Memory Overview

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• Memory stores the program running and the data on which the
program operates
•Data store in binary code.
• Terminology:
Memory Cell – A device or an electrical circuit used to store
a single bit (0 or 1). Ex: flip-flop
Memory Word – A group of bits (cells) I memory that
represents instructions or data of some
type. Ex: Index Register consisting of 16 bit
can be considered to be a memory word
Byte – A special term used for a group of 8 bits
Nibble – Half of Byte ( 4bit).
Capacity –A way of specifying how many bits can be stored
in a particular memory device or complete memory
system.
Capacity metrics unit: 1K = 210 = 1024.
1M = 220 = 1,048,576.
1G = 230 = 1,073,741,824
A certain semiconductor memory chip is specified as
2K x 8.
a. How many words can be stored on this chip?
b. What is the word size?
c. How many capacity can this chip store?
Solution:
a. 2K = 2 x 1024 = 2048 location.
b. Word size is 8-bits (one byte).
c. The total capacity is 2048 x 8bit = 16,384 bits
Which memory stores the most bits:
a 5M x 8bits memory OR
a 1M x 16bits memory?
Solution: Capacity
5M x 8 = 5 x 1,048,576 x 8 = 41,943,040 bits
1M x 16 = 1,048,576 x 16 =16,777,216 bits
The 5M x 8 memory stores more bits.
 Density- Another term for capacity
 Address – A number that identifies the location of a word
in memory.
 Read operation – the operation whereby the binary word
stored in a specific memory location (address) is sense and
then transferred to another device.
 Write operation – The operation whereby a new word is
placed into a particular memory location.
 Access Time – A measure of memory device’s operating
speed. It is the amount of time required to perform a read
operation.
 Density- Another term for capacity
 Address – A number that identifies the location of a word
in memory.
 Read operation – the operation whereby the binary word
stored in a specific memory location (address) is sense and
then transferred to another device.
 Write operation – The operation whereby a new word is
placed into a particular memory location.
 Access Time – A measure of memory device’s operating
speed. It is the amount of time required to perform a read
operation.
 Main Memory – Also referred to as the computer’s working
memory. It stores instructions and data the CPU is
currently working on. It is the highest-speed memory in
the computer and is always a semiconductor memory.
 Auxiliary Memory – Also referred to as mass storage
because it stores massive amounts of information external
to the main memory. It is slower in speed than main
memory and is always nonvolatile. CDs are common
auxiliary devices.
Memory Type
ROM
(Read Only Memory)
1. MROM : Mask-programmed ROM.
2. PROM : Programmable ROM
3. EPROM : Erasable PROM
4. EEPROM : Electrically-erasable PROM or
EAROM: Electrical Alterable ROM
6. FLASH MEMORY
RAM
(Random Access Memory)
1. SRAM : Static RAM
2. DRAM : Dynamic RAM
 The read-only memory is type of semiconductor memory




designed to hold data that either are permanent or will not
change frequently. (Non-volatile)
During normal operation data can be read from ROM.
Data can be entered electrically –programming or burningin the ROM.
Some ROMs cannot have their data changed once they
have been programmed; others can be erased and
reprogrammed as often as desired.
A major use for ROMs is in the storage of programs in
microcomputers. When the microcomputer is turned on, it
can immediately begin executing the program stored in
ROM
 Has 3 sets of signals: address inputs, control inputs, and data





outputs.
Store 16 words because it has 2^4=16 possible addresses, and
each word contains 8-bit because there are 8 data outputs.
This is a 16 x 8 ROM.
The most common numbers of data outputs for ROMs are 4,
8,16 bits with 8-bit word being the most common.
Control input CS-Chip Select – an enable input that enables or
disabled the ROM outputs
Many ROMs have two or more control inputs that must be
active in order to enable the data outputs so that data can be
read from the selected address.
 CS input shown in figure is active-LOW; therefore, it must
be in the LOW state to enable the ROM data to appear at
the data outputs
 Notice that there are no R/W input because the ROM
cannot be written into during normal operation.
 16 different data words are stored at the 16 different
address locations.
 In order to read a data word from ROM, we need to do 2
things :
 Apply the appropriate address inputs
 Activate the control inputs.
