# Idler Gear

```Gears, Pulley Drives, and
Sprockets
Gears, Pulleys, & Sprockets
Mechanisms used to transfer energy
through rotary motion.
Change the speed of rotation
Change the direction of rotation
Change the amount of torque available to
do work
Gears
A gear train is a mechanism used for
transmitting rotary motion and torque through
interlocking teeth.
A gear train is made when two or more gears
are meshed
Driver gear causes motion
Motion is transferred to the driven gear
Gears
Mating gears always
turn in opposite
directions.
An Idler Gear allows the
driver and driven gears
to rotate in the same
direction.
Mating gears always
have the same size
teeth (diametric pitch).
Gears
The rpm of the larger gear
is always slower than the
rpm of the smaller gear.
Gears locked together on
the same shaft will always
turn in the same direction
and at the same rpm.
Gear Ratios
Variables to know
n = number of teeth
d = diameter
ω = angular velocity (speed)
τ = torque
4”
** Subscripts in and out are used to distinguish between gears **
nin= 6
nout = 12
din = 2in.
dout = 4in.
ωin = 40rpm
ωout = 20rpm
τin = 40 ft-lb
τout = 80 ft-lb
Gear Ratios
Equations to know
GR = Gear Ratio
GR = MA
nout
dout
GR


1
nin
din
?
1
2
1
12
6
4in.
2in.
in

out
40rpm
20rpm
out

in
80 ft  lb
40 ft  lb
Gear Ratios
What is the gear ratio
between gear A and B?
nout
GR


1
nin
What is the gear ratio
between gear B and C?
5 .42
nout
GR

 12  1
1
nin
What is the gear ratio
between gear C and D?
20 4
nout
GR



5
1
1
nin
12 .6

20 1
Gear Ratios
What is the TOTAL gear
train gear ratio?
0.6
0.42
4 1



1
1
1 1
If gear A and D are directly
nout
20 1
GR



connected to each other what
20 1
1
nin
would the resulting gear ratio be?
What would the Total gear ratio be if the last gear
nout
GR
40 2
0.6
0.42
8 2




  or
1
nin
20 1
1
1
1 1
Compound Gear Train
Driver
The two middle gears share
a common axle, so they
rotate at the same speed.
This allows the final gear to
rotate slower and produce
more torque than if it were
connected only to driver
gear.
Compound Gear Ratios
D
B
A
C
20 T
10 T
40 T
50 T
What is the gear ratio
between gear C and D?
GR
nout


1
nin
What is the gear ratio
between gear A and B?
GR
nout


1
nin
40 4

10 1
50 2.5

20
1
What is the gear ratio of the entire gear train?
4
2.5
10


1
1
1
Equations
out
in
2in.
Pulley and Belt Systems
dout in out


din out in
6in.
2in.
d = diameter
30rpm
10rpm
55 ft  lb
1
18 ft  lb
3
ω = angular velocity (speed)
τ = torque
Sprocket and Chain Systems
3in.
1.5in.
in
out
nout dout
out
in



nin
din
out
in
22
11
n = number of teeth
3in.
1.5in.
d = diameter
90rpm 120 ft  lb
45rpm 60 ft  lb
ω = angular velocity (speed)
τ = torque
Comparing Pulleys and Sprockets
Pulley
Sprocket
Method of
Transmitting
Force
Belt
Chain