Industry Productivity Analysis

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U.S. 2007 – 2012 Pork Industry
Productivity Analysis
C. E. Abell1, C. Hostetler2, and K. J. Stalder1
1Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3150 and
National Pork Board, Des Moines, IA 50325
2013 Pork Academy
Des Moines, IA
June 5 & 6 , 2013
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Data Description
 Production data obtained from a large U.S.
data record keeping organization
 Agreement with the National Pork Board to share limited
information.
Uses:
1. Quantify the annual production levels and variation
associated for several key productivity indicators
2. Establish industry benchmarks for all swine production
phases




Breeding herd
Nursery
Wean – to – finish
Conventional finishing
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Data Description
 Production data obtained from a large U.S.
data record keeping organization
 Agreement with the National Pork Board to share limited
information.
Uses:
3. Quantify seasonal affects associated with the key productivity
indicators
4. Identify research opportunities that would improve the U.S.
pork industry production efficiency
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Data description
 Statistical process
 Industry Trends
 Raw means and standard deviations were used
 Seasonality evaluation
 Linear model was used
 Fixed effects
 Company
 Month
 Year
 Covariates – for nursery, grow-finish, and wean-to-finish
 Start age
 Start days
 Days in facility
 Covariates – Sow farm
 Weaning age
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Data description cont’
 Data (records) reported monthly for each
production phase
 Nursery and finishing data –
 Monthly averages are based on animals exiting the facility that
month
 Sow farm data –
 Monthly averages are based on litters weaned in that month
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Table 1. Number of companies and farms used in analysis for each facility type by year.a
Year
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
a
Companies
Farms
Companies
Farms
Companies
Farms
Companies
Farms
Companies
Farms
Companies
Farms
Conventional Finisher
Wean-to-Finish Nursery
Sow
29
849
46
1339
49
1376
43
1350
44
1382
50
1744
17
251
23
385
20
334
19
527
21
775
28
830
31
507
39
708
40
683
33
526
33
564
40
766
29
398
41
719
41
679
36
571
35
594
45
796
More than one farm can be managed by the same company. A farm represents a single production site.
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Company / farm summary
 Increase in the number of companies and
farms represented
 Tremendous increase in the data volume evaluated
 Results in improved information and interpretations that
can be made
 Companies becoming much more data driven
in their decision making process
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Company / farm summary
 Grow-finish and wean-to-finish becoming farms
becoming more like their sow farm counterparts
 Farm level decisions much more data driven
 Continue greater use of data when guiding
company decision process regarding:
 Employee
 Financial
 Health
 Nutritional
 Genetic
 Some combination
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Benchmarking - What is it?
Definition of benchmark:
a standard of excellence, achievement, etc., against which similar
things must be measured or judged
(Dictionary.com)
Definition of benchmarking:
the process of using benchmarks to identify areas for improvement,
strategies to achieve improvement and implementation of those
processes
(Common Industry)
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Why do we do it?
 Compare with other businesses
 Within species
 Across species
 Compare herd performance
 Within company
 Within country
 Etc.
 Set goals for improving herd
 For a specific trait or several traits
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Overall Averages
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Key productivity indicators
 Sow farm KPIs
 Pigs/mated sow/ year
 Litters/mated sow/year
 Total born
 Still born and mummies
 Number born alive
 Number weaned
 Pre-weaning mortality %
 Weaning weight
 Weaning age
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Key productivity indicators cont’
 Nursery KPIs
 Nursery mortality %
 Nursery out weight
 Days in nursery
 Nursery feed conversion
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Key productivity indicators cont’
 Conventional finishers and wean-to-finish
facilities KPIs
 Finisher (wean-to-finish) mortality %
 Finishing weight
 Days in finisher (wean-to-finish)
 Finisher feed conversion (wean-to-finish)
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Key Productivity Indicator Averages
 Means and standard deviations across all
farms and operations.
 Sow, nursery, wean-to-finish, and conventional growfinish data
 Developed to examine yearly trends across the
U.S. Swine industry.