 Ex: if we want to read the data stored at location 0111 of the
ROM, we must apply A3A2A1A0=0111 to the address inputs and
then apply a LOW to CS. The address inputs will be decoded
inside the ROM to select the correct data word, 11101101, that
will appear at outputs D7 to D0. If CS is kept HIGH the ROM
outputs will be disabled and will be in the Hi-Z state.
 Has its storage location written into by the manufacturer




according to the customer’s specifications.
A mask is used to control the electrical interconnections on the
chip.
A special mask is required for each different set of information to
be stored in the ROM.
Disadvantage – of this type of ROM is that cannot be
reprogrammed in the event of a design change requiring a
modification of the stored data
Is the most economical approach when a large quantity of
identically programmed ROMs are needed.
 For lower-volume applications, manfacturers have
developed fusible-link PROMs that are userprogrammable; that is, they are not programmed
during the manufacturing process but are customprogrammed by the user.
 Once programmed, cannot be erased and
reprogrammed
 If the programmed in the PROM must be changed,
the PROM must be thrown away.
EPROM programing can be done by
charging floating gate in side it.
The programming of an EPROM can be
done in special programmer unit circuit
and erasing using UV light source .
 Can be programmed by the user and can be
erased and reprogrammed as often as desired.
 Nonvolatile memory that will hold its stored
data indefinitely
 The programming process is usually performed
by a special programming circuit that is separate
from he circuit in which the EPROM will
eventually be working.
 EPROMs are available in a wide range of
capacities and access times; devices with a
capacity of 512K x 8 and can access time of 20 ns
are commonplace
Disadvantages:
1.
2.
3.
They must be removed from their circuit to be erased
and reprogrammed
The erase operation erases the entire chip-there is no
way to select only certain addresses to be erased
The erase and reprogramming process can typically take
20 minutes or more.
Fused
quartz
 The disadvantages of the EPROM were overcome by
the development of the electrically erasable PROM
(EEPROM) as an improvement over the EPROM.
 The erasing and programming of an EPROM can be
done in circuit ( without UV light source or a special
programmer unit)
 Advantages: ability to erase and rewrite individual
bytes (8-bit words) in the memory array electrically.
 During a write operation, internal circuitry
automatically erases all of the cells at an address
location prior to writing in the new data. This byte eras
ability makes it much easier to make changes in the
data stored in an EEPROM
 From EEPROM to Flash memory cell, is like the simple singe




transistor EPROM cell, being only slightly larger.
Allows electrical erasability but can be built with much higher
densities than EEPROMs.
The cost of flash memory is considerably less than for EEPROM
Rapid erase and write times.
Use bulk erase operation in which all cells on the chip are erase
simultaneously
This bulk erase process typically requires hundreds of
milliseconds compares to 20 minutes for UV EPROMs
 Any memory address location is as easily accessible as




any other.
Is used in computers for the temporary storage of
programs and data.
The contents of many RAM address locations will be
read from and written to as the computer executes a
program. This requires fast read and write cycle times
for the RAM so as not to slow down the computer
operation
Disadvantage – it is volatile and will lose all stored
information if power is interrupted or turned
off.(volatile)
Advantage- can be written into and read from rapidly
with equal ease
 SRAM use bistable latching
circuitry for single bit storage.
 Using BJT and MOS technology.
 Advantage of BJT is high speed device.
 Advantage of CMOS is high capacity
and low power consumption.
SRAM CELL
 Can store data as long as power is applied to the
chip.
 SRAM memory cells are essentially flip-flops that
will stay in a given state (store a bit) indefinitely
provide that power to the circuit is not interrupted.
 Main applications of SRAM are used in various
electronic applications including toys,
automobiles, digital devices and computers.
Cip piawai industri
6116
2k x 8 bit (16 kilobit)
6164/6264
8k x 8 bit (64 kilobit)
43256/66256 32k x 8 bit (256
kilobit)
Pin description
A0 – An
- address line
connect to address bus
D0 – Dn
- bus line
connect to bus data
CS*
- Chip select atau CE* - Chip enable
to active device
OE*
- Output enable
RAM give data to data bus
WE*
- Write enable
to active write data bus
 High capacity, low power requirement, moderate
operating speed.
