT

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R. GLENN
HUBBARD
O’BRIEN
ANTHONY PATRICK
Economics
FOURTH EDITION
CHAPTER
2
Trade-offs, Comparative Advantage,
and the Market System
Chapter Outline and
Learning Objectives
2.1 Production Possibilities
Frontiers and Opportunity
Costs
2.2 Comparative Advantage and
Trade
2.3 The Market System
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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2012新鮮人求穩定最愛公職 不動產最愛菜鳥
[NOWNews 2012/6/7]
人力銀行進行2012新鮮人就業現況調查,針對今年的應屆畢業生調查顯
示,新鮮人最嚮往的產業以穩定、有保障的「教育/政府/團體」(39.76%)異軍
突起。但最愛菜鳥的產業則是營建不動產(81.29%)。
1111人力銀行調查指出,今年新鮮人最嚮往的產業首重穩定,去年穩坐
冠軍寶座的「資訊/科技」(38.26%)則因歐債陰霾持續干擾接單,加上去年下
半年無薪假仍歷歷在目,轉而退居第二。也有不少新鮮人計畫投入「民生/服
務」(36.14%),成為下一個「服務薪貴」。
受訪學生表示,選擇上述產業/職業主要著眼「興趣嗜好」(67.47%)、
「專長/所學相關」(65.06%)與「薪資待遇」(45.78%)為主。反觀企業端進用
新鮮人的三大考量在於「學習意願」(45.63%)、「配合度」(41.75%)與「科系
/專業與職務相關性」(24.27%)。
調查也顯示,企業端今年廣納應屆畢業生的職務,以「業務貿易」
(32.04%)、「生產製造」(17.48%)、「美容餐旅」(14.56%)為主。與畢業生預
計投入「經營管理」(40.96%)、「企劃設計」(37.35%)與「文字傳媒」
(28.92%)前三大職務存在明顯差異。
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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2013畢業生逾9成投入職場 公職褪色嚮往服務業
[卡優新聞網 – 2013/6/14]
最近各大專院校的畢業典禮陸續落幕,全台近30萬名社會新鮮人大軍投
入就業市場,相較於去年人人拼鐵飯碗的局面,今年最受歡迎的是產業「民
生/服務」。而企業端開出平均起薪連續3年成長,落在25,097元,但仍不及應
屆畢業生已經年減590元的理想薪資27,491元,實在有夠「薪」酸!
根據1111人力銀行針對應屆畢業生的調查顯示,92%計畫直接投入職場,
較去年的77%上揚,僅3.79%選擇繼續升學、考公職或證照。最嚮往的產業是
「民生/服務」(35.33%),其次是「資訊/科技」(34%),「工商業服務」
(33.22%)再居次,至於去年榜首「教育/政府/團體」福利刪減,大舉滑落至第
7名。
從職務來看,以「管理幕僚/人事行政」(44.67%)最熱門,「行銷/企劃」
(34.67%)與「業務貿易/客服門市」(24.11%)次之,主要著眼於「專長/所學相
關」(68.67%)、「興趣嗜好」(62%)與「薪資待遇」(25.33%)。而企業端選用
新鮮人的考量則是「學習意願」(55.06%)、「配合度」(50%)與「科系/專業能
力」(25.95%)。
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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1111人力銀行同步針對企業端調查發現,57%的企業歡迎新血加入,也
高於去年的49%,尤其是「民生/服務」、「教育/政府/團體」與「傳產/製造」
產業張開雙臂的意願最高,開出的職缺則是以「業務貿易/客服門市」
(38.21%)、「管理幕僚/人事行政」(22.16%)、「機械模具/生產製程」
(17.07%)為主。
不過仍然有43%將新鮮人拒於門外,直指「專業能力差」(47.87%)、
「實作經驗差」(43.62%)與「抗壓性差」(30.85%)是主因。今年企業主開給
專科畢業生的起薪行情是24,989元,大學26,061元,碩士28,457元,總平均年
增574元,落在25,671元,但與求職端理想的27,491元尚存有落差。
1111人力銀行公關總監李大華表示,目前國內經濟像一只「悶鍋」,全
年經濟成長率「保3」岌岌可危,僅8%新鮮人順利找到工作,其餘預計花
2.17個月求職。建議追求學歷的族群,可以先踏入職場累積經驗,待了解自
己欠缺的專業再進修,將有助於個人談薪空間與職涯資本,避免徒然付出高
額學費與延遲就業的成本。
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Making
the
Connection
年
高等教育補助額與
高等教育程度就業者公私部門特徵
高等教育 公部門就業 私部門就業 公部門就業 私部門就業
補助額
人數
人數
人數比例
人數比例
(單位:千元) (20-24歲)
(20-24歲)
(20-24歲)
(20-24歲)
2002
62,152,061
612,000
(41,000)
1,887,000
(767,000)
24.49℅
(5.07℅)
75.51℅
(94.93℅)
2010
72,195,036
782,000
(36,000)
3,258,000
(558,000)
19.36℅
(6.06℅)
80.64℅
(95.94℅)
2011
80,604,927
783,000
(30,000)
3,444,000
(574,000)
18.52℅
(4.97℅)
81.48℅
(95.03℅)
2012
78,459,641
787,000
(31,000)
3,582,000
(593,000)
18.01℅
(4.97℅)
81.99℅
(95.03℅)
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Production Possibilities Frontiers and
Opportunity Costs
2.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVE
Use a production possibilities frontier to analyze opportunity costs and trade-offs.
