l03

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F28PL1 Programming Languages
Lecture 3: Assembly Language 2
Running assembly programs on the
ARM-MDK
• ARM-MDK does not simulate a bare CPU
• oriented to embedded systems with memory,
peripherals etc
• STM32-Discovery board is:
– STMicroelectronics - STM32F103VB
• assumes no operating system
• must provide start up file
– code to initialise peripherals, interrupts etc
• STM32-Discovery uses:
– STM32F10x.s – .s == assembler
Running assembly programs on the
ARM-MDK
• start up file associates reset button on board with:
; Reset Handler
Reset_Handler
•
•
•
•
PROC
EXPORT
IMPORT
LDR
BX
ENDP
Reset_Handler
__main
R0, =__main
R0
[WEAK]
; text == comment
Reset_Handler – labelled procedure start
PROC – start of procedure
EXPORT Reset_Handler – make Reset_Handler
visible externally
Running assembly programs on the
ARM-MDK
; Reset Handler
Reset_Handler
PROC
EXPORT
IMPORT
LDR
BX
ENDP
Reset_Handler
__main
R0, =__main
R0
[WEAK]
• IMPORT – make external label __main visible internally
• LDR R0,=__main – load R0 with address for __main
• BX R0 – branch indirect on R0 i.e. set PC to address for
__main from R0
• ENDP - end procedure – not a return!
Running assembly programs on the
ARM-MDK
• ARM-MDK expects every project to include a main.c
– usually defining a main function
– compiler generates assembly with EXPORTed __main
label
– start up then IMPORTs __main
• can’t embed Thumb2 assembly language in C
• provide a dummy main.c containing only:
/* main.c */
• GJM’s main.c
Running assembly programs on the
ARM-MDK
• provide own assembly language file with __main:
; Main
__main
AREA
ASMmain, CODE
PROC
EXPORT
__main
<assembly code>
ENDL
B ENDL
ENDP
END
• AREA – introduces block of code or data – name + attributes
• __main – labelled procedure start
• EXPORT __main – make __main visible externally
Running assembly programs on the
ARM-MDK
AREA
; Main
__main
ASMmain, CODE
PROC
EXPORT
__main
<assembly code>
ENDL
B ENDL
ENDP
END
• ENDL B ENDL – endless loop at end of program
• END – end of source file
• template in GJM’s ASMmain.s
Create new project
•
•
•
•
•
create a new folder for new project
copy dummy main.c to folder
copy ASMmain.s template to folder
run Keil μVision 4
Project -> New μVision Project
– in new folder
– give project same name
Create new project
• Select Device for Target -> STMicroelectronics ->
STM32F103VB
– OK
• Copy STM32 Startup Code to Project Folder and Add
Project to File?
– No
• Project Window now shows: +Target 1
• select +
• Project Window now shows: +Target 1+Source Group 1
Create new project
• select inner +
• Project Window now shows:
+Target 1+Source Group 1
• Source Group 1 /right mouse button…
• …Add Files To Group ‘Source Group 1’
• Add: STM32F10x.s
• Add: main.c and (possibly renamed) ASMmain.s
– Close
Compile/assemble
• ASMmain.s/double left mouse button
• ASMmain.s opens in tabbed window
• add your assembler code
• Project -> Build Target
– details in lower window
• fix program and repeat until:
“project.axf" - 0 Error(s), 0 Warning(s).
Execute program on simulator
• Debug -> Start/Stop Debug Session
– OK
• View -> Register Window
• View -> Disassembly Window
• select STM32F10x.s tab
Execute program on simulator
• select reset button:
RST
• yellow arrow points at: LDR R0,=__main
• repeatedly select step button:
• watch indicated instruction & registers changing
• to leave simulator:
Debug -> Start/Stop Debug Session
Multiply & divide
MUL {Rd, }Rn,Rm 
Rd = Rn*Rm
UDIV {Rd,}Rn,Rm 
Rd = Rn/Rm
• unsigned
• rounds down i.e. 7/3 == 2
Expressions
• for:
var1 = var2 op var3
• with:
var1 RN R1
var2 RN R2
var3 RN R3
 op R1,R2,R3
• e.g.
x = y*z; 
x RN 1
y RN 2
z RN 3
MUL x,y,z
Expressions
• for:
var1 = var2 op1 var3 op2 var4
• if op1 and op2 have same
precedence
• or op1 has higher
precedence than op2 
op1 R1,R2,R3
op2 R1,,R4
e.g.
x = y*z-a; 
...
a RN 4
MUL x,y,z
SUB x,a
Expressions
• for:
var1 = var2 op1 var3 op2 var4
• if op2 has higher
precedence than op1
• must evaluate op2
expression in new
register
op2 Ri,R3,R4
op1 R1,,R2,Ri
e.g.
x =
MUL
ADD
e.g.
