Integrating Digestion Knowledge on Formulating diets for Dairy Cows

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Integrating Digestion Knowledge on Formulating diets
for Dairy Cows:
INRA (1989) and NRC (2001) Feeding System
Challenges and Suggestions to implement in Pakistan
Muhammad Naveed ul Haque, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Animal Nutrition
UVAS
Objective of presentation
Not formulating diets that can maximize the production of
milk
Formulating the diets that can efficiently produce good
amount of milk and its components
Objective of presentation
1.
To understand how our dairy animal use the ration for
synthesizing milk and its components
2.
How the feed formulation systems (French or US) use
this information to asses the quality of diets (the key
principles of diet formulation) or some one said “the
fine tuning”
3.
Some key issues that must be considered before using
the chosen system
4.
An on field protocol for evaluating your formula
1- Protein Utilisation in Dairy Cows
Other
losses 4%
faeces
39%
Milk yield = 20 kg/d
urine
34%
CP intake
3 kg/d
CP in milk
23%
Maxin et al., 2007
1- Feed Formulator’s Objective
Other
losses 4%
faeces
39%
Milk yield = 20 kg/d
urine
34%
CP intake
3 kg/d
CP in milk
23%
Maxin et al., 2007
1-Protein Digestion in Dairy Cows
Rumen
Intestine
N in faeces
1-Microbial
2-Undegraded
Muscle
Crude protein intake
N intake × 6.25
Mammary gland
Milk protein
1- Rumen
Degradable
Protein
Fermentable
Energy
Microbial
Protein
1- Rumen
Degradable
Protein
Fermentable
Energy
Microbial
Protein
1- Rumen
Degradable
Protein
Fermentable
Energy
Microbial
Protein synthesis
Limited by protein
1- Amino Acid Digestion & Mammary Metabolism
Rumen
Intestine
Microbial
Undegraded
N in faeces
AA
AA
N Loss
Urine
Muscle
Crude protein intake
Milk protein
1- Amino Acid Profile in the small intestine
Other EAA
Milk protein yield, g/d
950
Lysine
900
Methionine
850
800
750
Met
Lys
EAA
Ideal AA Profile
Conclusion 1
1.
Cow requires intestinally digestible protein not crude
protein.
2.
Balanced Protein and Energy required by microbes
3.
Essential Amino Acid are important.
1-Protein Digestion in Dairy Cows: INRA (2010)
Protein truly digestible in the small intestine
PDI = PDIE or PDIN
Rumen
1-Microbial
2-Undegraded
×
Crude protein intake
N intake × 6.25
Intestine
N in faeces
PDI
Muscle
Mammary gland
Milk protein
2-Feed protein evaluation in PDI System INRA
Protein (CP)
R
u
m
e
n
I
N
T
E
S
T
I
N
E
undegraded
Undegraded
dietary protein
PDIA
Energy
degraded (50-70%)
fermented
Microbial
protein
PDIM(N)
PDIN
Endogenous
protein
PDIM(E)
=
PDIE
2- Example Corn Silage
CP = 7.7%
R
u
m
e
n
I
N
T
E
S
T
I
N
E
undegraded
Undegraded
dietary protein
PDIA 1.4%
Energy
degraded (50-70%)
fermented
Microbial
protein
PDIMN 3.3%
Endogenous
protein
PDIME 5.5%
PDI value
PDIN 4.7%
PDIE 6.9%
2- Some thing like Alfa-Alfa Hay
CP = 18%
R
u
m
e
n
I
N
T
E
S
T
I
N
E
undegraded
Undegraded
dietary protein
PDIA 4.6%
Energy
degraded (50-70%)
fermented
Microbial
protein
PDIMN 6.9%
Endogenous
protein
PDIME 4.3%
PDIN 11.6%
PDIE 8.9%
2- Protein Digestion in Dairy Cows: NRC (2001)
Metabolizable Protein
1g of MP = 1g of AA
Rumen
1-Microbial
2-Undegraded
×
Crude protein intake
N intake × 6.25
Intestine
N in faeces
MP
Muscle
Mammary gland
Milk protein
2- Feed protein evaluation in NRC, 2001
Protein (CP)
R
u
m
e
n
I
N
T
E
S
T
I
N
E
undegraded
Energy
degraded (50-60%)
Undegraded
dietary protein
RUP
Microbial
protein
MCP/BCP
MP
Endogenous
protein
2-Evolution of PDI System
1978 Protein Digestible in the Intestine (PDI) INRA
PDIE(=PDIME+PDIA) = PDIN (=PDIMN+PDIA)
PDIM
Microbial Protein
Degradable in Rumen
PDIMN=PDIME
N available
in the rumen
Energy
In the rumen
+
PDIA
Dietary Protein
Ruminally undegradable
2- Evolution of PDI System
1998 Vérité et Delaby: Protein & Energy Concept
1978 Protein Digestible in the Intestine (PDI) INRA
2- Protein and Energy Relationship
Milk protein yield, g/d
1000
950
900
850
800
750
700
50
53
56
59
62
PDI/NEL , g/Mcal
65
71
2- Protein and Energy Relationship
Milk protein yield, g/d
Total N output / N in Milk
1000
2.6
950
2.5
900
2.4
850
2.3
800
750
2.2
700
2.1
50
53
56
59
62
PDI/NEL , g/Mcal
65
71
2-Evolution of PDI System
1993-2001 Rulquin et al. AADI System
Amino-acids digestible in the SI
Requirements of Aminoacids expressed in term of
Percentage of PDIE
e.g. LysDI= 7.3% of PDIE
1998 Vérité & Delaby: Protein & Energy Concept
1978 Protein Digestible in the Intestine (PDI) INRA
2- Evolution of PDI System
2007 Rulquin et al.
1993-2001 Rulquin et al.
AADI System: LysDi & MetDi
1998 Vérité et Delaby
Protien/ Energy
Ideal Profile in AADI for EAA
AAs
% of PDIE
Lys
7.30
Met
2.50
Leu
8.90
His
3.03
Ileu
Phe
4.60
Thr
4.02
Val
1978
PDI (INRA)
Trp
Arg
2- Evolution of PDI System
2012, Haque et al.
1993-2001 Rulquin et al.
AADI System: LysDi & MetDi
1998 Vérité et Delaby
Protien/ Energy
1978
PDI (INRA)
Ideal Profile in AADI for EAA
AAs
% of PDIE
Lys
7.30
Met
2.50
Leu
8.90
His
3.03
Ileu
4.45
Phe
4.60
Thr
4.02
Val
5.33
Trp
?
Arg
3.14
Conclusion Part 2

