chapter12bovinesurgical_2 - Dr. Brahmbhatt`s Class Handouts

Chapter 12 -2
Common Bovine Surgeries
“A dream doesn’t become reality
through magic; it takes sweat,
determination and hard work.”
- Colin Powell
C - Section
• Reasons
– Maternal
• Inadequate cervical dilation
• Abnormal pelvic bone conformation (shape)
• Rupture of the cow's abdominal musculature
• Problems with uterine position or uterine function
• Abnormalities of the cow's uterus or vagina
– Calf
• Abnormal calf position that is not
correctable in the vagina
• Fetal monsters
• Presence of a dead fetus.
C - Section
• Prep
• Procedure
In addition to a standard selection of sterile
surgical instruments for abdominal surgery, 2
obstetrical chains, 2 cervical forceps, and
straight atraumatic needles are needed
Utrecht (1975)
• Reasons
– Consumer preference: Better tasting meat
– Better animal disposition
– Environment: low fly season, tetanus prophylaxis:
tetanus antitoxin or tetanus toxoid
• Age
– Best age: 1 to 4 weeks or under 3 months of age to
minimize stress. < 1 month: lateral recumbency
• Prepping
– Restrain in a chute or head gate
– Scrub scrotal area
– Methods: open (incision- scrotum)vs. closed
Castration (cont’d)
• Different types
– Jack knife or blade
Remove bottom one third of scrotum with blade
Expose testicles through opening
Cut with blade or jack knife
May apply antiseptic powder or spray
May apply a stop quick powder if bleeding in excess
May make one or two incisions
Castration (cont’d)
• Elastic ring elastrators
– Used for calves under 2 weeks of age
– Apply a strong elastic ring around the base of the
– Causes necrosis of the scrotum and the testicles
– Sloughs off in 2 to 3 weeks
– Problem: Tetanus, black leg, and malignant edema
(clostridial diseases)
Castration (cont’d)
• Newberry knife method
– Common for bulls weighing over 500 lb.
– Restrain bull in head gate or chute.
– Have someone pull tail up and over the
back of the bull.
– Scrub the scrotal area.
– Grasp lower half of the scrotum, and push testicles up as far as possible.
– Use Newberry knife to cut through the scrotum side to side, pulling
toward you. This will leave two scrotal flaps.
– Pull down the testicles in opening. Separate connective tissue, crush, and
clamp the cord with hemostats.
– Remove testicles with emasculator.
– Crushing the cord helps prevent hemorrhaging.
Elastrator: < 2 weeks old
Emasculatome used to crush the spermatic
cord of the testes while still inside the
scrotum, may be less reliable, bloodless
Castration (cont’d)
• Postoperative care
– Check hemorrhage and infection.
– Place animal in a clean dry area away from others
if possible.
– Return to mother if still nursing.
– Some swelling is normal.
• Definition
– Protrusion of an organ through an opening
• Cause
– Straining, constipation, and diarrhea
– Forced delivery: Most common
– Breeding injury
– Urogenital defects
– Coughing
– Excessive pelvic fat
Prolapse (cont’d)
• Three main types
– Rectal
– Vaginal
– Uterine
Roberts SJ (1973)
Prolapse (cont’d)
Cervicovaginal prolapse
Kelleman AA (2011)
After clean up the swollen mass is wrapped
tightly to reduced the edema prior to
Prolapse (cont’d)
• Must be treated immediately! It is life-threatening!
• Treatment
Clean with a 1% to 2 % organic iodine disinfectant.
Replace organ.
Give epidural to prevent further straining.
Purse-string suture with umbilical tape in vulva to help prevent
prolapse again.
– Give antibiotics.
• Fluids if animal is in shock.
Prolapse (cont’d)
internal cruciate suture
Kelleman AA (2011)
Caslick sutures
Prolapse (cont’d)
Santa Gertrudis: scrotal hernia
• Definition
– A protrusion of a part of an organ
or tissue through an abdominal
• Reasons
– Can be congenital
– Can be acquired
• Types
– Umbilical
– Inguinal
– Scrotal
Larsen RE (1980)
Hernias (cont’d)
• Procedures
– Small hernias resolve themselves.
– Surgery:
• Incision is made over the hernia.
• The bowel or omentum is pushed back into place and the
site is then closed with absorbable suture.
• Inguinal hernia or scrotal hernias can be done at the time of
– Wooden or metal clamp
• The clamp is attached to the hernia, and in 2 to 4 weeks the
hernia will slough off.
Hernias (cont’d)
• Postoperative care
– Antibiotics may be given depending on veterinarian.
– Keep in a dry, clean area and away from others until
– Horses will need sutures removed in 10 to 14 days.
• AX
– Pigs and calves: None needed
– Foals: Preanesthetic, general ax
Pros and Cons of dehorning
– Dangerous weapons
– Damage can done by fighting
– Feedlots typically pay less
money for horned animals
– Can cause damage to the
– Horns may also become
tangled in fences, branches,
and other objects
– It is the best interest of the
animal to remove the horns at
the early age
• CONS (dehorning)
decreased milk production
prolonged healing time of the
resultant surgical defect
– regrowth of the horns (scur
Dehorning Methods
• Reasons
– Reduce injuries, cuts, and bruises, which increase carcass
– Easier to handle; less space is required to handle them.
