Update on China`s Nuclear Power Program, and Relationship with

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Nuclear Power Generation
in China
WANG Jie, YU Xiaoli, YANG Xiaoyong
INET, Tsinghua University, China
Sept. 24, 2010
Contents

Nuclear Reactor Technology

Government’s Policy

Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Schematic for NPP
Primary system, Secondary system, (Third system)

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Special Features
Fission Equation:
U n 
235
92
1. Reactivity
1
0
X  Y  n
A1
Z1
A2
Z2
1
0
2. Decay heat
3. Radioactivity

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Reactor Design
1. Reactivity Control
Neutron control
2. Decay heat removal
Special cooling system
3. Radioactivity prevention
Engineered barriers

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Typical Design
Specifications for PWR

Thermal Power
3800 MW
Electrical Power
1300 MW
Efficiency
34.2%
Fuel Enrichment
3.3 %
Steam Pressure
7.58 MPa

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Safety design
1.Negative
temperature
coefficient
•
Reactivity decreases
with increasing
temperature
2.Decay heat
Removal system
• Cooling core at
any condition
3. Three barriers
• Fuel clad
• Pressure vessel
• Containment
building

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Nuclear Reactor Three Stages
Thermal
Neutron
Reactor
The majority of
NPPs currently
Fast Neutron
Breed
Reactor
Better utilization of
238U resource
Reducing radioactive
waste
Fusion
Reactor
Dream of human
beings
Contents

Nuclear Reactor Technology

Government’s Policy

Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Energy Consumption
350000
Energy Consumption (Wt of standard coal)
300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
Year
The energy consumption of China in 1997~2009 (kilo ton)

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Power Generation
40000
power generation(×10^8Kwh)
32000
24000
16000
8000
0
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
The power generation of China in 2001~2009

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Government’s Policy

 Since 2004, Chinese government changed the policy of
nuclear development from “moderate” to “active”
Jan. 2006, Large-scale advanced pressurized water reactor
power plant was listed in “Sixteen National Significant
S&T Projects” by National Program for Medium to LongTerm Scientific and Technological Development
Sep 5, 2010, President Hu Jintao
in Daya Bay NPP
Contents

Nuclear Reactor Technology

Government’s Policy

Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions
Current status

Nuclear power reactors in China

Nuclear reactor technologies in China

Nuclear equipment manufacture

Advanced reactors

Fuel cycle
Nuclear power reactors
In operation
Generation II+ under construction

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Generation III under construction
Tianwan4
Hongyanhe6
Haiyang2
Ningde4
Tianwan2
Fuqing6
Qingshan6
Fangjiashan2
Yangjiang6
Qinshan II 1
Fangchenggang2
Sanyang2
Changjiang2
Lingao II 2
Tanshan2
Daya Bay, lingao4
Nuclear power reactors in mainland China (Updated 15 August 2010)

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Operating nuclear reactors
Province
Net capacity
(each)
Type
Operator
Commercial
operation
Guangdong
944 MWe
PWR
CGNPC
1994
Qinshan Phase I
Zhejiang
279 MWe
PWR
CNNC
April 1994
Qinshan Phase II,
1-3
Qinshan Phase III,
1&2
Lingao Phase I, 1&2
Zhejiang
610 MWe
PWR
CNNC
Zhejiang
665 MWe
PHWR
CNNC
2002, 2004,
(2011)
2002, 2003
Guangdong
935 MWe
PWR
CGNPC
2002, 2003
Jiangsu
1000 MWe
CNNC
2007
Guangdong
1037 MWe
PWR
(VVER)
PWR
CGNPC
(Oct 2010)
Units
Daya Bay 1&2
Tianwan 1&2
Lingao Phase II, 1
Total: 13
10,234 Mwe
Mainland China has 13 nuclear power reactors in operation, 24
under construction, and more about to start construction soon.
Nuclear reactors under construction



Plant
Number
Gross
Generation
II+ under
construction
Under
construction
Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status
Future Plan
(104kw)
Capacity
Conclusions


Gross
Under
construction
Qinshan
Phase II
Lingao II
Hongyanhe
Ningde
Fangjiashan
Fuqing
Yangjiang
Changjiang
Jiangsu
Tianwan
Fangchengg
Total
The number in () represent first concrete was poured

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Nuclear reactors under construction
(continued)
Plant
Number
Gross
Under
construction
Capacity (104kw)
Gross
Under
construction
Sanmen
Generation
III under
construction
Haiyang
Taishan
Total
II+and III
Total
The number in () represent first concrete was poured

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Nuclear reactor technologies in China

CNP300: Qinshan phase I, China's first indigenously-designed,
Constructed from late 1980, exporting to Pakistan
CNP600: Qinshan phase II
CNP1000: China National Nuclear Corporation, developed
from Qinshan CNP-600 units
Qinshan phase I
Qinshan phase II
Nuclear reactor technologies in China
(Continued)