 Operations can compare one or a number of
KPIs to see if they are above or below average
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Table 2. Conventional finisher average (±standard deviation) productivity from 2007 to 2012a
2007
2008
Percent
Mortality
6.98 (±5.61) 6.29 (±4.60)
Finishing
Weight (lbs)
260.1 (±17.0) 261.2 (±16.1)
Days in Finisher 124.2 (±11.0) 125.7 (±11.0)
Average Daily
Gain (lbs)
1.71 (±0.16) 1.69 (±0.16)
Feed
Conversionb
2.75 (±0.26) 2.82 (0.32)
a
2009
2010
2011
2012
5.12 (±3.44)
4.70 (±3.05)
4.48 (±2.49)
5.03 (±3.30)
265.0 (±14.9) 268.7 (±13.4) 271.5 (±12.8) 269.2 (±14.1)
124.3 (±11.4) 124.6 (±10.3) 122.7 (±9.7) 121.5 (±10.8)
1.75 (±0.15)
1.76 (±0.14)
1.81 (±0.14)
1.81 (±0.15)
2.76 (±0.27)
2.77 (±0.25)
2.71 (±0.24)
2.68 (±0.23)
All farms were given equal weighting.
Feed conversion is defined as feed to gain.
b
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Table 3. Wean-to-finish average (±standard deviation) productivity from 2007 to 2012a
2007
2008
Percent
Mortality
8.25 (±4.64) 7.92 (±4.91)
Finishing
Weight (lbs)
262.2 (±12.5) 261.7 (±12.5)
Days in Finisher 161.5 (±10.8) 162.5 (±11.4)
Average Daily
Gain (lbs)
1.55 (±0.12) 1.54 (±0.13)
Feed
Conversionb
2.52 (±0.17) 2.51 (±0.17)
a
2009
2010
2011
2012
7.61 (±4.79)
6.30 (±3.55)
6.33 (±3.96)
6.39 (±4.79)
264.2 (±11.0) 270.5 (±13.5) 273.6 (±12.8) 270.1 (±12.9)
164.2 (±10.7) 167.9 (±10.3) 166.4 (±9.0) 164.3 (±9.9)
1.54 (±0.11)
1.54 (±0.11)
1.57 (±0.10)
1.57 (±0.11)
2.54 (±0.18)
2.52 (±0.20)
2.50 (±0.20)
2.50 (±0.18)
All farms were given equal weighting.
Feed conversion is defined as feed to gain.
b
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Table 4. Nursery average (±standard deviation) productivity from 2007 to 2012a
Percent
Mortality
Exit
Weight
Days in Nursery
Average Daily
Gain (lbs)
Feed
Conversionb
a
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
4.42 (±4.12)
5.82 (±5.71)
4.68 (±4.41)
4.12 (±3.62)
4.32 (±4.32)
3.80 (±3.01)
48.0 (±7.5)
47.1 (±5.0)
49.0 (±9.2)
47.4 (±6.8)
49.4 (±8.4)
46.2 (±5.4)
50.7 (±9.1)
46.2 (±5.5)
50.3 (±9.3)
46.0 (±6.1)
50.7 (±8.4)
46.0 (±5.1)
0.76 (±0.12)
0.78 (±0.14)
0.80 (±0.13)
0.82 (±0.14)
0.81 (±0.14)
0.82 (±0.13)
1.51 (±0.23)
1.54 (±0.30)
1.53 (±0.29)
1.52 (±0.28)
1.53 (±0.25)
1.48 (±0.19)
All farms were given equal weighting.
Feed conversion is defined as feed to gain.
