# Three-phase Transformers ```บทที่ 7 Three-phase Transformers
Introduction
1. Basic properties of 3-phase
transformer bank
2. Delta-delta connection
3. Delta-wye connection
4. Wye-delta connection
5. Wye-wye connection
Three-phase Transformers
6. Open-delta connection
7. Three-phase transformers
8. Step-up and step-down
Autotransformer
9. Phase-shift principle
10. Three-phase to 2-phase
Transformation
Three-phase Transformers
11. Phase-shift transformer
12. Calculations involving 3-phase
Transformers
13. Polarity marking of 3-phase
transformers
Introduction
• The
transformers may be inherently 3-phase,
having three primary windings and three secondary
windings mounted on a 3-legged core.
• The same result can be achieved by using three
single-phase transformers connected together to
form a 3-phase transformer bank.
1. Basic properties of 3-phase
transformer bank
• When three single-phase transformers are used to transform
a 3-phase voltage, the windings can be connected in several
ways.  the ratio of the 3-phase input voltage to the 3-phase
output voltage depends not only upon the turns ratio of the
transformers, but also upon how they are connected.
• A 3-phase transformer bank can also produce a phase shift
between the 3-phase input voltage and the 3-phase output
voltage. The amount of phase shift depends upon
- the turns ratio of the transformers
- how the primaries and secondaries are
interconnected
Basic properties of 3-phase
transformer bank (ต่ อ)
• The phase shift feature enables us to change the number of
phases  a 3-phase system can be converted into a 2-phase,
a 5-phase, a 6-phase, or a 12-phase system by an appropriate
choice of single-phase transformers and interconnections.
Basic properties of 3-phase
transformer bank (ต่ อ)
• The basic behavior of balanced 3-phase transformer banks
is basedon the following simplifying assumptions:
(1) The exciting currents are negligible.
(2) The transformer impedances, due to the resistance
and leakage reactance of the windings, are negligible.
(3) The total apparent input power to the transformer
bank is equal to the total apparent output
power.
2. Delta-delta connection
Fig.1 Delta-delta connection of three single-phase
transformers. The incoming lines (source) are A,
B, C and the outgoing lines (load) are 1, 2, 3.
Delta-delta connection (ต่อ)
Fig.2 Schematic diagram of a delta-delta connection
and associated phasor diagram.
Delta-delta connection (ต่อ)
• In such a delta-delta connection, the voltages between the
respective incoming and outgoing transmission lines are in
phase.
• If a balanced load is connected to lines 1-2-3, the resulting
line currents are equal in magnitude. This produces balanced
line currents in the incoming lines A-B-C.
• The power rating of the transformer bank is three times the
rating of a single transformer.
Delta-delta connection (ต่อ)
• Example 1
Delta-delta connection (ต่อ)
Delta-delta connection (ต่อ)
Delta-delta connection (ต่อ)
3. Delta-wye connection
Fig.3 Delta-wye connection of three single-phase
transformers.
Delta-wye connection (ต่อ)
Fig.4 Schematic diagram of a delta- wye
connection and associated phasor diagram.
Delta-wye connection (ต่อ)
• The voltage across each primary winding is equal to the
incoming line voltage.
• However, the outgoing line voltage is 3 times the
secondary voltage across each transformer.
• The line currents in phases A, B and C are 3 times the
currents in the primary windings.
•A delta-wye connection produces a 30&deg; phase shift between
the line voltages of the incoming and outgoing transmission
lines
Delta-wye connection (ต่อ)
• If the outgoing line feeds an isolated group of loads, the
phase shift creates no problem. But, if the outgoing line has
to be connected in parallel with a line coming from another
source, the 30&deg; shift may make such a parallel connection
impossible, even if the line voltages are otherwise identical.
• One of the important advantages of the wye connection is
that it reduces the amount of insulation needed inside the
transformer. The HV winding has to be insulated for only
1/3, or 58 percent of the line voltage.
