Packet Caches on Routers - University of Wisconsin–Madison

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Packet Caches on Routers:
The Implications of Universal Redundant
Traffic Elimination
Ashok Anand, Archit Gupta, Aditya Akella
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Srinivasan Seshan
Carnegie Mellon University
Scott Shenker
University of California, Berkeley
1
Redundant Traffic in the Internet
• Lots of redundant
traffic in the
Internet
• Redundancy due
to…
Same content
traversing same
set of links
Time T + 5
Time T
– Identical objects
– Partial content
match (e.g. page
banners)
– Applicationheaders
–…
2
Redundancy Elimination
• Object-level caching
– Application layer approaches like Web proxy caches
– Store static objects in local cache
– [Summary Cache: SIGCOMM 98, Co-operative Caching: SOSP 99]
• Packet-level caching
– [Spring et. al: SIGCOMM 00]
– WAN Optimization Products: Riverbed, Peribit, Packeteer, ..
Access link
Enterprise
Internet
Packet-Cache
Packet-Cache
Packet-level caching is better than object-level
caching
3
Benefits of Redundancy Elimination
–
–
–
–
Reduces bandwidth usage cost
Reduces network congestion at access links
Higher throughputs
Reduces in transfer completion times
4
Towards Universal RE
• However, existing RE approaches apply only to point
deployments
– E.g. at stub network access links, or between branch offices
• They only benefit the system to which they are
directly connected.
• Why not make RE a native network service that
everyone can use?
5
Our Contribution
• Universal redundancy elimination on routers is
beneficial
• Re-designing the routing protocol to be redundancy
aware gives furthermore benefits
• Practical to implement redundancy elimination
6
Universal Redundancy Elimination
At All Routers
Wisconsin
Packet cache
at every router
Total packets with
universal RE= 12
(ignoring tiny
packets)
Upstream router
removes
redundant bytes.
Total packets
w/o RE = 18
Downstream
router
reconstructs full
packet
33%
CMU
Internet2
Berkeley
7
Benefits of Universal Redundancy
Elimination
• Subsumes benefits of point deployments
• Also benefits Internet Service Providers
– Reduces total traffic carried  better traffic
engineering
– Better responsiveness to sudden overload (e.g.
flash crowds)
• Re-design network protocols with redundancy
elimination in mind  Further enhance the benefits of
universal RE
8
Redundancy-Aware Routing
Wisconsin
Total packets with
RE = 12
ISP needs information of traffic
similarity between CMU and Berkeley
ISP needs to compute redundancyaware routes
Total packets with
RE + routing= 10
(Further 20%
benefit )
45%
CMU
Berkeley
9
Redundancy-Aware Routing
• Intra-domain Routing for ISP
• Every N minutes
– Each border router computes a redundancy profile for the
first Ts of the N-minute interval
• Estimates how traffic is replicated across other border routers
• High speed algorithm for computing profiles
– Centrally compute redundancy-aware routes
• Route traffic for next N minutes on redundancy-aware
routes.
• Redundancy elimination is applied hop-by-hop
10
Redundancy Profile Example
Wisconsin
Dataunique,pitsburgh= 30 KB
Dataunique,Berkeley= 30 KB
Datashared= 20 KB
TotalCMU= 50 KB
TotalBerkeley= 50 KB
Internet2
CMU
Berkeley
11
Centralized Route Computation
Centralized
Platform
Route
computation
• Linear Program
• Objective: minimize the total
traffic footprint on ISP links
• Traffic footprint on each link as
latency of link times total unique
content carried by the link
• Compute narrow, deep trees
which aggregate redundant
traffic as much as possible
• Impose flow conservation and
capacity constraints
12
Inter-domain Routing
• ISP selects neighbor AS and the border router for each
destination
• Goal: minimize impact of inter-domain traffic on intradomain links and peering links.
• Challenges:
– Need to consider AS relationships, peering locations, route
announcements
– Compute redundancy profiles across destination ASes
• Details in paper
13
Trace-Based Evaluation
• Trace-based study
– RE + Routing: Redundancy aware routing
– RE: Shortest path routing with redundancy elimination
– Baseline: Compared against shortest path routing without
redundancy elimination
• Packet traces
– Collected at University of Wisconsin access link
– Separately captured the outgoing traffic from separate group
of high volume Web servers in University of Wisconsin
• Represents moderate-sized data center
• Rocketfuel ISP topologies
• Results for intra-domain routing on Web server trace
14
Benefits in Total Network Footprint
Fraction of Border Routers
RE
RE +Routing
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.1
0.3
Reduction in Network
Footprint
• Average redundancy of this
Web server trace is 50%
using 2GB cache
• ATT topology
• 2GB cache per router
• CDF of reduction in network
footprint across border
routers of ATT
• RE gives reduction of 1035%
• (RE + Routing) gives
reduction of 20-45%
15
When is RE + Routing Beneficial?