• Age
– Should be done at 2 weeks of age or less for less stress
and less bleeding.
– Cutting methods should not be done during fly season or
extreme cold.
– Adults: increased hemorrhage, sinusitis
– Horn button: horn buds; not attached to frontal sinus:
Dehorning - Cornuectomy
• AX
– None used for calves under 2 weeks of age
– Over 2 weeks age: Local ax should be used
Dehorning (cont’d)
• Caustic stick
– Used for calves under 2 weeks of age
– Procedure
• Clip hair around horn bud.
• Clip off skin and tip horn bud with a knife.
• Apply petroleum jelly or Vaseline around the base of the
horn bud (protects skin from being burned).
• Apply paste or stick as directed to the horn button.
• Keep calf away from mother for a few hours until paste is
• Not recommended: painful, not complete kill of germinal
tissue > scurs
(A) Well-healed scabs after caustic paste dehorning
(B) Over-application of caustic paste can damage the calf.
Dehorning (cont’d)
• Tube spoon or calf dehorner
– Use on calves 2 months or younger.
– Procedure
• Restrain calf in head gate or chute.
• Scrub around horn area with an antiseptic.
• Place the cutting edge of the instrument around the
base of horn button, including one eighth of the skin
around the horn.
Dehorning (cont’d)
• Twist the tube each way; must cut 1/8 to 3/8 of an inch
deep. Push down toward the jaw, and spoon out the
• If bleeding is excessive, take forceps and pull the artery
straight out so that it breaks in the soft tissue of the
• This will cause blood clotting.
Dehorning (cont’d)
• Bell-shaped dehorners
– Electric or hot iron
– Bell dehorners come in different sizes
– Done on calves under 4 months of age
– Procedure
• Restrain in chute.
• Apply the hot iron over the bud to the base also
covering a ring of hair.
• Leave on until a copper-colored hide appears around
the horn (usually 10 to 20 seconds)
Dehorning (cont’d)
• Barnes dehorner – Lever type dehorner
– Large beef herds: Dehorning not done until
weaning around 7 months of age
– Procedure
• Barnes dehorners lift the horns out by the roots and
crush the blood vessels (little to no blood).
• Restrain animal in chute.
• Place dehorner with handles together over the horn.
Dehorning (cont’d)
– Remove also 1/4 to 1/2 inch of skin around the
horn base.
– Spread handles apart quickly, and remove the
horn base.
– The horny tissue must be removed or the horn
may grow back.
– Pull up on bleeding arteries with forceps, and
twist and pull until it breaks.
– Use some type of antiseptic spray or solution over
the wound.
Dehorning (cont’d)
• Keystone dehorner:
lever-type dehorner
– Larger horns
– SE: hemorrhage,
Dehorning (cont’d)
• Cosmetic dehorning
– Used on show animals and expensive breeding
– Best if done under one year of age; older animals
are harder to close skin
– Procedure
• Restrain animal in squeeze chute and secure head to
one side.
Dehorning (cont’d)
• Clip hair around horns up to the ears and the
• Scrub area.
• Perform nerve block.
• Surgical site is given a final scrub.
• Incision is made around the base of the horn.
Dehorning (cont’d)
Incision is deepened until bone is hit.
Gigli wire is placed, and the bone is sawed off.
Flush with solution to flush out the bone dust.
Only one layer of skin is closed with
nonabsorbable sutures in a simple continuous
• Remove sutures in 2 to 3 weeks.
1. Surgical preparation
2. The skin is incised approximately 1.5 cm from the base of the horn (incorporate all germinal
or nonhaired epithelium in the horn removal to lessen the likelihood of regrowth or scur formation)
3. Assistant supporting the goat's head
4. Gigli wire is seated under the caudal aspect of the skin incision on one side and the horn is sawed off
in a cranial direction
5. Hemostasis can be applied to control hemorrhage from the superficial temporal artery
6. Remove all blood clots and bone chips/dust from the frontal sinuses
7. Bandage (nonadherant dressing (Adaptic®) covered with antibiotic ointment): EOD – week 1; SIW until sinuses’s close
8. Flunixin should be administered for 2-3 days post-operatively and antibiotic administration is at the discretion of the surgeon.
Tetanus antitoxin (500 IU) should always be given and a dose of a CD-T bacterin can also be administered to boost immunity.
Tail Amputation/ Docking
Clip and prep
Pain medication
Insect repellent
Supernumerary Teats
Tetanus prophylaxis
Emasculatome (Burdizzo)
Older animals
Local anesthesia
Skin incision
Dissection of the teat and its associated gland tissue
• K Holtgrew-Bohling , Large Animal Clinical
Procedures for Veterinary Technicians, 2nd
Edition, Mosby, 2012, ISBN: 97803223077323
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