Delta-wye connection (ต่อ)
• Example 2
Delta-wye connection (ต่อ)
Fig.5
Delta-wye connection (ต่อ)
4. Wye-delta connection
• The currents and voltages in a wye-delta connection are
identical to those in the delta-wye connection. The primary
and secondary connections are simply interchanged.
• There results a 30&deg; phase shift between the voltages of the
incoming and outgoing lines.
5. Wye-wye connection
• When transformers are connected in wye-wye, special
precautions have to be taken to prevent severe distortion of
the line-to-neutral voltages.
(1) connect the neutral of the primary to the neutral of
the source, usually by way of the ground
Fig.6 Wye-wye connection with neutral of the primary connected to the neutral of the source.
Wye-wye connection (ต่อ)
(2) provide each transformer with a third winding,
called tertiary winding.
Fig.7 Wye-wye connection using a tertiary winding.
Wye-wye connection (ต่อ)
• Note that there is no phase shift between the incoming
and outgoing transmission line voltages of
a wye-wye connected transformer.
6. Open-delta connection
• It is possible to transform the voltage of a 3-phase
system by using only 2 transformers, connected in opendelta.
• The open-delta arrangement is identical to a delta-delta
connection, except that one transformer is absent.
• The open-delta connection is seldom used because the
load capacity of the transformer bank is only 86.6 percent
of the installed transformer capacity.
Open-delta connection (ต่อ)
• The open-delta connection is mainly used in emergency
situations. Thus, if three transformers are connected in
delta-delta and one of them becomes defective and has to
be removed, it is possible to feed the load on a temporary
basis with the two remaining transformers.
Fig.8a Open-delta connection.
Open-delta connection (ต่อ)
• Example 3
Open-delta connection (ต่อ)
• The current Is in lines 1, 2, 3 cannot, therefore, exceed 250 A
(Fig.8b). Consequently, the maximum load that the transformers can
carry is
Fig.8b Open-delta connection Associated schematic and phasor diagram.
Open-delta connection (ต่อ)
7. Three-phase transformers
• A transformer bank composed of three single-phase
transformers may be replaced by one 3-phase transformer.
• For a given total capacity, a 3-phase transformer is
always smaller and cheaper than three single-phase
transformers.
• Nevertheless, single-phase transformers are sometimes
preferred, particularly when a replacement unit is
essential.
Three-phase transformers (ต่อ)
Fig.9 Three-phase transformer for an
electric arc furnace, rated 36 MVA, 13.8
kV/160 V to 320 V, 60 Hz. The
160 V to 320 V by means of 32 taps on
the primary winding (not shown). The
three large busbars in the foreground
deliver a current of 65,000 A. Other
characteristics: impedance: 3.14%;
diameter of each leg of the core: 711
mm; overall height of core: 3500 mm;
core legs: 1220 mm.
(Courtesy of Ferranti-Packard)
Three-phase transformers (ต่อ)
Fig.10a Core of a 110 MVA, 222.5
kV/34.5 kV, 60 Hz, 3-phase transformer.
By staggering laminations of different
widths, the core legs can be made
almost circular. This reduces the coil
diameter to a minimum, resulting in
less copper and lower I2R losses. The
legs are tightly bound to reduce
vibration. Mass of core: 53,560 kg.
Three-phase transformers (ต่อ)
Fig.10b Same transformer with coils in
place. The primary windings are
connected in wye and the secondaries
in delta. Each primary has 8 taps to
change the voltage in steps of &plusmn;2.5%.
The motorized tap-changer can be seen
in the right upper corner of the
transformer. Mass of copper: 15,230 kg.
Three-phase transformers (ต่อ)
shipping. It has been subjected to a
1050 kV impulse test on the HV side
and a similar 250 kV test on the LV
side. Other details: power rating: 110
MVA/146.7 MVA (OA/FA); total mass
including oil: 158.7 t; overall height: 9
m; width: 8.2 m, length: 9.2 m.
(Courtesy of ABB)
8. Step-up and step-down
Autotransformer
• When the voltage of a 3-phase line has to be stepped
up or stepped down by a moderate amount, it is
economically advantageous to use three single-phase
transformers to create a wye-connected autotransformer.