The feed formulation systems can help you

Balance Protein requirements

Balance Protein to Energy ratio in rumen and cow

Balance the profile of EAA
Key Principal
Feed the rumen and Feed the cow

Practical
Protein Requirements in INRA feeding system

Protein Requirement for lactating Dairy Cow




Maintenance
Production
Pregnancy
Growth (primiparous)
Protein Requirements in INRA feeding system

Protein Requirement for lactating Dairy Cow




Maintenance = (3.25 × BW0.75)
Production = (milk yield × protein content)/0.64)
Pregnancy = (0.07 × conceptus BW × e0.111 ×
gestation wk)
Growth (Heifer) = (422 - (10.4 × age)
Protein Requirements = Practical Calculations
Assume a Holstein dairy cow with
Body weight = 600 kg
Milk Yield = 25 kg/d
Protein contents = 3.5%
Gestation week = 27th or 190 days
Conceptus wt = 20 kg
DMI = 20 kg/d
Protein Requirements = Calculated Requirements

Protein Requirement for lactating Dairy Cow



Maintenance = (3.25 × 6000.75) = 424 g/d
Production = (25 × 3.5%)/0.64/1000) = 1367 g/d
Pregnancy = (0.07 × 20 × e0.111 × 27) = 29 g/d
Total PDI Requirement = 1820 g/d
Equates with 14% CP
Protein Supply from diet

