Sistem Reproduksi

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Human anatomy
SKELETAL SYSTEM
dr. Dea Amanda
Program Studi Ilmu Keperawatan
Unitri Malang
Anatomi..
: Ilmu yg mempelajari ttg struktur tubuh
• Tubuh  sistem organ  organ 
jaringan  sel
• Sistem organ: muskuloskeletal, GIT,
urinary, reproductive, respiratory
system, cardiovascular
• Organ: cardia, gaster, ren, uterus,
prostat, pulmo, ureter
Fisiologi..
: Ilmu yg mempelajari ttg proses tubuh N
• Cardiovaskuler:
– Memompa darah ke seluruh tubuh u/
myalurkan O2 & nutrisi
• GIT:
– Mencerna makanan u/ diserap & bahan bakar
tubuh
• Muskuloskeletal:
– bergerak
Anatomical Position &
Terminology
Posisi Anatomis:
• the Body is erect/upright
• Legs together
• Feet are parallel, directed
forwards, flat on the floor
• Arms at the sides of the body
• Palms turned forward, with
fingers pointing downwards
Istilah2.. (=terminology)
• Superior (=cranial) vs Inferior
(=caudal)
• Anterior
(=dorsal)
(=ventral)
vs Posterior
• Medial vs Lateral
• Internal (=deep) vs Eksternal
(=superfisial)
• Proksimal vs Distal
Bidang2 Tubuh..
• Sagital (kiri-kanan); mid-sagital: (pas tengah)
• Koronal (depan-belakang)
• Transversal (superior-inferior)
Skeletal System
• Structure:
– Bones
– Cartilage
– Joints
– ∑ tulang:206
Skeletal System.. (2)
• Function
1.Support :penopang tubuh
2.Protection :melindungi organ2 vital
3.Movement :bergerak saat kontraksi otot
4.Hematopoiesis :terlindung dlm sutul,
produksi sel darah
5.Mineral storage
Klasifikasi tulang..
(brdsrkn bentuk)
• Tulang panjang: ada beda
panjang>lebar (femur, tibia, humerus)
• Tulang pendek: spt kubus (carpal,
tarsal)
• Tulang pipih:
scapula)
proteksi (skull, ribs,
• Tulang ireguler: bentuk aneh
(vertebrae, face)
General structures of bone
• Bone substance
– compact bone
– spongy bone
※flat bones
2 layers compact bone (outer
plate & inner plate); spongy
bone in the middle
Long Bone Structure..
• Diaphysis: di tgh
• Epiphysis:
– di ujung prox&dist
– Tdd tulang spongious
dikelilingi tulang
kompak
• Medullary cavity:
– rongga dlm diafisis;
– dilapisi endosteum;
– Berisi: yellow bone
marrow.
Long Bone Structure..
• Metaphysis:
– Daerah dmn diafis
bergabung dg epifis
• Epiphyseal plate:
– Mitosis>>, u/ elongasi
– Saat pertumb slesai
epiphyseal line
• Articular cartilage:
– Kartilago melapisi tiap
epiphysis.
• Periosteum:
– Outer or fibrous layer
– Inner layer  vascular &
contains osteoblasts
– Tempat menempelnya tendon
Long Bone Structure..
Figure 6.3
Histologi..
Histologi.. (2)
• Central Canal: circular channelcontains blood,
lymphatic vessels, & nerves.
• (Concentric )Lamellae: calcified matrix surrounding a
vertically oriented blood vessel.
• Lacuna: a small hollow
space, contains
osteocytes.
• Canaliculus: a small
channelconnects
lacunae to each other, &
to the central canal.
Bone Formation..
• Terdapat bbrp tipe sel tulang, a.l:
• Sel osteogenik :sel progenitor (=stem sel)
• Osteoblast
– sel2 tulang mghasilkan osteoid
– Calcium & mineral lain  mengeraskan osteoid
• Osteosit
jd osteosit
:osteoblast trapped inside osteoid develop
• Osteoklas :bone digestion - sel pghancur tulang
demineralisasi sel tulang
Bone Cell Types
Bone Formation..
= osifikasi
• Dimulai pd mgg ke-4 dlm kandungan
• Trdpt 2 cara:
1.Endochondral – mll thp kartilago
Kondrosit (sel tlg rwn) hipertrofi
kalsifikasi
2.Intramembranous –lgsg terbentuk
sbg tulang keras
Long Bone Formation and Growth..
Bone Growth in Length..
• Epiphyseal plate
– Cartilage cells in this plate
divide rapidly.
– Zone of proliferating cartilage.
• Between ages 18-25, the
epiphyseal plates close.
– Cartilage cells in the plate stop
dividing and bone replaces the
cartilage.
Growth in length stops at
age 25.
Bone Growth in Width..
Bone Remodeling..
• Saat massa tulang optimum telah
tercapai  remodelling mjd proses
utama pd tulang
• Fungsi:
(1) memperbaiki kerusakan mikro tulang
(2) mempertahankan kekuatan tulang
(3) men-supply Ca dari tulang untuk
mempertahankan kadar Ca serum.
Bone Remodeling..
• Hasil akhir proses remodelling: tulang yg
diresorpsi diganti dg tulang baru
• Pembentukan & resorpsi tulang  proses
normal, & continuous
SKELETON (Kerangka Tulang)
Axial
:
Skull
Auditory ossicles
Hyoid bone
Vertebral column
Ribs and sternum
Appendicular :
Upper extremity
Lower extremity
22
6
1
26
25
---80
64
62
---126
Total 206
• Axial Skeleton:
merupakan tulang axis dari
tubuh
 cranium, vertebrae, costae,
sternum
• Appendicular Skeleton:
berbungan dengan penyusun
tubuh :
 extremitas atas, bawah, &
pelvis
The Axial & Appendicular Skeleton
Figure 5.6
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide
5.20b
Joints.. (=articulation)
: tempat pertemuan 2 tulang /
lebih
• Klasifikasi:
a. Synarthrosis (immovable)
b. Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable)
c. Diarthrosis (freely movable)
Synarthrosis..
• ≠ dpt bergerak
• Tulang yg 1 dg yg lain
dihubungkan dg jar. fibrosa
• Contoh:
– Sutura pd tlg2 tengkorak
– Tibia-fibula (distal)
Amphiarthrosis..
• dpt sedikit bergerak
• Ujung2 tulangnya dibungkus
tulang rawan hyalin
• Contoh:
– Symphisis pubis
– Intervertebral joints
Diarthrosis.. (=sendi synovial)
• Sendi yg dpt
digerakkan dg bebas
• Memiliki rongga sendi
• Ujung2 tulang dilapisi
tulang rawan hyalin
• Contoh:
– Lutut
– Siku
Pergerakan Sendi..
• Fleksi
vs Ekstensi
• Abduksi vs Adduksi
• Rotasi
• Pronasi vs Supinasi
To Be
Continued..
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