x =
ADD
MUL
y+z*a; 
R5,z,a
x,y,R5
y*(z+a) 
R5,z,a
x,y,R5
Expressions
• draw expression tree
• allocate registers to nodes
– from bottom left
– if expression in assignment then start with register
for destination variable
• accumulate into register for left operand
• can re-use any register whose value is no longer
required
Example: Pythagorus
int x; /* R1 */
int y; /* R2 */
int z; /* R3 */
int p; /* R4 */
x = 3;
y = 4;
z = 5;
if(x*x+y*y==z*z)
p=1;
else
p=0;
==
*
+
z
*
x
z
*
x
y
y
Example: Pythagorus
int x; /* R1 */
int y; /* R2 */
int z; /* R3 */
int p; /* R4 */
x = 3;
y = 4;
z = 5;
if(x*x+y*y==z*z)
p=1;
else
p=0;
==
*
+
z
*
R5
x
z
*
x
y
y
Example: Pythagorus
int x; /* R1 */
int y; /* R2 */
int z; /* R3 */
int p; /* R4 */
x = 3;
y = 4;
z = 5;
if(x*x+y*y==z*z)
p=1;
else
p=0;
==
*
+
z
*
R5
x
z
*
R6
x
y
y
Example: Pythagorus
int x; /* R1 */
int y; /* R2 */
int z; /* R3 */
int p; /* R4 */
x = 3;
y = 4;
z = 5;
if(x*x+y*y==z*z)
p=1;
else
p=0;
==
*
+
R5
z
*
R5
x
z
*
R6
x
y
y
Example: Pythagorus
int x; /* R1 */
int y; /* R2 */
int z; /* R3 */
int p; /* R4 */
x = 3;
y = 4;
z = 5;
if(x*x+y*y==z*z)
p=1;
else
p=0;
==
*
R6
+
R5
z
*
R5
x
z
*
R6
x
y
y
Example: Pythagoras
int x; /* R1 */
int y; /* R2 */
int z; /* R3 */
int p; /* R4 */
x = 3;
y = 4;
z = 5;
if(x*x+y*y==z*z)
p=1;
else
p=0;
==
CMP
*
R6
+
R5
z
*
R5
x
z
*
R6
x
y
y
Example: Pythagoras
int x;
int y;
int z;
int p;
x = 3;
y = 4;
z = 5;
if(x*x+y*y==z*z)
p=1;
else
p=0;
AREA
; Main
__main
x
y
z
p
RN
RN
RN
RN
PYTH, CODE
PROC
EXPORT
1
2
3
4
MOV x,#3
MOV y,#4
MOV z,#5
__main
Example: Pythagoras
int x;
int y;
int z;
int p;
x = 3;
y = 4;
z = 5;
if(x*x+y*y==z*z)
p=1;
else
p=0;
SAME
ENDL
MUL R5,x,x
MUL R6,y,y
ADD R5,R6
MUL R6,z,z
CMP R5,R6
BEQ SAME
MOV p,#0
B ENDL
MOV p,#1
B ENDL
ENDP
END
Structured programming
• assembly language requires intricate use of labels &
branches
• easy to produce “spaghetti code”
• design assembly programs using high level program
structures
– condition
– iteration
• use template to translate high level to label + branch
Structured programming: if
IF exp1 op exp2 THEN
command1
ELSE
command2
not(=)  NE
not(!=)  EQ
not(<)  GE
not(<=)  GT
not(>)  LE
not(>=)  LT
Ri = exp1
IFALSE
IEND
Rj = exp2
CMP Ri,Rj
Bnot(op) IFALSE
command1
B IEND
command2
Structured programming: if
IF exp1 op exp2 THEN
command
Ri = exp1
Rj = exp2
CMP Ri,Rj
Bnot(op) IEND
command
IEND
Structured programming: while
WHILE exp1 op exp2 DO
command
WLOOP
Ri = exp1
Rj = exp2
CMP Ri,Rj
Bnot(op) WEND
command
B WLOOP
WEND
Example: is x prime?
• dreadful algorithm...!
int x;
int n;
int p;
x = 23;
n = 2;
p = 1;
while(n<x)
if(x%n==0)
{ p = 0; break;
else
n = n+1;
}
AREA
PYTH, CODE
; Main
__main PROC
EXPORT __main
x RN 1
n RN 2
p RN 3
MOV x,#25
MOV n,#2
MOV p,#1
Example: is x prime?
• dreadful algorithm...!
int x;
int n;
int p;
x = 23;
n = 2;
p = 1;
while(n<x)
if(x%n==0)
{ p = 0; break;
else
n = n+1;
TEST
NOTP
}
ENDL
CMP n,x
n<x
BEQ ENDL
UDIV R4,x,n
MUL R4,n
x%n==0 
CMP R4,x
(x/n)*n==x
BNE NOTP
MOV p,#0
p=0; break
B ENDL
ADD n,#1
n = n+1
B TEST
B ENDL
ENDP
END
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