b
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Table 5. Sow farm average (±standard deviation) productivity from 2007 to 2012a
Pigs/Mated
Sow/Year
Litters/Mated
Sow/Year
Total Born
Stillborn and
Mummies
Number Born
Alive
Number Weaned
Pre-weaning
Mortality %
Weaning Weight
(lbs)
Weaning Age
(d)
a
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
22.6 (±2.8)
22.8 (±2.9)
23.2 (±3.0)
23.5 (±2.7)
24.1 (±3.1)
23.9 (±2.8)
2.36 (±0.22)
12.3 (±0.9)
2.35 (±0.23)
12.5 (±0.9)
2.34 (±0.21)
12.8 (±0.9)
2.33 (±0.20)
13.0 (±1.0)
2.33 (±0.22)
13.4 (±1.1)
2.31 (±0.22)
13.4 (±1.0)
1.19 (±0.42)
1.23 (±0.49)
1.20 (±0.46)
1.22 (±0.48)
1.24 (±0.49)
1.17 (±0.46)
11.1 (±0.8)
9.5 (±0.7)
11.3 (±0.8)
9.7 (±0.7)
11.6 (±0.9)
9.9 (±0.8)
11.8 (±0.9)
10.0 (±0.7)
12.1 (±1.0)
10.2 (±0.7)
12.3 (±0.9)
10.3 (±0.7)
14.2 (±5.6)
14.2 (±5.5)
14.5 (±5.6)
14.6 (±5.8)
15.5 (±5.9)
15.5 (±5.7)
12.3 (±1.3)
12.4 (±1.3)
12.8 (±1.5)
13.0 (±1.4)
13.1 (±1.4)
13.2 (±1.6)
19.5 (±1.7)
19.7 (±1.8)
20.5 (±2.0)
20.8 (±2.1)
20.9 (±2.5)
21.5 (±2.8)
All farms were given equal weighting.
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Overall data summary
 Finishing mortality has declined over time
while market weight has continued to increase
 Improving mortality by 2% for a 1000 hd. finishing
facility would be equivalent to adding $3,240 each barn
turn assuming 270 lb. market hog and $60/cwt.
 Days in the finisher have remained relatively
constant over time
 Average daily gain has increased slightly over time
 Feed conversion has improved slightly across
both finishing facility types
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Overall data summary cont’
 Nursery performance has change little across
the reporting time period
 Pigs/mated sow/ year has increased by almost
2 pigs from 2007 to 2012.
 Litters/mated sow/year has changed little
during the time period
 Most of the improvement in PSY is a result of improved
litter size
 Some of the PSY increase is greater stillborns and
mummies
 Number weaned has increased by 0.8 pigs
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Overall data summary cont’
 Percent pre-weaning mortality has increased.
 Represents lost opportunity
 Easy to improve??
 Weaning age has increased by 2 days from
2007 to 2012.
 Weaning weight has increased by 1 lb.
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Plots of Averages
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Description of figures
 Figures 1 -24 graphically depict the change for
the top 25%, overall, and bottom 25% for each
KPI for the 2007 to 2012 time period.
 Top 25% represented by red lines
 Overall average represented by black lines
 Bottom 25% represented by blue lines
 More easily view the rate of change for each
KPI across the 2007 to 2012 time period
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Figure summary
 KPIs are changing at the same direction for all
three groups
 Each group slope or rate of change may slightly differ
 Examples:
1. Litter size averages have increased at almost the same
rate across the top 25%, overall average, and bottom
25%.
 Litter size limit not reached yet for any group
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Figure summary cont’
 Examples:
2. Percent finisher mortality variation among the 3 groups
has changed substantially across the 2007 to 2012 time
period for the three groups.
 Result from increased importance or focus placed on reducing
mortality by owners, barn managers, and barn workers
 New vaccines
 Better herd health status
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Seasonality Estimates
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Seasonality graph description
 Least squares means were used to obtain the
month estimates using the model previously
described.
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Seasonality graph
 Graphs clearly show the months when
decreased performance occurs for each KPI
 Decreased performance represents substantial
productivity and economic losses for the US
swine industry
 Identifying causes and methods to mitigate
seasonality effects on the KPIs would have a
large economic impact on the entire swine
industry.
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Seasonality graph cont’
 In general lowest finishing performance was
seen during the summer months
 Sow farms had the lowest production during
winter months (sows experience hot weather
and then express the effects during the winter
months).
 Except for nursery mortality, seasonality has
less impact on nursery performance relative to
other production phases.
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Summary
 The US swine industry has been successful at
improving production efficiency
 Some traits (mortality) still represent future opportunities
 Increasing the pounds of pork produced in a given
period of time and reduced finishing mortality has
improved finishing throughput.
 Combining improved litter size and pounds of pork
produced, the throughput of the US swine industry has
increased as a whole.
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Summary
 Key productivity indicator trait improvements may be
the result of –
 Better genetics
 Improved health
 Superior management
 Other
 The results from this analysis can be used to
determine when management practices need to be
improved and/or maintained to ensure optimal
performance level for each swine production phase.
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
Thank you for your time and
attention !
Do you have any questions or
comments?
IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Animal Science
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