Medical Terminology
A Living Language
Chapter 11
Endocrine System
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Multimedia Directory
Slide 13
Slide 48
Slide 63
Endocrine System Animation
Endocrine System Exercise
Diabetes Video
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System at a Glance

Endocrine glands secrete hormones
 Hormones regulate body activities




Metabolic rate
Water and mineral balance
Immune system reactions
Sexual functioning
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System at a Glance

Organs of the Endocrine System









Adrenal glands
Ovaries
Pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
Parathyroid glands
Pineal gland
Pituitary gland
Testes
Thymus gland
Thyroid gland
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Combining Forms







acr/o
adren/o
adrenal/o
andr/o
calc/o
crin/o
estr/o
extremities
adrenal glands
adrenal glands
male
calcium
secrete
female
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Combining Forms







glyc/o
glycos/o
gonad/o
home/o
kal/i
natr/o
ophthalm/o
sugar
sugar
sex glands
sameness
potassium
sodium
eye
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Combining Forms








pancreat/o
parathyroid/o
pineal/o
pituitar/o
thym/o
thyr/o
thyroid/o
toxic/o
pancreas
parathyroid gland
pineal gland
pituitary gland
thymus
thyroid gland
thyroid gland
poison
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Suffixes
–crine
 –dipsia
 –prandial
 –tropin

to secrete
thirst
relating to a meal
stimulate
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Anatomy and Physiology

Collection of glands
 Secrete hormones directly into bloodstream



Chemicals that act on target organs
Increase or decrease target’s activity level
Instrumental in maintaining homeostasis

Maintain stable internal environment
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Types of Glands

Two types of glands in body


Exocrine glands



Exocrine glands and endocrine glands
Release secretions into duct that carries them to
outside of body
Example: sweat glands
Endocrine glands



Release hormones directly into bloodstream
Have no ducts, referred to as ductless glands
Example: thyroid gland
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Glands of the Endocrine System




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
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Adrenal glands – two
Parathyroid glands – four
Pancreas
Pineal gland
Pituitary gland
Ovaries – two in females
Testes – two in males
Thymus gland
Thyroid gland
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Animation
Click here to view an animation of the endocrine system.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Back
to Directory
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Adrenal Glands

Two glands, one located above each kidney
 Each gland is composed of two sections:


Adrenal cortex
Adrenal medulla
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.1 – The adrenal glands.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Adrenal Cortex

Hormones are referred to as corticosteroids



Secreted by adrenal cortex
Steroid hormones
Three different families of corticosteroids



Mineralocorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Steroid sex hormones
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Adrenal Cortex

Mineralocorticoid



Glucocorticoid



Example: aldosterone
Regulates sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) levels
Example: cortisol
Regulates carbohydrates
Steroid sex hormones


Androgens, estrogen, and progesterone
Regulate secondary sexual characteristics
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Adrenal Medulla

Inner portion
 Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine


Epinephrine is also called adrenaline
Critical during emergency situations



Increases blood pressure
Increases heart rate
Increases respiration rate
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Ovaries

Two ovaries located in pelvic cavity of females
 Secrete female sex hormones, estrogen and
progesterone
 Estrogen is responsible for:



Female sexual characteristics
Regulation of menstrual cycle
Progesterone

Maintains suitable uterine environment for
pregnancy
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.2 – The ovaries.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Pancreas

Located along lower
curvature of stomach
 Only organ that has
both endocrine and
exocrine functions
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Pancreas

Exocrine portion


Releases digestive
enzymes through
duct into duodenum
Endocrine sections
of the pancreas


Islets of
Langerhans
Produce insulin and
glucagon
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Pancreas

Insulin




Produced by beta cells
Stimulates cells of body to take in glucose from
bloodstream
Lowers blood sugar level
Occurs after eating a meal and absorbing
carbohydrates
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Pancreas

Glucagon




Produced by alpha cells
Stimulates liver to release stored glucose into
bloodstream
Raises blood sugar levels
Occurs when body needs more glucose
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.3 – The pancreas.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Parathyroid Glands

Four tiny glands
 Located on dorsal
surface of thyroid
gland
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Parathyroid Glands

Secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH)


Regulates level of calcium in bloodstream
If calcium levels in blood fall too low:



Parathyroid hormone levels in the blood increase
Stimulate bone breakdown
Releasing more calcium into bloodstream
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.4 – The parathyroid glands.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Pineal Gland

Small pine coneshaped gland
 Part of thalamus
region of brain
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Pineal Gland

Secretes melatonin
 Not well understood, but plays a role in
regulating body’s circadian rhythm

24-hour clock that governs periods of wakefulness
and sleepiness
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.5 – The pineal gland is a part of the thalamus region of the
brain.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Pituitary Gland

Small marbleshaped gland
 Located underneath
brain
 Divided into anterior
and posterior lobes
 Regulated by
hypothalamus
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.6 – The pituitary gland lies just underneath the brain. It is
subdivided into anterior and posterior lobes.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Anterior Pituitary

Referred to as “master gland”


Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)


Secretes hormones that regulate other endocrine
glands
Regulates function of thyroid gland
Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)

Regulates function of adrenal cortex
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Anterior Pituitary

Gonadotropins



FSH



Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Responsible for development of ova and sperm
Also stimulates ovary to secrete estrogen
LH


Stimulates secretion of sex hormones
Plays a role in releasing ova in females
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Anterior Pituitary

Growth hormone (GH)



Prolactin (PRL)


Also called somatotropin
Stimulates cells to grow and divide
Stimulates milk production in breast
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

Stimulates melanocytes to produce more melanin
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.7 – The different hormones and target tissues for the
anterior pituitary.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Posterior Pituitary

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)



Also called vasopressin
Promotes water reabsorption by the kidney tubules
Oxytocin


Stimulates uterine contractions during labor and
delivery
After birth stimulates release of milk from breast
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Testes

Two oval glands located in scrotum
 Secrete male sex hormone, testosterone
 Testosterone


Produces male secondary sexual characteristics
Regulates sperm production
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.8 – The testes.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Thymus Gland

Located in
mediastinum
 Part of immune
system
 Also endocrine gland

Secretes thymosin
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Thymus Gland

Thymosin


Essential for growth and development of thymic
lymphocytes or T cells
Critical part of body’s immune system

Present at birth and grows to largest size
during puberty
 At puberty begins to shrink and eventually is
replaced with connective and adipose tissue
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.9 – The thymus gland.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Thyroid Gland

Located on either
side of trachea
 Resembles a
butterfly in shape
 Divided into right and
left lobes
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Thyroid Gland

Thyroid hormones


Thyroxine (T4)
Triiodothyronine (T3)

Needs iodine to make hormones
 These hormones:


Regulate energy production
Adjust metabolic rate
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Thyroid Gland

Also secretes calcitonin


If calcium levels in blood rise too high:




Regulates level of calcium in bloodstream
Calcitonin levels in blood increase
Increases deposition of calcium into bone
Lowers levels of calcium in bloodstream
Its action is opposite of parathyroid hormone
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.10 – The thyroid gland is divided into a left and right lobe.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Exercise
Click here to review the endocrine system glands in a labeling activity.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Back
to Directory
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Word Building with adren/o & adrenal/o
–al
adrenal
pertaining to adrenal gland
–megaly
adrenomegaly
enlarged adrenal gland
–pathy
adrenopathy
adrenal gland disease
–ectomy
adrenalectomy
removal of adrenal gland
–itis
adrenalitis
inflammation of adrenal
gland
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Word Building with calc/o & crin/o
hyper– –emia
hypercalcemia
excessive calcium in
blood
hypo– –emia
hypocalcemia
low calcium in blood
specialist in endocrine
endo– –ologist endocrinologist
system
endocrine system
endo– –pathy endocrinopathy
disease
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Word Building with glyc/o, kal/i, & natr/o
hyper– –emia hyperglycemia excessive sugar in blood
hypo– –emia
hypoglycemia
low sugar in blood
hyper– –emia hyperkalemia
excessive potassium in
blood
hypo– –emia
low sodium in blood
hyponatremia
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Word Building with parathyroid/o &
pancreat/o
–al
parathyroidal
pertaining to parathyroid
–ectomy parathyroidectomy
removal of parathyroid
hyper–
–ism
hyperparathyroidism
state of excessive
parathyroid
hypo–
–ism
hypoparathyroidism
state of insufficient
parathyroid
–ic
pancreatic
pertaining to pancreas
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Word Building with pituitar/o & thym/o
–ary
pituitary
pertaining to pituitary
hypo– –ism
hypopituitarism
state of low pituitary
state of excessive
hyper– –ism hyperpituitarism
pituitary
–ic
thymic
pertaining to thymus
–ectomy
thymectomy
removal of thymus
–itis
thymitis
inflammation of thymus
–oma
thymoma
thymus tumor
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Word Building with thyr/o & thyroid/o
–megaly
thyromegaly
enlarged thyroid
–al
thyroidal
pertaining to thyroid
–ectomy
thyroidectomy
removal of thyroid
hyper– –ism
state of excessive
hyperthyroidism
thyroid
hypo– –ism
hypothyroidism
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
state of low thyroid
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Endocrine System Vocabulary
acidosis
excessive acidity of body fluids
edema
excessive fluid in body tissues
diagnosis and treatment of conditions of
endocrinology
endocrine glands
exophthalmos protruding eyeballs
gynecomastia development of breast tissue in males
hirsutism
excessive amount of hair
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.11 – A photograph of a woman with exophthalmos. This
condition is associated with hypersecretion of the thyroid gland.
(Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Vocabulary
hypersecretion
hyposecretion
excessive hormone production by
endocrine gland
insufficient hormone production by
endocrine gland
obesity
having abnormal amount of fat
syndrome
group of symptoms and signs that
combine to present a clinical picture of
disease or condition
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Adrenal Gland Pathology
Addison’s
disease
adrenal
feminization
adrenal
virilism
hyposecretion of adrenal cortex;
symptoms include generalized weakness
and weight loss
hypersecretion of estrogen by adrenal
cortex in males; develops female
secondary sexual characteristics like
gynecomastia
hypersecretion of testosterone by adrenal
cortex in females; develops male
secondary sexual characteristics
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Adrenal Gland Pathology
hypersecretion of adrenal cortex;
symptoms include weakness,
Cushing’s syndrome
edema, excess hair growth, and
osteoporosis
hypersecretion of epinephrine by
adrenal medulla tumor; usually
pheochromocytoma benign; symptoms include anxiety,
heart palpitations, dyspnea, and
headache
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Figure 11.12 – Cushing’s syndrome. (Biophoto Associates/ Science
Source/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Pancreas Pathology

diabetes mellitus
(DM)


Chronic disorder of carbohydrate
metabolism
Results in hyperglycemia and
glycosuria
Two very distinct types:
- insulin-dependent
- non-insulin-dependent
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus
(IDDM)
 Also called Type 1
 Develops early in life
 Destruction of islet cells
 Person makes too little
insulin
 Must take insulin
injections
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht

Non-insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus
(NIDDM)
 Also called Type 2
 Develops later in life
 Person makes enough
insulin, but it has lost
ability to regulate cells
 Do not take insulin
 Treated by diet,
exercise, and oral
medications
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Diabetes Video
Click here to view a video on diabetes.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
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Pancreas Pathology
diabetic
retinopathy
ketoacidosis
peripheral
neuropathy
insulinoma
accumulation of damage to retina;
complication of diabetes mellitus
acidosis due to excess of acidic ketone
bodies; serious complication of diabetes
mellitus
damage to nerves in lower legs and
hands as a result of diabetes mellitus
islet of Langerhans tumor; secretes
excessive amount of insulin
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Parathyroid Gland Pathology
tetany
Recklinghausen
disease
nerve irritability and painful
muscle cramps due to
hypocalcemia; may be caused by
hypoparathyroidism
hypersecretion of parathyroid
hormone; causes degeneration of
bones
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Pituitary Gland Pathology
acromegaly
diabetes
insipidus (DI)
dwarfism
chronic hypersecretion of growth
hormone in adults; causes enlargement
of bones of head and extremities
hyposecretion of antidiuretic hormone;
symptoms include polyuria and
polydipsia
hyposecretion of growth hormone in
children; causes short stature
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.13 – Acromegaly. The hand on the right is from a normal
person, the hand on the left is a person with acromegaly. (Bart's
Medical Library/Phototake NYC)
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Sue
Suzanne
Frucht
S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Pituitary Gland Pathology
gigantism
panhypopituitarism
hypersecretion of growth hormone
in child; results in very tall adult
hyposecretion of all pituitary
hormones; results in problems with
the glands controlled by pituitary
gland
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Thyroid Gland Pathology
cretinism
congenital hyposecretion of thyroid;
results in poor physical and mental
development
goiter
enlarged thyroid gland
Graves’ disease
hypersecretion of thyroid; symptoms
include exophthalmos and goiter
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 11.14 – Goiter.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Thyroid Gland Pathology
Hashimoto’s
disease
myxedema
thyrotoxicosis
autoimmune destruction of thyroid;
results in hyposecretion disorder
hyposecretion disorder in adult;
symptoms include anemia, edema,
and mental lethargy
marked hypersecretion; symptoms
include rapid heart rate, tremors,
thyromegaly, and weight loss
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine Gland Pathology
adenocarcinoma
cancerous tumor in gland that
produces hormones secreted by that
gland; results in hypersecretion
pathologies
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Clinical Laboratory Tests
measures level of substances, such
blood serum test
as calcium, glucose, or hormones,
in blood
measures calcium in blood; used to
total calcium
diagnose parathyroid or bone
disorders
radioimmunoassay measures levels of hormones in
(RIA)
blood
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Clinical Laboratory Tests
fasting blood
sugar (FSB)
glucose
tolerance test
(GTT)
measures glucose in bloodstream after
12-hour fast
measures blood sugar level over
several hours after person drinks large
dose of glucose
two-hour
postprandial
glucose
tolerance test
measures blood glucose level two
hours after a meal
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Clinical Laboratory Tests
protein
bound iodine
test (PBI)
thyroid
function test
(TFT)
measures T4 blood level; iodine in the
hormone becomes bound to blood
proteins
measures levels of T3, T4, and TSH in
blood
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Diagnostic Imaging
thyroid
echogram
ultrasound image of thyroid gland
thyroid scan
nuclear medicine image based on
accumulation of radioactive iodine in
thyroid gland
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Medical Treatments
chemical
thyroidectomy
large dose of radioactive iodine is given
to kill a portion of the thyroid gland;
avoids surgery
hormone
replacement
therapy
administering replacement hormones;
treats hyposecretion disorders
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Surgical Treatments
laparoscopic
adrenalectomy
removal of adrenal gland through
small abdominal laparoscopic
incision
lobectomy
removal of a lobe of thyroid gland
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Pharmacology
antithyroid
agents
blocks production of
thyroid hormones
replaces adrenal cortex
corticosteroids
hormones
human growth
replaces growth
hormone
hormone
therapy
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Tapazole
Deltasone
Genotropin,
Protropin
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Pharmacology
insulin
treats type 1 diabetes
mellitus
Humulin L
oral
hypoglycemic
agents
decreases blood sugar
in type 2 diabetics
Glucophage,
Glucotrol
thyroid
replacement
hormone
replaces thyroid
hormones
Levo-T,
Cytomel
vasopressin
treats diabetes
insipidus
Desmopressin,
Vaprisol
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Abbreviations
a
alpha
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH
antidiuretic hormone
b
beta
BMR
basal metabolic rate
DI
diabetes insipidus
DM
diabetes mellitus
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Abbreviations
FBS
fasting blood sugar
FSH
follicle-stimulating hormone
GH
growth hormone
GTT
glucose tolerance test
IDDM
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
K+
potassium
LH
luteinizing hormone
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Abbreviations
MSH
melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Na+
sodium
NIDDM
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
NPH
neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)
PBI
protein-bound iodine
PRL
prolactin
PTH
parathyroid hormone
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Endocrine System Abbreviations
RAI
radioactive iodine
RIA
radioimmunoassay
T3
triiodothyronine
T4
thyroxine
TFT
thyroid function test
TSH
thyroid-stimulating hormone
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
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