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


CANDU 6: Qinshan Phase III , supplied by Atomic Energy of
Canada Limited (AECL)
M310: Daya Bay, PWRs imported from France
VVER: Tianwan, Russia's AES-91, Tianwan units 3 & 4 will use
the same version of the VVER-1000
CPR1000: China Guangdong Nuclear Power Cooperation,
Lingao, Advanced CPR1000
Qinshan Phase III
Daya Bay
Tianwan
Nuclear reactor technologies in China
(continued)

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


SFR: Fast neutron reactors, located in CIAE, achieved its first
criticality in Jul 21, 2010
AP1000: Generation III technology, first four Westinghouse
AP1000 reactors are being built at Sanmen and Haiyang
EPR: Generation III technology, two Areva EPR reactors are
being built at Taishan
HTR: High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor, designed by
INET of Tsinghua University, pebble bed fuel, HTR-PM
CEFR (SFR)
HTR-10

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Nuclear reactor technologies in China
(Summary)

Summary:
PWR was the major reactor type, but not the unique reactor
type.
The reactors under construction are mainly generation II+ and
III.
News:
Aug 26, 2010, Lingao Phase II, unit 1 put into operation

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Nuclear equipment manufacture

Three nuclear equipment manufacturing bases gradually formed
Supply pressure vessels, steam generators, turbines, regulators
Northeast
Harbin Electric Corporaiton
Product: AP1000 steam turbine,
Reactor: Haiyang, Sanmen
Sichuan
Dongfang Electric Corporaiton,
Product: Steam generator and turbine
Reactor: Fuqing, Fangjiashan
Shanghai
Shanghai Electric Corporaiton,
Product: Steam generator, pressure
vessel, nuclear island components
Reactor:Qinshan II, Lingao II

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Advanced reactors---CEFR

CEFR: China Experimental Fast Reactor
•A project of National High Technology R&D Program (863 Program)
Coolant
Thermal power
Electric power
Na
65MW
20MW
Advanced reactors---CEFR
(Continued)
CEFR: China Experiment Fast Reactor

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


•Jul 21, 2010,CEFR achieved criticality
•Next step:
Connected to the grid before Jun 30, 2011
Three phases plan of fast reactor in China
1
CEFR
Experimental
Fast reactor
2
CDFR
Demonstration
Fast Reactor
Cooperation with Russia
3
CCFR
Commercial
Fast Reactor

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Advanced reactors---HTR

HTR: High temperature gas cooled reactor
HTR-10:
•A project of National High Technology R&D Program (863 Program)
•2000, achieved its first criticality
•2002, connected to grid
•2003, reached rated power
Coolant
Helium
Thermal power
10MW
Fuel element
Pebble bed

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Advanced reactors---HTR
(Continued)

HTR: High temperature gas cooled reactor
Two projects under development: HTR-10GT, HTR-PM
HTR-10GT
HTR-PM
Thermal power:500MW
Two reactors drive one turbine

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Strategy: Closed nuclear fuel cycle system

China has primarily established a nuclear fuel cycle system
covering uranium exploration, mining and milling, conversion,
isotope separation, nuclear fuel element manufacture and
spent fuel reprocessing.

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Nuclear Fuel Cycle (continued)
Spent fuel reprocessing
•In March 2010, hot
commissioning of the pilot spent
fuel reprocessing plant was
started.
•In Feb 2010, Large-scale
commercial spent fuel
reprocessing factory (LSFRB)
project listed in “Sixteen National
Significant S&T Projects” was
launched officially.
Establishing a closed nuclear fuel cycle, is very important to realize
sustainable development of nuclear energy and protect environment
Contents

Nuclear Reactor Technology

Government Policy

Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Future Plan
installed nuclear capacity (GWe)
Nuclear power capacity are officially estimated to
be 80 GWe by 2020, 200 GWe by 2030 and 400
GWe by 2050.
500
400
400
300
200
200
80
100
9
0
2009
2020
2030
2050 year
Contents

Nuclear Reactor Technology

Government Policy

Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions

Nuclear Reactor Technology
Government’s Policy
Current Status

Future Plan

Conclusions


Conclusions




China is actively promoting nuclear power, to
meet the requirements of energy consumption,
low carbon emission for sustainable
development.
PWRs will be the majority of reactor type in
China, including Generation II+ and III.
Three nuclear equipment manufacture bases
are established, which can supply most
components of NPPs.
China Experimental Fast Reactor achieved its
first criticality. The establishment of the closed
nuclear fuel cycle system is now in progress.
References





China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC),
http://www.cnnc.com.cn
China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding
Corporation (CGNPC),
http://www.cgnpc.com.cn
State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation
Ltd. (SNPTC), http://www.snptc.com.cn
China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE),
http://www.ciae.ac.cn
World Nuclear Association (WNA),
http://www.world-nuclear.org
Thanks for your attention.
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