# L22 NL Methods 2

```L22 Numerical Methods part 2
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Homework
Review
Alternate Equal Interval
Golden Section
Summary
Test 4
1
2
Problem 10.4
given : f (x )  x12  2 x22  2 x32  2 x1 x2  2 x2 x3
and d  ( 3,10, 12) at x  (1,2,3)
Determine whether d is a descent direction
i.e. c d  0
2 x1  2 x2

2(1)  2(2)
 6 
c  f (x*)  4 x2  2 x1  2 x3   4(2)  2(1)  2(3)   16 



 16 
  
4 x3  2 x2
 x* 4(3)  2(2)
c d0
 3 
c d  cTd  6 16 16  10 


 12 
 c1d1  c2 d 2  c3d 3
 6( 3)  16(10)  16( 12)
 18  160  192
Yes, descent direction
 50  0
3
Prob 10.10
given :
f (x )  ( x1  x2 )2  ( x2  x3 )2
and d  (4,8,4) at x  (1,1,1)
Determine whether d is a descent direction
i.e. c d  0
2( x1  x2 )

2(1  1)
 4 
c  f (x*)  2( x1  x2 )  2( x2  x3 )   2(1  1)  2(1  1)   8 


2(1  1)
 4 
2(
x

x
)
  
 2 3
 x* 
c d0
4 
c d  c Td   4 8 4  8 
 
4 
 c1d1  c2 d 2  c3d 3
 4(4)  8(8)  4(4)
 16  64  16
 96  0
No, not a descent direction
4
Prob 10.19
given :
f (x )  x12  2 x22  2 x32  2 x1 x2  2 x2 x3
and d  ( 12, 40, 48) at x  (2,4,10)
What is the slope of the function at the point?
Find the optimum step size.
2 x1  2 x2

2(2)  2(4)
 12 
c  f (x*)  4 x2  2 x1  2 x3   4(4)  2(2)  2(10)   40 



 48 
  
4 x3  2 x2
 x* 4(10)  2(4)
 12 
c d  12 40 48  40 
 48 


 12( 12)  40( 40)  48( 48)
 (144  1600  2304)
 4048
Slope
5
Prob 10.19 cont’d
x ( k 1)  x ( k )   d( k )
 x1 
 x2 
 
 x3 
( new )
( new )
 x1 
  x2 
 
 x3 
( old )
 d1 
  d2 
 
 d3 
 x1 
2 
 12 
 x2 
 4 
   40 
 
10 
 48 
 


 x3 
x1  2  ( 12)  2  12
x2  4  ( 40)  4  40
x2  10  ( 48)  10  48
( old )
f (x )  x12  2 x22  2 x32  2 x1 x2  2 x2 x3
 (2  12)2  2(4  40)2  2(10  48)2  2(2  12)(4  40)  2(4  40)(10  48)
f ()  4048  25504  0
*  4048 / 25504  0.15873
6
Prob 10.19 cont’d
x ( k 1)  x ( k )   d( k )
 x1 
 x2 
 
 x3 
( new )
2 
 4 
10 
 
( old )
 12 
 0.15873  40 
 48 


x1  2  0.15873( 12)  0.095
x2  4  0.15873( 40)  2.35
x2  10  0.15873( 48)  2.38
alpha
0.15872
x1
x2
x3
0.095358
-2.34881
2.38143
f(x)
10.75031
7
Prob 10.30
f ( x )  ( x1  1)2  ( x2  2)2  ( x3  3)2  ( x4  4)2
x  (2,1,4,3)
d  ( 2,2, 2,2)
find f ( )
x ( k 1)  x ( k )   d( k )
 x1 
 x2 
x 
 3
 x4 
( new )
2 
1 
 
4
 
3 
x1  2  ( 2)
x2  1  ( 2)
x3  4  ( 2)
x4  3  ( 2)
( old )
 2 
2
 
 2 
 
2
f ()  ((2  2)  1)2  ((1  2)  2)2  ((4  2)  3)2  ((3  2)  4) 2
f ()  162  16  4
8
The Search Problem
• Sub Problem A
• Sub Problem B
How far to go in that direction?
x(k )
9
Search Direction…
Min f(x): Let’s go downhill!
1
f (x )  f (x*)  f (x*)(x  x*)  (x  x*)T H(x*)(x  x*)  R
2
T
let d  (x  x*)
then x  x *  d
or x( new)  x( old )  d
1 T
f (x * d )  f (x*)  f (x*)d  d H d  R
2
T
f  f T (x*) d
Descent condition
f T (x*) d  0
let c  f T (x*)
c d0
10
Step Size?
How big should we make alpha?
Can we step too “far?”
i.e. can our step size be chosen so
big that we step over the
“minimum?”
11
We are here
Figure 10.2 Conceptual diagram for iterative steps of an optimization method.
12
Some Step Size Methods
• “Analytical”
Search direction = (-) gradient, (i.e. line search)
Form line search function f(α)
Find f’(α)=0
• Region Elimination (“interval reducing”)
Equal interval
Alternate equal interval
Golden Section
13
Nonunimodal functions
Unimodal if stay in locale?
Figure 10.5 Nonunimodal function f() for 0    0
14
Monotonic Increasing Functions
15
Monotonic Decreasing Functions
continous
16
Unimodal functions
monotonic decreasing
then monotonic increasing
monotonic increasing
then monotonic
decreasing
Figure 10.4 Unimodal function f().
17
Some Step Size Methods
• “Analytical”
Search direction = (-) gradient, (i.e. line search)
Form line search function f(α)
Find f’(α)=0
• Region Elimination (“interval reducing”)
Equal interval
Alternate equal interval
Golden Section
18
Analytical Step size
given d, and x ( old )
let x ( new )  x ( old ) d( k )
then x ( k 1)  x ( k )   d( k )
f (x( k 1) )  f (x( k ) +d)  f ()
Slope of line
search= c d
f (x ( k 1) )  f (x ( k ) +d)  f ()
f '()=0
Slope of line at fmin
c d0
Figure 10.3 Graph of f() versus .
19
Analytical Step Size Example
given : f (x )  ( x1  2)2  ( x2  1)2
4 
and let d   c and at x   
4 
find optimal step size  *and f (*)!
2( x1  2) 
2(4  2) 
d   c  


2(4  1) 
2( x2  1) 
 4 
 
 6 
x ( k 1)  x ( k )   d( k )
( new )
( old )
 x1 
 x1 
 d1 



 x2 
 x2 
 d 2 
x1  4  ( 4)  4  4
x2  4  ( 6)  4  6
f ()  ( x1  2)2  ( x2  1)2
f ()  ((4  4)  2)2  ((4  6)  1)2
f ()  522  52  13
f ()  2(52)  52  0
*  1 / 2
x1  4  1 / 2( 4)  2
x2  4  1 / 2( 6)  1
2 
x*   
1 
f (x*)  ( x1  2)2  ( x2  1)2
 (2  2)2  (1  1)2  0
f ( )  ((4  4)  2)2  ((4  6)  1)2
f ( )  2((4  4)  2)( 4)  2((4  6)  1)( 6)  0
f ( *)  (2  4)( 4)  (3  6)( 6)  0
 8  16  18  36  26  52  0
*  26 / 52  1 / 2
20
Alternative Analytical Step Size
f (x ( k 1) )  f (x ( k ) +d )  f ()
f '()=0
df (x ( k 1) ) f T (x ( k 1) ) d (x ( k 1) )

0
d
x
d
since x ( k 1)  x ( k )   d( k )
d (x ( k 1) )
 d( k )
d
f (x ( k 1) ) d( k )  0
c( k 1) d( k )  0
be orthogonal to d
for f '()=0
x ( k 1)  x ( k )   d( k )
x1  4  ( 4)  4  4
x2  4  ( 6)  4  6
 2( x  2) 
c( k 1)   1
 2( x2  1) 
 2(4  4  2) 

 2(4  6  1) 
 4  8 

6  12 
c( k 1) d( k )  0
T  4 
6  12  
 6 
4(4  8)  6(6  12)  0
16  32  36  72  0
52  104  0
  52 / 104  1 / 2
4  8,
21
Some Step Size Methods
• “Analytical”
Search direction = (-) gradient, (i.e. line search)
Form line search function f(α)
Find f’(α)=0
• Region Elimination (“interval reducing”)
Equal interval
Alternate equal interval
Golden Section
22
“Interval Reducing”
Region elimination
“bounding
phase”
Figure 10.6 Equal-interval
search process. (a) Phase I:
initial bracketing of minimum.
(b) Phase II: reducing the
interval of
uncertainty.
Interval
reduction
phase”
l  ( q  1)
u  ( q  1)
I   u   l  2
23
2 delta!
24
Successive-Equal Interval Algorithm
f ( x)  2- 4 x  exp( x)
x
-5.0000
-4.0000
-3.0000
-2.0000
-1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
f(x)
22.0067
18.0183
14.0498
10.1353
6.3679
3.0000
0.7183
1.3891
10.0855
40.5982
130.4132
x lower
x upper
delta
-5
5
1
x
0.0000
0.2000
0.4000
0.6000
0.8000
1.0000
1.2000
1.4000
1.6000
1.8000
2.0000
f(x)
3.0000
2.4214
1.8918
1.4221
1.0255
0.7183
0.5201
0.4552
0.5530
0.8496
1.3891
x
1.2000
1.2400
1.2800
1.3200
1.3600
1.4000
1.4400
1.4800
1.5200
1.5600
1.6000
0
2
0.2
“Interval” of uncertainty
1.2
1.6
0.04
f(x)
0.5201
0.4956
0.4766
0.4634
0.4562
0.4552
0.4607
0.4729
0.4922
0.5188
0.5530
x
1.3600
1.3680
1.3760
1.3840
1.3920
1.4000
1.4080
1.4160
1.4240
1.4320
1.4400
f(x)
0.456193
0.455488
0.455034
0.454833
0.454888
0.455200
0.455772
0.456605
0.457702
0.459065
0.460696
1.36
1.44
0.008
25
More on bounding phase I
Swan’s method
( k 1)  ( k )  2k 
( k 1)  ( k )  10k 
Fibonacci sequence
k
q   (1.618) j
j0
26
Successive Alternate Equal Interval
Assume bounding phase has found u and l
Min can be on either side of b
Point values…
not a line
1
b  l  I
3
2
1
b  l  I  u  I
3
3
But for sure its not in this region!
27
ME 482 Optimal Design
alt_eq_int.xls
RJE
Successive Alt Equal Int
4/11/2012
Alternate Equal Interval Search for locating minimum of f(x)
x lower
0.5
x upper
2.618
f ( x)  2- 4 x  exp( x)
Iteration
1
2
3
4
5
x
f(x)
x
f(x)
x
f(x)
x
f(x)
x
f(x)
xl
0.5000000
1.6487213
0.5000000
1.6487213
0.9706667
0.7570370
0.9706667
0.7570370
1.1798519
0.5344847
1/3(xu+2xl) 1/3(2xu+xl)
1.2060000 1.9120000
0.5160975 1.1186085
0.9706667 1.4413333
0.7570370 0.4609938
1.2844444 1.5982222
0.4748826 0.5513460
1.1798519 1.3890370
0.5344847 0.4548376
1.3193086 1.4587654
0.4635997 0.4655851
xu
2.6180000
5.2362796
1.9120000
1.1186085
1.9120000
1.1186085
1.5982222
0.5513460
1.5982222
0.5513460
Interval
2.118000
1.412000
0.941333
0.627556
0.418370
Optimal
1.2060000
0.5160975
1.4413333
0.4609938
1.2844444
0.4748826
1.3890370
0.4548376
1.3193086
0.4635997
Requires two function evaluations per iteration
28
Fibonacci Bounding
Figure 10.8 Initial bracketing of the minimum point in the golden section method.
29
Golden section
leftside = rightside
I   (1  ) I
[ I ]  (1  ) I
[ ]  (1  )
2    1  0
Figure 10.9 Graphic of a
section partition.
b  b2  4ac 1  12  4(1)( 1)
1,2 

2a
2(1)
1  5 1  2.236


2
2
 0.618,  1.618
30
Golden Section Example
ME 482 Optimal Design
alt_gold.xls
RJE
4/11/2012
Golden Section Region Elimiation Search for locating minimum of f(x)
x lower
0.5
1-τ=
0.381966
x upper
2.618
τ=
0.618034
f ( x)  2- 4 x  exp( x)
Iteration
1
2
3
4
5
xl
x
f(x)
x
f(x)
x
f(x)
x
f(x)
x
f(x)
0.5
1.6487213
0.5
1.6487213
0.999992
0.7182921
0.999992
0.7182921
1.1909719
0.5263899
xL+(1-τ) I
1.309004
0.4664682
0.999992
0.7182921
1.309004
0.4664682
1.1909719
0.5263899
1.309004
0.4664682
xL+ τ I
1.808996
0.8683316
1.309004
0.4664682
1.499984
0.4816814
1.309004
0.4664682
1.3819519
0.4548602
Interval I
xu
2.618
2.118
5.2362796
1.808996
1.308996
0.8683316
1.808996
0.809004
0.8683316
1.499984
0.499992
0.4816814
1.499984 0.3090121
0.4816814
Optimal
1.30900399
0.4664682
1.30900404
0.46646819
1.30900401
0.4664682
1.30900403
0.46646819
1.38195187
0.45486022
31
Summary
• General Opt Algorithms have two sub problems:
search direction, and step size
• Descent condition assures correct direction
• For line searches…in local neighborhood…
we can assume unimodal!
• Step size methods: analytical, region elimin.
• Region Elimination (“interval reducing”)
Equal interval
Alternate equal interval
Golden Section
32
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