Production possibilities frontier (PPF生產可能曲線) A
curve showing the maximum attainable combinations of two
products that may be produced with available resources
and current technology.
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Graphing the Production Possibilities Frontier (生產可能曲線)
Figure 2.1
BMW’s Production Possibilities Frontier
BMW faces a trade-off: To build one
more hybrid, it must build one less
SUV.
The production possibilities frontier
illustrates the trade-off BMW faces.
Combinations on the production
possibilities frontier—like points A, B,
C, D, and E—are technically efficient
because the maximum output is being
obtained from the available
resources.
Combinations inside the frontier— like
point F—are inefficient because some
resources are not being used.
Combinations outside the frontier—
like point G—are unattainable with
current resources.
Opportunity cost (機會成本) The highest-valued alternative that
must be given up to engage in an activity.
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Figure 2.2 Increasing Marginal Opportunity Costs
As the economy moves down the
production possibilities frontier, it
experiences increasing marginal
opportunity costs because
increasing automobile production
by a given quantity requires larger
and larger decreases in tank
production.
For example, to increase
automobile production from 0 to
200—moving from point A to point
B—the economy has to give up
only 50 tanks.
But to increase automobile
production by another 200
vehicles—moving from point B to
point C—the economy has to give
up 150 tanks.
The more resources already devoted to an activity, the smaller the payoff to
devoting additional resources to that activity.
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Economic growth (經濟成長) The ability of the economy to increase the
production of goods and services.
Figure 2.3 Economic Growth
Panel (a) shows that as more economic resources become available and technological
change occurs, the economy can move from point A to point B, producing more tanks and
more automobiles.
Panel (b) shows the results of technological change in the automobile industry that
increases the quantity of vehicles workers can produce per year while leaving unchanged
the maximum quantity of tanks that can be produced.
Shifts in the production possibilities frontier represent economic growth.
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Comparative Advantage and Trade
2.2 LEARNING OBJECTIVE
Understand comparative advantage and explain how it is the basis for trade.
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Specialization (專業化) and Gains from Trade (交易利得)
Figure 2.4 Production Possibilities for You and Your Neighbor, without Trade
The table shows how many pounds of apples and how many pounds of cherries you and
your neighbor can each pick in one week.
Panel (a) shows your PPF. If you devote all your time to picking apples and none of your
time to picking cherries, you can pick 20 pounds. If you devote all your time to picking
cherries, you can pick 20 pounds.
Panel (b) shows that if your neighbor devotes all her time to picking apples, she can pick
30 pounds. If she devotes all her time to picking cherries, she can pick 60 pounds.
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Trade (交易) The act of buying and selling.
Figure 2.5 Gains from Trade
When you don’t trade with your neighbor, you pick and consume 8 pounds of apples and
12 pounds of cherries per week—point A in panel (a).
When your neighbor doesn’t trade with you, she picks and consumes 9 pounds of apples
and 42 pounds of cherries per week—point C in panel (b).
If you specialize in picking apples, you can pick 20 pounds. If your neighbor specializes in
picking cherries, she can pick 60 pounds.
If you trade 10 pounds of your apples for 15 pounds of your neighbor’s cherries, you will
be able to consume 10 pounds of apples and 15 pounds of cherries— point B in panel (a).
Your neighbor can now consume 10 pounds of apples and 45 pounds of cherries—point D
in panel (b). You and your neighbor are both better off as a result of trade.