 DRAM stores 1s and 0s as charges on a small MOS
capacitor. Because of the tendency for these charges
to leak off after a period of time, DRAM require
periodic recharging or the memory cells; this called
refreshing the DRAM.
 Have 4 times the density of SRAM
 The main internal memory of the most personal
microcomputers uses a DRAM because of its high
capacity and low power consumption
DRAM - Operation principle
DRAM is usually arranged in a square array of one capacitor and transistor
per cell.
The illustrations to the right show a simple example with only 4 by 4 cells
(modern DRAM can be thousands of cells in length/width).
The long lines connecting each row are known as word lines. Each
column is actually composed of two bit lines, each one connected to every
other storage cell in the column.
Principle of operation of DRAM read, for simple 4 by 4 array.
1. FPM DRAM – Fast page mode DRAM
membolehkan data dicapai dengan cepat pada
‘page’ yang sama (beberapa alamat dalam julat
tertentu)
2. EDO DRAM – Extended Data Output DRAM
membaiki ciri FPM dari segi cara membaca
dan menulis data.
3. SDRAM – Synchronous DRAM mempunyai ciri
membaca data dengan lebih laju.
 ROM : Read-Only Memory
 Non-volatile (data retained even without power)
 Exists on all computers
 Functions on general-purpose computer: power-on self test, basic
input/output system (BIOS), monitor program, etc.
 Functions on embedded systems: power-on self test, monitor
program, application program.
 RAM : Random Access Memory
 Volatile (data disappears without power)
 Functions on general purpose computer: main memory for running
operating system and application program
 Functions on embedded systems: scratch-pad memory
 May not be required on very simple embedded systems
 Introduction to address decoding
 Full address decoding
 Partial address decoding
 Implementing address decoders
 Examples
Memory Map and Address
Decoding
Different portions of memory are used for different purposes:
RAM, ROM, I/O devices
Even if all the memory was of one type, we still have to
implement it using different and unique addressing.
This means that for a given valid address, one and only one
memory-mapped component must be accessed.
Address decoding is the process of generating chip select
(CS*) signals from the address bus for each device in the
system
Contoh :
Let’s assume a very simple system like that:
> CPU 8 bit data bus line
> 16 bit address bus line
> 12 Kbyte ROM
> 4 Kbyte for I/O ports
> 16 Kbyte RAM
Make a sample memory map for that system.
SOLUTION
i.
What is the entire range for system addresses?
ii.
What is the entire range for every component
ROM, I/O and RAM
iii. Assume that
memory map figure like that:
ROM
I/O
RAM
unused
i.
System Size = 2n (n= address pin)
= 216
= 65536 Byte
Start Address = 0
End Address = 65536 – 1 (size -1)
= 65535
Range Address System :
0 -- 65535 OR 0000 - FFFF (hexadecimal)
Start
0000 H
ROM
I/O
RAM
unused
End
FFFF H
ii.
Range Address for ROM
Given Size of ROM
=
=
=
=
> Start Address for ROM
> End Address for ROM
12 Kbyte
12 x 1024 byte
12288 byte
3000 (hex)
= 0000
= 3000 – 1
= 2FFF
0000 H
2FFFF H
ROM
I/O
RAM
unused
FFFF H
iii.
Range Address for I/O
Given Size of I/O =
=
=
=
4 Kbyte
4 x 1024 byte
4096 byte
$1000 (hex)
Start Address I/O = End Address for ROM + 1
= $2FFF + 1
= $3000
0000 H
End Address I/O = $3000 + $1000 – 1
= $3FFF
2FFF H
ROM
3000 H
I/O
3FFF H
RAM
unused
FFFF H
iv.
Range Address for RAM
Given Size of RAM
Start Address for RAM
End Address for RAM
= 16 Kbyte
= 16 x 1024 byte
= 16384 byte
= $4000
= End Address for I/O + 1
= $3FFF + 1
= $4000
= $4000 + $4000 – 1
= $7FFF
0000 H
2FFF H
ROM
3000 H
I/O
3FFF H
4000 H
RAM
7FFF H
FFFF H
unused
Memory Map for the System is Figure below:
0000
ROM
2FFF
3000
I/O
3FFF
4000
RAM
7FFF
8000
UNUSED
FFFF
Latihan 1 :
1.
