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1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Preview Warm Up California Standards Lesson Presentation 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Warm Up Simplify. 1. |–3| 3 2. –|4| –4 Write an improper fraction to represent each mixed number. 6 2 14 55 3. 4 3 4. 7 7 3 7 Write a mixed number to represent each improper fraction. 5. 12 5 2 2 5 6. 24 9 2 2 3 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers California Standards 2.0 Students understand and use such operations as taking the opposite, finding the reciprocal, taking a root, and raising to a fractional power. They understand and use the rules of exponents. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Vocabulary real numbers absolute value opposites additive inverse 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers The set of all numbers that can be represented on a number line are called real numbers. You can use a number line to model addition and subtraction of real numbers. Addition To model addition of a positive number, move right. To model addition of a negative number, move left. Subtraction To model subtraction of a positive number, move left. To model subtraction of a negative number, move right. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Additional Example 1A: Adding and Subtracting Numbers on a Number Line Add or subtract using a number line. –4 + (–7) + (–7) Start at 0. Move left to –4. To add –7, move left 7 units. 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 –4 + (–7) = –11 –4 2 1 0 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Additional Example 1B: Adding and Subtracting Numbers on a Number Line Add or subtract using a number line. 3 – (–6) Start at 0. Move right to 3. To subtract –6, move right 6 units. –(–6) +3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 – (–6) = 9 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Check It Out! Example 1a Add or subtract using a number line. –3 + 7 Start at 0. Move left to –3. To add 7, move right 7 units. +7 –3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 –3 + 7 = 4 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Check It Out! Example 1b Add or subtract using a number line. –3 – 7 Start at 0. Move left to –3. To subtract 7, move left 7 units. –7 –3 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 –3 – 7 = –10 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Check It Out! Example 1c Add or subtract using a number line. Start at 0. Move left to –5. –5 – (–6.5) To subtract –6.5, move right 6.5 units. – (–6.5) –5 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 –5 – (–6.5) = 1.5 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers The absolute value of a number is the distance from zero on a number line. The absolute value of 5 is written as |5|. 5 units 5 units -6 -5 - 4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 |–5| = 5 |5| = 5 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Additional Example 2: Adding Real Numbers Add. A. Different signs: subtract the absolute values. Use the sign of the number with the greater absolute value. B. –6 + (–2) (6 + 2 = 8) –8 Same signs: add the absolute values. Both numbers are negative, so the sum is negative. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Check It Out! Example 2 Add. a. –5 + (–7) (5 + 7 = 12) –12 Same signs: add the absolute values. Both numbers are negative, so the sum is negative. b. –13.5 + (–22.3) Same signs: add the absolute (13.5 + 22.3 = 35.8) values. Both numbers are negative, so –35.8 the sum is negative. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Check It Out! Example 2c Add. c. 52 + (–68) (68 – 52 = 16) –16 Different signs: subtract the absolute values. Use the sign of the number with the greater absolute value. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Two numbers are opposites if their sum is 0. A number and its opposite are additive inverses and are the same distance from zero. They have the same absolute value. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers To subtract signed numbers, you can use additive inverses. Subtracting a number is the same as adding the opposite of the number. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Subtracting Real Numbers 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Additional Example 3A: Subtracting Real Numbers Subtract. –6.7 – 4.1 –6.7 – 4.1 = –6.7 + (–4.1) To subtract 4.1, add –4.1. (6.7 + 4.1 = 10.8) –10.8 Same signs: add absolute values. Both numbers are negative, so the sum is negative. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Additional Example 3B: Subtracting Real Numbers Subtract. 5 – (–4) 5 − (–4) = 5 + 4 (5 + 4 = 9) 9 To subtract –4, add 4. Same signs: add absolute values. Both numbers are positive, so the sum is positive. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Additional Example 3C: Subtracting Real Numbers Subtract. To subtract Rewrite of 10. ,, add with a denominator Same signs: add absolute values . –5.3 . Both numbers are negative, so the sum is negative. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Helpful Hint On many scientific and graphing calculators, there is one button to express the opposite of a number and a different button to express subtraction. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Check It Out! Example 3a Subtract. 13 – 21 13 – 21 = 13 + (–21) To subtract 21, add –21. (21 – 13 = 8) Different signs: subtract absolute values. –8 Use the sign of the number with the greater absolute value. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Check It Out! Example 3b Subtract. To subtract –3 1 , add 3 1 . 2 2 Same signs: add absolute values. 4 Both numbers are positive, so the sum is positive. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Check It Out! Example 3c Subtract. –14 – (–12) –14 – (–12) = –14 + 12 (14 – 12 = 2) –2 To subtract –12, add 12. Different signs: subtract absolute values. Use the sign of the number with the greater absolute value. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Additional Example 4: Oceanography Application An iceberg extends 75 feet above the sea. The bottom of the iceberg is at an elevation of –247 feet. What is the height of the iceberg? Find the difference in the elevations of the top of the iceberg and the bottom of the iceberg. elevation at bottom elevation at minus of iceberg top of iceberg – 75 –247 75 – (–247) 75 – (–247) = 75 + 247 = 322 To subtract –247, add 247. Same signs: add the absolute values. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Additional Example 4 Continued An iceberg extends 75 feet above the sea. The bottom of the iceberg is at an elevation of –247 feet. What is the height of the iceberg? The height of the iceberg is 322 feet. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Check It Out! Example 4 What if…? The tallest known iceberg in the North Atlantic rose 550 feet above the ocean's surface. How many feet would it be from the top of the tallest iceberg to the wreckage of the Titanic, which is at an elevation of –12,468 feet? elevation at top of iceberg minus elevation of the Titanic 550 – –12,468 550 – (–12,468) 550 – (–12,468) = 550 + 12,468 = 13,018 To subtract –12,468, add 12,468. Same signs: add the absolute values. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Check It Out! Example 4 Continued What if…? The tallest known iceberg in the North Atlantic rose 550 feet above the ocean's surface. How many feet would it be from the top of the tallest iceberg to the wreckage of the Titanic, which is at an elevation of –12,468 feet? Distance from the top of the iceberg to the Titanic is 13,018 feet. 1-2 Adding and Subtracting Real Numbers Lesson Quiz Add or subtract using a number line. 1. –2 + 9 7 Add or subtract. 3. –23 + 42 19 2. –5 – (–3) –2 4. 4.5 – (–3.7) 8.2 5. 6. The temperature at 6:00 A.M. was –23°F. At 3:00 P.M., it was 18°F. Find the difference in the temperatures. 41°F