Fig.11a Wye-connected autotransformer.
Step-up and step-down
Autotransformer (ต่อ)
Fig.11b Wye-connected autotransformer
associated schematic diagram.
Step-up and step-down
Autotransformer (ต่อ)
• For a given power output. an autotransformer is
smaller and cheaper than a conventional transformer.
This is particularly true if the ratio of the incoming line
voltage to outgoing line voltage lies between 0.5 and 2.
Step-up and step-down
Autotransformer (ต่อ)
Fig.11c Single-phase autotransformer (one of a group of
three) connecting a 700 kV, 3-phase, 60 Hz transmission line
to an existing 300 kV system. The transformer ratio is 404
kV/173 kV, to give an output of 200/267/333 MVA per
transformer, at a temperature rise of 55&deg;C. Cooling is
0A/FA/F0A. A tertiary winding rated 35 MVA, 11.9 kV
maintains balanced and distortion-free line-to-neutral
voltages, while providing power for the substation. Other
properties of this transformer: weight of core and
windings: 132 t; tank and accessories: 46 t; oil: 87 t; total
weight: 265 t. BIL rating is 1950 kV and 1050 kV on the HV
and LV side, respectively. Note the individual 700 kV
(right) and 300 kV (left) bushings protruding from the
tank. The basic impulse insulation (BIL) of 1950 kV and
1050 kV expresses the transformer's ability to withstand
lightning and switching surges.
(Courtesy of Hydro-Quebec)
Step-up and step-down
Autotransformer (ต่อ)
• Example 4
Step-up and step-down
Autotransformer (ต่อ)
Step-up and step-down
Autotransformer (ต่อ)
9. Phase-shift principle
• A 3-phase system enables us to shift the phase angle
of a voltage very simply. Such phase shifting enables
us to create 2-phase, 6-phase, and 12-phase systems from
an ordinary 3-phase line.
• Such multiphase systems are used in large electronic
converter stations and in special electric controls. Phase
shifting is also used to control power flow over
transmission lines that form part of a power grid.
Phase-shift principle (ต่อ)
• To understand the phase shifting principle, consider
a rheostat connected between phases B and C of a 3phase line.
Fig.12 Voltage EAP can be phase-shifted with respect to EAC by means of a potentiometer.
Phase-shift principle (ต่อ)
• Such a simple phaseshifter can only be used in
between terminals A and P
draws a few milliamperes. If
a heavier load is applied, the
resulting IR drop in the
rheostat completely changes
the voltage and phase angle
from what they were on
open-circuit.
Fig.13 Autotransformer used as
a phase-shifter.
Phase-shift principle (ต่อ)
Fig.14 Three-phase phase
shifter.
• This arrangement
enables us to create a 3phase source P1, P2, P3
whose phase angle
changes stepwise with
respect to source ABC.
We obtain a maximum
phase shift of 60 as we
move from one extremity
of the autotransformers to
the other.
10. Three-phase to 2-phase
Transformation
• The voltages in a 2-phase system are equal but displaced
from each other by 90&deg;.
• There are several ways to create a 2-phase system from
a 3-phase source.
(1) Use a single-phase autotransformer having taps at
50 percent and 86.6 percent.
(2) Scott connection.
Three-phase to 2-phase
Transformation (ต่อ)
(1) Use a single-phase autotransformer having taps at 50
percent and 86.6 percent.
Fig.15
Three-phase to 2-phase
Transformation (ต่อ)
• The ratio of transformation (3-phase voltage to
2-phase voltage) is fixed and given by EAB/EAT =
100/86.6 = 1.15.
Three-phase to 2-phase
Transformation (ต่อ)
• The Scott connection has the advantage of isolating the
3-phase and 2-phase systems and providing any desired
voltage ratio between them.
• Except for servomotor applications, 2-phase systems are
seldom encountered today.
Three-phase to 2-phase
Transformation (ต่อ)
(2) Scott connection :
It consists of two
identical singlephase transformers,
the one having a 50
percent tap and the
other an 86.6 percent
tap on the primary
winding.
Fig.16
Three-phase to 2-phase
Transformation (ต่อ)
Example 5: A 2-phase, 7.5 kW (10 hp), 240 V, 60 Hz
motor has an efficiency of 0.83 and a power factor of
0.80. It is to be fed from a 600 V, 3-phase line using a
Scott-connected transformer bank (Figure 16c).
Calculate
(a) The apparent power drawn by the motor
(b) The current in each 2-phase line
(c) The current in each 3-phase line
Three-phase to 2-phase
Transformation (ต่อ)
Three-phase to 2-phase
Transformation (ต่อ)
Fig.16c
Three-phase to 2-phase
Transformation (ต่อ)
11. Phase-shift transformer
• A phase-shift transformer is a special type of 3-phase
autotransformer that shifts the phase angle between the
incoming and outgoing lines without changing the
voltage ratio.
Fig.17 Phasor diagram showing the range over which the phase angle of the outgoing line can be varied.
Phase-shift transformer (ต่อ)
• The basic power rating of the transformer (which determines its
size) depends upon the apparent power carried by the transmission
line, and upon the phase shift.
• For angles less than 20&deg;, it is given by the approximate formula
ST = 0.025 SL max
(1)
Phase-shift transformer (ต่อ)
Example 6: A phase-shift transformer is designed to
control 150 MVA on a 230 kV, 3-phase line. The phase
angle is variable between zero and t 15&deg;.
Calculate
(a) The approximate basic power rating of the transformer.
(b) The line currents in the incoming and outgoing
transmission lines.
Phase-shift transformer (ต่อ)
Phase-shift transformer (ต่อ)
• Fig.18a is an example of a 3-phase transformer that
could be used to obtain a phase shift of, say, 20 degrees.
Fig.18a
Fig.18b
Phase-shift transformer (ต่อ)
• In our particular example,
if E is the line-to-neutral
voltage of the incoming
line, the respective
voltages across the
windings of phase A are
Fig.18c
12. Calculations involving
3-phase transformers
• The behavior of a 3-phase transformer bank is calculated
the same way as for a single-phase transformer. In making
the calculations, we proceed as follows:
(1) We assume that the primary and secondary windings
are both connected in wye, even if they are not.This
eliminates the problem of having to deal with delta-wye
and delta-delta voltages and currents.
(2) We consider only one transformer (single phase) of this
assumed wye-wye transformer hank.
Calculations involving
3-phase transformers (ต่อ)
(3) The primary voltage of this hypothetical transformer is
the line-to-neutral voltage of the incoming line.
(4) The secondary voltage of this transformer is the line-toneutral voltage of the outgoing line.
(5) The nominal power rating of this transformer is onethird the rating of the 3-phase transformer bank.
the transformer hank.
Calculations involving
3-phase transformers (ต่อ)
Example 7: The 3-phase step-up transformer is rated 1300
MVA, 24.5 kV/345 kV, 60 Hz, impedance 11.5 percent. It
steps up the voltage of a generating station to power a 345
kV line.
(a) Determine the equivalent circuit of this transformer,
per phase.
(b) Calculate the voltage across the generator terminals
when the HV side of the transformer delivers 810 MVA at
370 kV with a lagging power factor of 0.90.
Calculations involving
3-phase transformers (ต่อ)
Calculations involving
3-phase transformers (ต่อ)
Fig.19
Calculations involving
3-phase transformers (ต่อ)
Calculations involving
3-phase transformers (ต่อ)
Calculations involving
3-phase transformers (ต่อ)
Calculations involving
3-phase transformers (ต่อ)
Calculations involving
3-phase transformers (ต่อ)
13. Polarity marking
of 3-phase transformers
• The HV terminals of a 3-phase transformer are marked
H1, H2 , H3 and the LV terminals are marked X1, X2, X3.
The following rules have been standardized:
Polarity marking
of 3-phase transformers (ต่อ)
Fig.20
Polarity marking
of 3-phase transformers (ต่อ)
3. These rules are not affected by the phase sequence of
the line voltage applied to the primary side.
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