Lukiskan pemetaan alamat suatu sistem mikropemproses
Spesifikasi luaran adalah seperti berikut :
- EPROM bersaiz 2 MB bermula dari alamat $000000
- RAM bersaiz 4MB berakhir di alamat $7FFFFF
- I/O bersaiz 256 KB bermula dari alamat $800000
68000.
Latihan 1 :
2.
Jika pemetaan alamat suatu mikropemproses 8 bit diberi seperti
berikut, tentukan saiz ROM, RAM dan I/O
0000
7FFF
RAM
8000
I/O
8FFF
9000
UNUSED
BFFF
C000
FFFF
ROM
Dalam suatu sistem komputer, terdapat beberapa
peranti yang berada di bawah kawalan pemproses.
Pada satu masa, pemproses hanya boleh bertukar
data atau berinteraksi hanya dengan satu peranti
sahaja.
Pemilihan peranti ditentukan oleh kedudukannya
dalam peta ingatan. Jadi penyahkod alamat
(address decoder) diperlukan bagi memilih
peranti yang hendak diaktifkan.
Untuk merekabentuk penyahkod alamat,
terdapat beberapa langkah iaitu :
i. Tentukan julat alamat untuk peranti
(rujuk peta ingatan)
ii. Bilangan cip yang diperlukan
iii. Bilangan talian alamat pada cip (talian
alamat rendah dari pemproses ke cip)
iv. Baki talian alamat masuk ke penyahkod
alamat
v. Lukis litar penyambungan antara komponenkomponen berkaitan.
Contoh :
Lukiskan sambungan penyahkod alamat bagi suatu sistem komputer yang
mempunyai kapasiti ingatan 256 x 4 bit. Diberi satu cip ingatan RAM 64 x
4 bit dan peta ingatan seperti berikut :
Peta Ingatan
00
RAM
FF
terdapat 256 ruang
alamat
1) Bilangan cip
= saiz sistem
saiz cip
= 256 x 4 =
4 cip RAM
64 x 4
2) Talian alamat sistem :
2n = 256
n = log 256 = 8 talian alamat sistem (A0 – A7)
log 2
3) Talian alamat cip :
2n = 64
n = log 64
log 2
= 6 talian iaitu A0 – A5
( talian alamat rendah dari pemproses terus ke cip ingatan )
4) Baki talian = 8 – 6 = 2 iaitu A6 dan A7
(masukan ke penyahkod alamat)
5. Penyambungan litar penyahkod alamat adalah seperti berikut :
D0-D3
 Talian teratas A6 dan A7 disambungkan ke
penyahkod alamat. Litar penyahkod berfungsi
memilih satu daripada 4 cip ingatan tersebut.
 Penyahkod yang digunakan adalah ‘ 2- line to 4
- line’
 Setiap cip mempunyai CS input masing-masing.
 Jika A6 dan A7 berlogik ‘0’,
 maka pin CS0 akan aktif iaitu logic ‘0’ .
 Ini bermakna RAM 1 akan dipilih.
 Lokasi ingatan yang digunakan antara setiap cip
ingatan ditentukan oleh talian A0 hingga A5.
Disamping itu terdapat satu lagi kaedah untuk
menentukan talian yang masuk ke cip dan baki talian
yang masuk ke penyahkod alamat iaitu dengan merujuk
kepada peta ingatan.
Alamat mula ROM 1 = $ 00  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Alamat akhir ROM 1 = $ 3F  0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
Mula dari kanan :
Bit yang bernilai 0 di alamat mula dan 1 di alamat akhir
pergi terus ke ingatan.
Di sini A0 hingga A5 pergi terus ke ingatan.
Baki talian iaitu A6 – A7 pergi ke penyahkod.
Perhatikan nilai-nilai A6 - A7 dimana setiap cip
mempunyai nilai yang berbeza dan nilai ini yang
menentukan cip yang akan diaktifkan.
1. Kirakan jumlah cip EPROM 27128 bersaiz 16K x
8 bit yang diperlukan bagi suatu sistem komputer
64K x 8 bit. Lukis sambungan penyahkod alamat
bagi sistem ingatan tersebut.
2. Kirakan jumlah cip RAM 2114 bersaiz 1024 x 4
bit yang diperlukan bagi suatu sistem komputer
3K x 8 bit. Lukis sambungan penyahkod alamat
bagi sistem ingatan tersebut.
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