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Table 2.1
A Summary of the Gains from Trade
You
Apples
(in pounds)
Production and consumption
without trade
Your Neighbor
Cherries
(in pounds)
Apples
(in pounds)
Cherries
(in pounds)
8
12
9
42
Production with trade
20
0
0
60
Consumption with trade
10
15
10
45
2
3
1
3
Gains from trade (increased
consumption)
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Absolute Advantage(絕對利益) versus Comparative Advantage(比
較利益)
Absolute advantage The ability of an individual, a firm, or a country to
produce more of a good or service than competitors, using the same amount of
resources.
Table 2.2
Opportunity Costs of Picking Apples and Cherries
Opportunity Cost of Picking
1 Pound of Apples
Opportunity Cost of Picking
1 Pound of Cherries
You
1 pound of cherries
1 pound of apples
Your Neighbor
2 pounds of cherries
0.5 pound of apples
Comparative advantage The ability of an individual, a firm, or a country to
produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than competitors.
Don’t Let This Happen to You
Don’t Confuse Absolute Advantage and Comparative Advantage
Make sure you know the definitions.
Keep in mind it is possible to have one without the other.
MyEconLab Your Turn:
Test your understanding by doing related problem 2.5 at the end of this chapter.
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Comparative Advantage (比較利益)and the Gains from Trade(交換利得)
The basis for trade is comparative advantage, not absolute advantage.
Individuals, firms, and countries are better off if they specialize in
producing goods and services for which they have a comparative
advantage and obtain the other goods and services they need by
trading.
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The Market System
2.3 LEARNING OBJECTIVE
Explain the basic idea of how a market system works.
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Market (市場) A group of buyers and sellers of a good or service and
the institution or arrangement by which they come together to trade.
Product market (產品市場) A market for goods—such as computers—
or services—such as medical treatment.
Factor market (要素市場) A market for the factors of production, such
as labor, capital, natural resources, and entrepreneurial ability.
Factors of production (生產要素) The inputs used to make goods and
services.
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Factors of production are divided into four broad categories:
•
Labor includes all types of work, from the part-time labor of
teenagers working at McDonald’s to the work of senior managers in
large corporations.
•
Capital refers to physical capital, such as computers and machine
tools, that is used to produce other goods.
•
Natural resources include land, water, oil, iron ore, and other raw
materials (or “gifts of nature”) that are used in producing goods.
•
An entrepreneur is someone who operates a business.
Entrepreneurial ability is the ability to bring together the other factors
of production to successfully produce and sell goods and services.
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The Circular Flow of Income (所得循環流動)
Two key groups participate in markets:
•
A household consists of all the individuals in a home.
•
Firms are suppliers of goods and services.
Circular-flow diagram (循環流動圖表) A model that illustrates how
participants in markets are linked.
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Figure 2.6
The Circular-Flow Diagram
Households and firms are linked together
in a circular flow of production, income,
and spending.
The blue arrows show the flow of
the factors of production.
In factor markets, households
supply labor, entrepreneurial
ability, and other factors of
production to firms.
Firms use these factors of
production to make goods and
services that they supply to
households in product markets.
The red arrows show the flow of goods
and services from firms to households.
The green arrows show the flow of funds.
In factor markets, households receive wages
and other payments from firms in exchange for
supplying the factors of production.
Households use these wages and other payments to purchase goods and services from firms
in product markets. Firms sell goods and services to households in product markets, and they
use the funds to purchase the factors of production from households in factor markets.
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The Gains from Free Markets(自由市場的利得)
Free market A market with few government restrictions on how a good or service
can be produced or sold or on how a factor of production can be employed.
Countries that come closest to the free market benchmark have been more
successful than those with centrally planned economies in providing their
people with rising living standards, as Adam Smith argued in 1776.
The Market Mechanism(市場機制)
Individuals usually act in a rational, self-interested way. In analyzing people in
the act of buying and selling, the motivation of financial reward usually provides
the best explanation for the actions people take.
For the market mechanism to work in responding to changes in consumers’
wants, prices must be flexible. In a famous phrase, Smith said that firms would
be led by the “invisible hand” of the market to provide consumers with what
they want.
Firms respond individually to changes in relative prices by making decisions
that collectively end up satisfying the wants of consumers.
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The Legal Basis of a Successful Market System(市場體制成功的法
制基礎)
Protection of Private Property(保護財產權)
Property rights(財產權)The rights individuals or firms have to the exclusive
use of their property, including the right to buy or sell it.
Patents and copyrights protect intellectual property rights for inventors of ideas
for new products or production methods and for creators of books, films, and
software.
Enforcement of Contracts and Property Rights(契約與財產權的強制力)
If property rights are not well enforced, fewer goods and services will be
produced. This reduces economic efficiency, leaving the economy inside its
production possibilities frontier.
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