SiC MOSFETs - Tecnoimprese

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Power Matters
Advantages of SiC MOSFETs in
Power Applications
Power Forum, Bologna – September 18th, 2014
Pascal Ducluzeau
Product Marketing Director
Microsemi Power Module Products
[email protected]
Topics
§ Advantages of SiC in Power Applications
§ SiC Power Module Advantages
§ Microsemi SiC MOSFETs Benchmark
§ Microsemi SiC Program
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
2
Advantages of SiC in Power Applications
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
SiC Main Characteristics vs. Si
Characteristics
SiC vs. Si
Results
Benefits
Breakdown field
(MV/cm)
10x Higher
Lower On-Resistance
Higher efficiency
Electron sat. velocity
(cm/s)
2x Higher
Faster switching
Size reduction
Bandgap energy
(ev)
3x Higher
Higher Junction temperature
Improved cooling
Thermal conductivity
(W/cm.K)
3x Higher
Higher power density
Higher current capabilities
Self regulation
Easy paralleling
Positive Temperature
coefficient
SiC is the perfect
technology to
address today and
future applications
-
Lower Power Losses
Higher frequency cap.
Higher junction temp.
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Easier cooling
Downsized system
Higher Reliability
Power Matters
4
Markets and advantages of SiC
Markets
Aerospace
Defense
Oil drilling
Transportation
Applications
Actuation
Air Conditioning
Power Distribution
Motor Drives
Aux. Power Supplies
Power Train
Fast Battery Charger
DC/DC Converters
KERS
High Temp.
High Freq.
Small, Light
System
Low Loss,
Efficiency
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Solar Energy
PV inverter
X
Wind turbine
Inverter
X
Motor drives
Welding
UPS, SMPS
Induction Heating
X
X
X
MRI power supply
X-Ray power supply
X
X
X
Industrial
Medical
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
X
Power Matters
5
Transistor Power Loss Comparison
(30kHz, 50% duty cycle, ILOAD=15A, VOFF=800V, TCASE=80°C, TJ=125°C)
180
TFS=TRENCH & FIELD STOP – PT = PUNCH-THROUGH – NPT = NON-PUNCH-THROUGH
160
140
Turn-off Losses
Turn-on Losses
120
Power Loss [W]
Conduction Losses
100
80
50% lower losses than
fastest IGBT type
60
40
TJ=150°C
20
0
TFS IGBT
PT IGBT
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
NPT IGBT
SiC MOSFET
Power Matters
6
SiC in Electric Vehicles – Case Study #1
Toyota approximates that 20% of HV total electrical
power loss occurs in the power semiconductors
One key to improving fuel efficiency is to increase
power semiconductor efficiency
Compared to silicon, SiC MOSFETs operate with
1/10 the power loss and switching frequency can be
increased by a factor of ten.
Aim to leverage the benefits of high frequency and
high efficiency to enable PCU downsizing of 80%
Over 5% fuel efficiency improvement confirmed
with SiC MOSFETs
GOAL: Toyota is aiming for a 10% improvement in
fuel efficiency with SiC MOSFETs
Source: Toyota-Denso presentation, Automotive Engineering Exposition in Japan May 2014
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
7
SiC in Electric Vehicles – Case Study #2
Total Inverter & Battery Cost Reduction with SiC
5% TOTAL COST REDUCTION
with SiC-MOSFET
100%
6,5%
95%
1,4%
% Original Cost
6,0%
90%
4,3%
1,0%
2,2%
2,2%
85%
86%
80%
350V Battery
225kW 3-Phase Inverter
- 84 Si PT IGBT solution
(IXGX72N60B3H1 - 600V/72A)
- 60 SiC MOSFET solution
(30mΩ, 700V)
6,2%
80%
75%
Battery
Si IGBT
Semiconductors
Magnetics
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Passives
SiC MOSFET
Other
Power Matters
8
SiC in Electric Vehicles – Case Study #2
Semiconductor % Efficiency Loss versus Load
10%
350V Battery
225kW 3-Phase Inverter
- 84 Si PT IGBT solution
(IXGX72N60B3H1 - 600V/72A)
- 60 SiC MOSFET solution
(30mΩ, 700V)
9%
7%
6%
5%
4%
3%
2%
Si IGBT
55-70 mph – 88-112km/h
7% improvement
Semiconductor Loss [% Efficiency]
8%
SiC MOSFET
on level ground the EV inverter is generating
only about 6% of its rated capacity at 55mph
1%
0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Inverter Load [%]
70%
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
80%
90%
100%
Power Matters
9
SiC in Electric Vehicles – Case Study #2
SiC MOSFET versus PT IGBT Summary
§ 5% reduction in Inverter & Battery cost using SiC MOSFETs
§ 7% improvement in fuel efficiency using SiC MOSFETs
̶ Lower switching losses
̶ Higher switching frequency
̶ Higher temperature capable
̶ Better current sharing when paralleled
̶ No need for anti-parallel diode
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
350V Battery
225kW 3-Phase Inverter
- 84 Si PT IGBT solution
(IXGX72N60B3H1 - 600V/72A)
- 60 SiC MOSFET solution
(30mΩ, 700V)
Power Matters
10
SiC Power Modules Advantages
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
SiC-MOSFET and packaging
§ Whatever the selected SiC-MOS device, packaging choice
will help to emphasize the best of SiC performance for the
application.
Ø High stray inductances will lead to higher oscillation and voltage
spikes
Ø Not efficient paralleling will compromise reliability of the system
Ø Symmetric layout will guaranty performance stability
ØBuilt-in internal series gate resistor for easy paralleling
ØKelvin source signal for easy drive
D3 - 62mm package – 30mm height
30nH stray inductance
SP6 - 62mm package – 17mm height
15nH stray inductance
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
SP6P - 62mm package – 12mm height
5nH stray inductance
Power Matters
12
SiC Module advantages vs Discrete Assembly
Features
Benefits
Higher power density
Size and cost reduction
Isolated and conductive substrate
Excellent thermal management
Internal wiring
Less external hardware
Minimum parasitic
Higher performance and efficiency
Minimum output connections
Reduced assembly time
Mix & match components
Optimized losses
Performance
Reliability
Size
Cost
Whole system improvement
SiC COST
Reduced size and cost of
magnetics and heatsink
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
13
CTE & Thermal Management
Module performance and reliability depends on assembly material choice
Base
Substrate
Material
CTE
(ppm/K)
Thermal
conductivity
(W/m.K)
Density
(g/cc)
CuW
6.5
190
17
AlSiC
7
170
2.9
Cu
17
390
8.9
Al2O3
7
25
-
AlN
5
170
-
Si3N4
3
60
-
Thermal
CTE
conductivity Rthjc (K/W)
(ppm/K)
(W/m.K)
Silicon Die (120 mm2) or
SiC Die (40mm2)
4
136
Cu/Al2O3
17/7
390/25
0.35
AlSiC/Al2O3
7/7
170/25
0.385
Cu/AlN
17/5
390/170
0.28
AlSiC/AlN
7/5
170/170
0.31
AlSiC/Si3N4
7/3
170/60
0.31
DBC substrate Solder Joint
Die
Si
4
136
-
SiC
2.6
370
-
Ø AlSiC and Alumina offer best CTE matching
Dice
Solder
Base
Ø AlN and Si3N4 on AlSiC offer higher thermal performance with good CTE matching
§
More closely matched TCEs of materials increases module lifetime
§
Higher thermal conductivity maximizes thermal performance
§
Engineered materials such as AlSiC provide substantial weight reductions (up to 50%) over
traditional copper material
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
14
SiC Module = Higher Power Density
Comparison
SiC vs Si
Microsemi
Microsemi
APTGLQ300A120G
APTMC120AM20CT1AG
Semiconductor type
Trench4 IGBT
SiC Mosfet
Ratings @ Tc=80°C
300A/1200V
108A/1200V
Package type
SP6 – 108x62mm
SP1 – 52x41mm
3x smaller
130A
130A
-
60A
115A
~2.0x higher
16.0mJ
3.4mJ
4.7x lower
Current @ 30kHz
Tc=75°C, D=50%, V=600V
Current @ 50kHz
Tc=75°C, D=50%, V=600V
Eon+Eoff @ 100A
Tj=150°C, V=600V
Operating Frequency vs Drain Current
200
MORE POWER
in
SMALLER VOLUME
Frequency (kHz)
Parameter
SiC
MOSFET
150
VBUS=600V
D=50%
TJ=150°C
TC=75°C
100
Si IGBT
50
0
40
60
80 100 120 140 160
ID, Drain Current (A)
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
15
Parallel diode to SiC-MOS: to Be or not to Be?
Intrinsic
Body diode
Additional
Fast Series &
Parallel diode
Additional
Parallel
diode
Si-MOSFET
SiC-MOSFET
SiC ADVANTAGE
Poor
Reverse Recovery
Characteristics
Low Vf
Good
Reverse Recovery
Characterisitcs.
Higher Vf
Low SiC diode switching losses
Blocking series diode
mandatory to avoid
slow body diode to
conduct
No Need for
blocking diode
Less components count and
less conduction losses
No advantage:
Current flow would go
to body diode only
Mandatory
to reduce high
conduction losses
of body diode
Allow full SiC-MOS performance
without limitation of body diode
losses
• SiC-MOS Body diode is enough when operated at low duty cycle
• SiC-MOS parallel diode required if operated at high duty cycle
• Parallel diode can be avoided if SiC -MOSFET is turned ON (Synchronous
Rectification)
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
16
SiC-MOS VSD performance vs VGS
APTMC120AM20CT1AG – VSD curves vs ISD at given VGS values
• The lower the negative gate voltage the higher the Vsd
• The higher the positive gate voltage the lower the Vsd
• To minimize the diode conduction losses the SiC-MOSFET should be turned
ON with VGS = 20V
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
17
SiC-MOSFET gate drive
Example of Opto-driver gate driver that can be used to drive SiC Mosfet
•
Increasing Gate voltage to 20V reduces total losses by 30%
•
Negative gate bias further reduces losses, but the impact is smaller than for IGBTs
•
Vgs voltage range should be within -5V to +20V to optimize total losses
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
18
SiC-MOS Power module application
INDUCTION
HEATING
10 x 1200V – 80mΩ SiC Most per switch
12 x 1200V – 10A SiC schottky per switch
Practical example:
CUSTOMER’s OBJECTIVE
MODULE COUNT REDUCTION PER SYSTEM
IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND
RELAIBILITY
LOWER SYSTEM COST
DC Voltage = 535V
Sinusoidal RMS current = 136A out
Water cooled heat sink - inlet temperature = 14°C
DC power = 61.6kW
Efficiency = 99.2% @ Fsw=217KHz ZVS
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
19
SiC-MOS Power module application
AUTOMOTIVE
2 x 1200V – 25mΩ SiC Most per switch
2 x 1200V – 20A SiC schottky per switch
9 modules size 52mm x 41mm
Practical example in race car application
CUSTOMER’s OBJECTIVE
SMALLER AND LIGHTER SYSTEM
RELIABILITY
PERFORMANCE
3-phase inverter – 3 modules per phase
100KW
DC voltage = 900V
>220A RMS @ Tc=75°C
Fsw >100kHz
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
20
Microsemi SiC MOSFETs Benchmark
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Normalized RDSON (to 25°C)
Best in Class RDS(ON) vs. Temperature
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
Competitor 2
80mΩ
Microsemi
APT50SM120B
50mΩ
Competitor 1
80mΩ
Microsemi
APT40SM120B
80mΩ
25
50
75
100 125 150 175 200
Tj [°C]
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
22
Best in Class Built in Gate Resistance
10
9
8
RG (Ω)
7
6
Competition High RG
5
4
3
2
Microsemi Low RG
1
3
4
Competitor 1
2
APT40SM120B
80mΩ
Oscillation-free with
minimal external RG
1
APT50SM120B
50mΩ
0
Competitor 2
0
5
Ultra Low Gate Resistance
Minimized Switching Energy Loss &
Allow Higher Switching Frequency
Microsemi
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
23
Switching Energy Benchmark
Total Switching Energy [mJ]
6
Microsemi 80mΩ
Microsemi 50mΩ
Competitor 2 80mΩ
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Current [A]
>30% less switching loss translates to cooler dynamic operations
and capability for higher switching frequencies
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
24
Switching Energy Benchmark
1.E+06
Microsemi
APT50SM120B
50mΩ
fmax [Hz]
1.E+05
Microsemi
APT40SM120B
80mΩ
1.E+04
Competitor 2
80mΩ
†
Tj=150°C; Tc=75°C
1.E+03
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
ID [A]
Dynamic performance breakaway enablers:
ü Superior EON (ton) due to high gm, ultra low RG
ü Superior EOFF due to extremely low RG (yet oscillation free with very low external RG)
ü Low RDSON at high temperatures extends switching frequency and current capability
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
25
Superior Short Circuit Withstand
Microsemi
APT40SM120B
80mΩ
Competitor 1
80mΩ
8.5µs
Microsemi’s 80mΩ SiC MOSFET demonstrates
25% longer short circuit capability
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
26
Microsemi SiC Program
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Silicon Carbide (SiC) Manufacturing
Microsemi SiC Wafer Fab located in Bend, Oregon USA
§ Complete In-house process capability since 2007
§ Current capacity of 200 wafers/week (100mm – 4 inches)
§ 12 Issued SiC technology patents
§ Over 1,000,000 SiC Schottky Diodes produced
§ Experienced with SiC MOSFETs, SiC Schottky Diodes, SiC
SITs (JFETs) and SiC MESFETs
E220
Production Implanter
Hi Temp Oxidation
MESFET and MOSFET Gate Oxidation
Ambios AFM
Surface Roughness to 1Å
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
CentroTherm CHV-100
Post Implant Annealing to 1700 °C
Power Matters
28
Microsemi Power Products
MOSFETs (100V-1200V) Highest Performance
§ SiC MOSFETs (1200V 50mΩ and 80mΩ )
§ MOSFETs
§ FREDFETs (MOSFET with fast body diode)
Internal body
diode
§ COOLMOSTM (Superjunction MOSFET)
IGBTs (600V-1200V) Lowest Cost
separate diode
(combi)
§ PT (Punch-Thru) – short tail current
§ NPT (Non Punch-Thru) – low switching losses and easy to parallel
§ Field Stop – low conduction losses
Diodes
§ SiC Schottky Diodes (650V, 1200V, and 1700V)
§ Si Fast Recovery Epitaxial Diodes “FRED” (200V-1200V)
§ Si Schottky, low VF and fast switching (200V)
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
29
Microsemi SiC Schottky Diodes
Microsemi Advantages
650V SiC Schottky Diodes
Volts
650
IF(avg)
Amps
10
20
30
2 x 10
VF
Volts
Part Number
Package
1.5
APT10SCD65K
TO-220
1.5
APT20SCD65K
TO-220
1.5
APT30SCD65B
TO-247
1.5
APT10SCD65KCT
TO-220
1200
20
30
2 x 10
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
APT10SCD120B
APT10SCD120K
APT20SCD120B
APT20SCD120S
APT30SCD120B
APT30SCD120S
TO-247
TO-220
TO-247
D3
TO-247
D3
1.5
APT10SCD120BCT
TO-247
1700V SiC Schottky Diodes
1700
10
1.5
APT10SCE170B
leads to higher reliability. Microsemi
thin film passivation applied in the
wafer fab vs. competitors’ spin on
passivation applied post wafer fab.
Patented Technology
1200V SiC Schottky Diodes
10
Superior Passivation Technology
TO-247
Junction barrier structure has a
lower VF than any equivalent die size
(due to larger Schottky area and
buried P-Wells).
Microsemi SiC Wafer Fab
SiC MOSETs are Designed and
Manufactured at Microsemi’s SiC
Wafer Fab in Bend, Oregon.
Future products
650V, 1200V, and 1700V 20A & 50A single chip design
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
30
Microsemi SiC MOSFETs
Voltage
Current
40A
RDS(ON)
80mΩ
Part Number
Package
APT40SM120B
TO-247
APT40SM120S
D3
APT40SM120J
1200V
50A
50mΩ
(32A)
SOT-227
APT50SM120B
TO-247
APT50SM120S
D3
APT50SM120J
(37A)
Availability
Available Now
SOT-227
700V
65A
30mΩ
TBD
TBD
November 2014
1200V
20A
160mΩ
TBD
TBD
December 2014
1200V
80A
40mΩ
TBD
TBD
December 2014
1200V
100A
25mΩ
TBD
TBD
December 2014
1700V
20A
120mΩ
TBD
TBD
March 2015
Microsemi Advantages
• Best in class RDS(ON) vs. Temperature
• Low Switching Losses
• Low Conduction Losses
• Short Circuit Withstand Rated
• Superior Stability
• Microsemi patented SiC MOSFETs
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
31
SiC Standard Power Module - Product Offering
§ SiC Mosfet + SiC diodes
SiC power modules advantages
ü 3-Level
ü Phase leg
ü PFC
• High speed switching
• Low switching losses
• Low input capacitance
• Low drive requirements
• Low profile
• Minimum parasitic inductance
• Lower system cost
• Increased reliability
§ SiC diodes
ü Dual diode
ü Full bridge
§ IGBT + SiC diodes
ü Boost chopper
ü Dual Boost chopper
ü 3-Level
§ Mosfet/CoolMos + SiC diodes
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
Boost/Buck chopper
Single switch
Phase leg
Full bridge
3-phase bridge
Optional material assembly
AlN substrate
Al2O3 substrate
Copper base plate
AlSiC base plate
Custom product capabilities
Modules designed for high frequency, high performance,
high density and energy saving power systems
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
32
Microsemi SiC Power Modules NEW PRODUCTS
Low Profile and Industry standard packages
Great design flexibility to offer modified versions!
Technology
Topology
Voltage
Current
Tc=80°C
Rdson max.
per switch
Tj=25°C
Package - Height
APTMC120TAM12CTPAG
3-Phase leg + Parallel diode
1200V
150A
12mΩ
SP6P – 12mm
APTMC120TAM17CTPAG
3-Phase leg + Parallel diode
1200V
100A
17mΩ
SP6P – 12mm
APTMC120TAM33CTPAG
3-Phase leg + Parallel diode
1200V
60A
33mΩ
SP6P – 12mm
APTMC120AM25CT3AG
Phase Leg + Parallel diode
1200V
80A
25mΩ
SP3 – 12mm
APTMC120AM16CD3AG
Phase Leg + Parallel diode
1200V
100A
16mΩ
D3 – 30mm
APTMC120AM12CT3AG
Phase Leg + Parallel diode
1200V
150A
12mΩ
SP3 – 12mm
APTMC120AM09CT3AG
Phase Leg + Parallel diode
1200V
200A
9mΩ
SP3 – 12mm
APTMC170AM60CT1AG
Phase Leg + Parallel diode
1700V
40A
60mΩ
SP1 – 12mm
APTMC170AM30CT1AG
Phase Leg + Parallel diode
1700V
80A
60mΩ
SP1 – 12mm
SP1
SP3
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
SP6P
D3
Power Matters
33
Summary – Microsemi SiC MOSFETs
Microsemi’s Best-in-Class SiC MOSFETs enable
customers to design ultra efficient high power
electronics
Microsemi Advantages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Best-in-class RDS(ON) vs. Temperature
Ultra Low Gate Resistance
Low Conduction Losses
Low Switching Losses
Short Circuit Withstand Rated
Reliable Technology Platform
Discrete and Power module
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
34
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation
Power Matters
35
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