• Topology effect
– E.g., multiple multi-hop paths between pairs of
border routers
• Redundancy profile
– Lot of duplication across border routers
16
Synthetic Trace Based Study
• Synthetic trace for covering wide-range of situations
– Duplicates striped across border routers in ISP (inter-flow
redundancy)
– Low striping across border routers , but high redundancy
with in traffic to a border router (intra-flow-redundancy)
– Understand topology effect
17
Benefits in Total Network Footprint
Reduction in Network Footprint
RE
RE+Routing
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
0.5
1
Intra-flow redundancy
• Synthetic trace, average
redundancy = 50%
• ATT (7018) topology
• Trace is assumed to enter at
Seattle
• RE + Routing, is close to RE at
high intra-flow redundancy,
50% benefit
• RE has benefit of 8% at zero
intra-flow redundancy
• RE + Routing, gets benefit of
26% at zero intra-flow
redundancy.
18
Benefits in Max Link Utilization
• Link capacities either 2.5 or
10 Gbps
0.4
0.35
• Comparison against
0.3
traditional OSPF based
0.25
traffic engineering (SP0.2
MaxLoad)
0.15
0.1
• RE offers 1-25% lower
0.05
maximum link load .
0
• RE + Routing offers 10-37%
(0.2,1.0)
(0.5,0.5)
lower maximum link load.
(Overall redundancy, Inter flow
Reduction in
Max Link Utilization
RE
RE + Routing
redundancy)
Max link Utilization = 80%, for SP-MaxLoad
19
Evaluation Summary
• RE significantly reduces network footprint
• RE significantly improves traffic engineering
objectives
• RE + Routing further enhances these benefits
• Highly beneficial for flash crowd situations
• Highly beneficial in inter-domain traffic
engineering
20
Implementing RE on Routers
Fingerprint s
• Main operations
– Fingerprint computation
• Easy, can be done with CRC
– Memory operations, Read
and Write
Fingerprint table
Packet store
21
High Speed Implementation
• Reduced the number of memory operations per
packet
– Fixed number of fingerprints (<10 per packet)
– Used lazy invalidation of fingerprint for packet
eviction
– Other optimizations in paper
• Click-based software prototype runs at 2.3 Gbps
(approx. OC 48 speed ).
22
Summary
• RE at every router is beneficial ( 10-50%)
• Further benefits (10-25%) from redesigning
routing protocol to be redundancy-aware.
• OC48 speed attainable in software
23
Thank you
24
Backup
25
Flash Crowd Simulation
SP-MaxLoad
SP-RE
RA
Max Link Utilization
1
• Flash Crowd: Volume increases
at one of the border routers
– Redundancy ( 20% -> 50%)
– Inter Redundancy Fraction
(0.5 -> 0.75)
– Max Link Utilization without
RE is 50%
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
1
3
Volume Increment Factor
• Traditional OSPF traffic
engineering gets links at 95%
utilization at volume
increment factor > 3.5
• Whereas SP-RE at 85% , and
RA further lower at 75% 26
Impact of Stale Redundancy Profile
SP-RE
RA
RA-stale
• RA relies on redundancy
profiles.
0.5
0.45
Reduction in Network Footprint
0.4
• How stable are these
redundancy profiles ?
0.35
0.3
0.25
• Used same profile to
compute the reduction in
network footprint at later
times ( with in an hour)
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
1
2
3
4
High Volume /24 traces
5
• RA-stale is quite close to RA
27
High Speed Implementation
• Use specialized hardware for fingerprint computation
• Reduced the number of memory operations per packet
– Number of memory operations is function of number of
fingerprints. Fixed the number of sampled fingerprints
– During evicting packet, explicit invalidating fingerprint require
memory operations. Used lazy invalidation
• Fingerprint pointer is checked for validation as well as
existence.
• Store packet-table and fingerprint-table in DRAM for high-speed
– Used Cuckoo Hash-table. As simple-hash based fingerprint
table is too large to fit in DRAM
28
Base Implementation Details
(Spring et. al)
• Compute fingerprints per packet and sample them
• Insert packet into packet store
• Check for existence of fingerprint pointer to any
packet, for match detection.
• Encode the match region in the packet.
• Insert each fingerprint into Fingerprint table.
• As store becomes full, evict the packet in FIFO manner
• As a packet gets evicted, invalidate its corresponding
fingerprint pointers
29
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