Need to balance 3 things



Protein Requirement
Protein to energy ratio
Essential Amino Acid Supply
You have 3-4 things to mix
1.
Corn Silage (basal diet)
2.
Soybean meal (concentrate) protein source
3.
Energy rich Concentrate
4.
Urea (a source of degradable protein)
Based on CP need
% of DM
Diet 1
Diet 2
Diet 3
Corn Silage
65%
65%
65%
Soybean meal
5%
10%
5%
Concentrate
30%
25%
29%
Urea
0%
0%
1%
CP%
13%
13.5%
14%
1.6
1.6
1.6
NEL, Mcal
Balancing Diet
Feed
CP
PDIE
PDIN
CS
77
70
47
SBM
504
261
371
Conc.
139
110
95
Balancing Diet: 1
Feed
CP
PDIE
PDIN
CS
77
70
47
SBM
504
261
371
Conc.
139
110
95
In %
Comp
Feed
CP
PDIE
PDIN
65%
13
CS
1001
909
615
5%
1
SBM
504
261
371
30%
6
Conc.
834
660
569
100%
20
2339
1831
1555
13%
9.2
7.8
%DM
PDI values
PDI req
1820 g
Balancing Diet: 2
Feed
CP
PDIE
PDIN
CS
77
70
47
SBM
504
261
371
Conc.
139
110
95
PDIE>PDIN
In %
Comp
Feed
CP
PDIE
PDIN
65%
13
CS
1001
909
615
10%
2.0
SBM
988
512
727
25%
5.0
Conc.
701
555
478
100%
20.0
2689
1976
1820
13.5
9.9
9.1
%DM
Balancing Diet: 3
Feed
CP
PDIE
PDIN
CS
77
70
47
SBM
504
261
371
Conc.
139
110
95
Urea
2875
1472
In %
Comp
Feed
CP
PDIE
PDIN
65%
13
CS
1001
909
615
5%
1.1
SBM
532
276
391
29%
5.8
Conc.
801
635
547
1%
0.2
Urea
520
0
266
100%
20.0
2854
1820
1820
14
9.1
9.1
%DM
PDI /Energy Relationship

The Net energy supply


1.6 Mcal/kg of DM = 32 Mcal/d
The Net Energy Required

1.6 Mcal/kg of DM = 32 Mcal/d
PDI-to-NEL ratio required = 1820g/32Mcal = 57.0 g/Mcal
PDI /Energy Supply
Diet 1
Diet 2
Diet 3
1555
1820
1930
NEL, Mcal/d
32
32
32
PDI/NEL
49
57
60
PDI, g/d
Ideal Diet
The Next Step…..
Amino Acid Requirements and Supplies in Dairy Cows
Treatment1
SEM
PDI
AA
PDI × AA
21.0
0.48
0.07
<0.01
<0.01
41.3
38.6
1.43
0.65
0.62
<0.01
1221
1265
1215
39.8
0.37
0.83
0.01
30.5
30.9
31.7
0.46
0.30
0.22
0.07
Item
LPAA- LPAA+ HPAA-
DMI, kg/d
20.9
20.9
23.2
Milk yield, kg/d
38.1
40.1
Protein yield, g/d 1162
content, %
30.7
P-value2
HPAA+
Haque et al. (2012)
3- Issues While Formulating the diets
Feed Values

Large variation in our local feed stuff

Basal diets are numerous (issue in balancing PDIN
vs. PDIE)

Energy contents are low in diets. Improper use of
nitrogen
3- Issues While Formulating the diets
Animal Requirements




Which system should be used INRA or NRC
Problems in equation coefficient
PDI = 1820 g/d and MP = 1700 g/d
Cows model for Buffalo need more careful adjustments
of equations
The demand of protein and energy/ unit increase in
temp?
4- On Field Evaluations Model
Industrial formulations
Generating improved formulas
Balance TMR
Data processing & comparisons
of
various farms?
Commercial Farms
Data on Production and
performance?
Thank you very much for
your attention
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