Chapter 5 PowerPoints

advertisement
Chapter
5
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
 Types of Flexibility
 What Determines Flexibility?
 Benefits of Flexibility
 Assessing Flexibility
 Creating a Successful
Program to Develop Flexibility
 Preventing and Managing Low-Back Pain
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-2
 Flexibility – the ability of a joint to move
through its normal, full range of motion – is
important for general fitness and wellness
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-3

Range of motion: The
full motion possible in a joint
 Static flexibility: Ability to hold
an extended position at one end
or point in a joint’s range of motion
 Dynamic flexibility: Ability to
move a joint through its range
of motion with little resistance
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-4

Flexibility of a joint depends partly
on nature and structure of the joint
 Hinge joints
 Ball-and-socket joints
▪ Joint capsules: Semielastic structures,
composed primarily of connective
tissues; surround major joints
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-5
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-6
Soft tissues: Tissues of the human
body that include skin, fat, linings
of internal organs and blood
vessels, connective tissues, tendons,
ligaments, muscles, and nerves
 Collagen: White fibers that provide
structure and support in connective tissue

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-7
Elastin: Yellow fibers that
make connective tissue flexible
 Elastic elongation: Temporary change
in the length of muscles, tendons,
and supporting connective tissues
 Plastic elongation: Long-term change
in the length of muscles, tendons,
and supporting connective tissues

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-8

Proprioceptor: Nerve that sends
information about the muscular and
skeletal systems to the nervous system
 When they detect changes in position
or force of muscles and joints, they
send signals to the spine and brain
 The brain sends signals back to
coordinate muscle action to protect
muscles and tendons from injury
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-9

Proprioceptors control speed, strength,
and coordination of muscle contractions
 Small movements that only slightly stimulate
these receptors cause small reflex actions
 Rapid, powerful, and sudden changes in
muscle length stimulate receptors and can
cause powerful reflex muscle contractions
▪ Proprioceptive neuromuscular
facilitation (PNF) stretching
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-10
 When muscles and other tissues supporting
a joint are tight, the joint is subject to
stresses that can cause deterioration
 Poor joint flexibility can cause abnormalities
in joint lubrication, leading to deterioration
of the cartilage cells lining the joint
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-11
 Poor spinal stability puts pressure
on the nerves leading out from the spinal
column and can lead to low-back pain
▪ Good hip and knee flexibility protects the spine
▪ People with either high or low flexibility seem to
have an increased risk of injury
▪ Stretching programs are important for older adults
and people who play high-power sports, who have
brief but intense exertion, and who sit for long
periods
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-12
Relief of aches and pains
 Relief of muscle cramps
 Improved body position and
strength for sports and life
 Maintenance of good posture and balance
 Relaxation
 Improving impaired mobility

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-13

There are no tests of general flexibility
 The sit-and-reach test rates flexibility of
muscles in the lower back and hamstrings
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-14

Frequency
 ACSM recommends stretching
exercises be performed a
minimum of two or three days a week

Intensity and time (duration)
 Slowly apply stretch to your muscles to
point of slight tension or mild discomfort
▪ Hold the stretch for 10 to 30 seconds
▪ As tension subsides, stretch a bit farther
▪ Rest 30 to 60 seconds; do 2 to 4 repetitions
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-15
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-16

Types of stretching techniques
 Static stretching: Technique in which a
muscle is slowly and gently stretched
and then held in the stretched position
 Ballistic stretching: Technique in which
muscles are stretched by the force
generated as a body part is
repeatedly bounced, swung, or jerked
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-17

Types of stretching techniques
 Dynamic stretching: Technique in
which muscles are stretched by moving
joints slowly and fluidly through their
range of motion in a controlled
manner; also called functional stretching
 Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
(PNF): Uses reflexes initiated by
both muscle and joint nerves to
achieve greater training effects
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-18

Types of Stretching Techniques
 Passive stretching: Technique in
which muscles are stretched by
force applied by an outside source
 Active stretching: Technique in
which muscles are stretched by the
contraction of the opposing muscles
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-19
Head Turns and Tilts
 Towel Stretch
 Across-the-Body and
Overhead Stretches
 Upper-Back Stretch
 Lateral Stretch
 Step Stretch
 Side Lunge







Inner-Thigh Stretch
Hip and Trunk Stretch
Modified Hurdler
Stretch (Seated
Single-Leg Hamstring)
Leg Stretcher
Lower-Leg Stretch
Single-Leg Deadlift
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-20

Judge progress by noting
body position while stretching
 Should see some improvement after two
to three weeks of stretching
 May take two months to
attain significant improvements
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-21

Flexibility program should
include exercises to work major
joints of the body by stretching
associated muscle groups
 Hold each position 15 to
30 seconds for 2 to 4 repetitions
 Use proper technique
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-22
Low-back pain afflicts more
than 85% of Americans by age 50
 Second most common ailment in the U.S.

 Often result of weak and inflexible
muscles, poor posture, or poor body
mechanics when lifting or carrying
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-23

Spine provides structural support for the
body
 Surrounds and protects the spinal cord
 Supports much of the body’s weight
 Serves as attachment site
for muscles, tendons, and ligaments
 Allows movement of the
neck and back in all directions
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-24

Spinal column has 7 cervical, 12
thoracic, 5 lumbar vertebrae, and 9 fused
vertebrae that form sacrum and coccyx
 Vertebrae: Bony segments of the spinal
column that provide structural support for
the body and protect the spinal cord
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-25
 Intervertebral disk: An elastic disk
located between adjoining vertebrae
consisting of a gel- and water-filled nucleus
surrounded by fibrous rings; it serves as
a shock absorber for the spinal column
 Nerve root: Base of one of the 31 pairs of
spinal nerves that branch off the spinal
cord through spaces between vertebrae
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-26
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-27
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-28
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-29

Core muscles: The trunk
muscles extending from
the hips to the upper back
 29 muscles attach to ribs, hips, spine
and other bones in the trunk of the body
 Core muscles stabilize spine and
help transfer force between
the upper body and lower body
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-30

During any dynamic movement,
core muscles work together
 Some shorten to cause movement, others
contract and hold to provide stability,
lengthen to brake movement, or send signals
to the brain about the movements and
positions of the muscles and bones
▪ Best exercises for low-back health care are
whole-body exercises that force core muscles to
stabilize the spine in many different directions
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-31

Lumbar area most common area of pain
 Poor muscle endurance and
strength in the core muscles
 Excess body weight
 Poor posture or body position
 Poor body mechanics
 Physical stress can cause disks to break down
and lose some of their ability to absorb shock
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-32
 Maintain healthy weight
 Stop smoking and reduce stress
 Avoid sitting, standing, or working
in the same position for too long
 Use a supportive seat and
a medium-firm mattress
 Use lumbar support when driving
 Warm up thoroughly before exercising
 Progress gradually when attempting
to improve strength or fitness
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-33

Sudden back pain usually
involves tissue injury
 Applying cold and then heat
may reduce pain and inflammation
 Bed rest immediately following
the onset of pain may help
▪ See physician if acute back pain
doesn’t resolve within a short time
 Back pain that lasts more than
3 months is considered chronic
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-34

Different people benefit from different
treatment strategies including:
 Medications
 Exercise
 Physical therapy; acupuncture
 PENS
 Education and advice
 Surgery
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-35

Perform low-back
exercises (3 days per week)
 Emphasize muscular endurance
 Don’t do full range of motion
spine exercises early in morning
 Engage in regular endurance exercise
 Be patient and stick with your program
 Forget the adage ‘no pain, no gain’
 Emphasize stabilization exercises
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
5-36
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards