CH-14 Lecture - Horizon Medical Institute

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Lecture Notes
Classroom Activity to
Accompany Medical
Terminology Systems, Sixth
Edition
Barbara A. Gylys ∙ Mary Ellen Wedding
14
Nervous System
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Structure of Nervous System
• Central Nervous
System (CNS)
• Brain
• Spinal cord
• Peripheral Nervous
System (PNS)
• Peripheral nerves
• Basic unit is the
neuron
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Function of Nervous System
• Central nervous (CNS)
• Control center of the body.
•Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
• Consists of peripheral nerves and connect CNS
to remote body parts to relay and receive
messages.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Structure and Function Exercise
Q: What are the two main divisions of the nervous system?
A: Central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous
system (PNS).
Q: What are the cells that transmit impulses called?
A: Neurons
Q: What does the CNS consist of?
A: Brain and spinal cord
Q: What does the PNS consist of?
A: Peripheral nerves that connect CNS to remote body parts
to relay and receive messages.
Q: What is the function of neuroglia cells?
A: They perform the function of support and protection, but
are not transmitters of messages.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Spinal Cord Injuries
Signs and Symptoms
• Spinal cord injury
resulting in paraplegia
or quadriplegia usually
is a consequence of
fracture, dislocation, or
both of the vertebral
column.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Spinal Cord Injuries
Signs and Symptoms (continued)
• Location of spinal cord injury and severity of trauma
determines whether paraplegia or quadriplegia
results.
• In paraplegia, there is loss of motor and sensory
functions in the legs and trunk.
• In paraplegia, bowel, bladder, and sexual function
may be lost.
• Complete spinal cord injury renders no feeling or
function beneath the injury.
• Incomplete spinal cord injury renders some feeling
and function remains beneath the injury.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Spinal Cord Injuries
Treatment
• Restoration and stabilization of the
injured spinal area.
• Decompression of compressed
neurological structures.
• Prevent progressive spinal cord tissue
damage.
• Surgery, drugs, or cooling the affected
portion of the spine.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Clinically Related Exercise
Q: Michelle’s daughter is diagnosed with a spinal cord injury and asks the nurse
to explain its cause.
A: Acute traumatic injury of the spinal cord that results from automobile
accidents, sports injuries, falling, or violence.
Q: Jena has a loss of motor and sensory functions in the legs and trunk following
an auto accident. This type of spinal injury is known as (paraplegia,
quadriplegia, complete spinal injury)
A: paraplegia
Q: The nurse explains that a C6 injury results in paralysis of all four extremities
and usually the trunk. This type of impairment is called (paraplegia,
quadriplegia, total paralysis).
A: quadriplegia
Q: The veteran presents to the clinic with paralysis of the lower portion of the
body and both legs. The medical term in the chart for this spinal cord
impairment is (paraplegia, quadriplegia, total paralysis).
A: paraplegia
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Spinal Cord Defects
Signs and Symptoms
• Developmental defects
of the first trimester of
pregnancy,
characterized by
incomplete closure of
the bones encasing the
spinal cord.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Spinal Cord Defects
Signs and Symptoms (continued)
• Spina bifida occulta is the most common and
least severe spinal cord defect.
• Incomplete closure of one or more vertebrae
without protrusion of spinal cord or meninges.
• Spina bifida cystica has two classifications:
• Meningocele, sac contains only meninges and
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
• Meningomyelocele, sac contains meninges,
CSF, and a portion of the spinal cord.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Spinal Cord Defects
Treatment
• Spina bifida occulta usually requires no
treatment.
• Meningocele and meningomyelocele require
surgical repair of sac and supportive
measures to promote independence and
decrease possibility of complications.
• Folic acid in diet of women in the chilbearing
age decreases risk of spina bifida.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Clinically Related Exercise
Q: Mrs. C asks about the importance of taking a folic acid
vitamin supplement during pregnancy.
A: The MA explains that folic acid intake decreases risk of the
child being born with the congenital defect called spina
bifida.
Q: The Smith baby is diagnosed with spina bifida cystica and the
mother asks the physician to explain this congenital defect.
A: The doctor states that spina bifida cystica involves
protrusion of the meninges (meningocele), or spinal cord
(myelocele), or both (meningomyelocele).
Q: The parents ask the nurse to explain the type of treatment
recommended for spina bifida occulta.
A: She explains that spina bifida occulta does not require
surgery and there is little or no treatment.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Clinically Related Exercise
(continued)
Q: Baby Mary is diagnosed with spina bifida that involves
protrusion of the meninges. The medical term for this is
(meningocele, meningomyelocele, myelocele).
A: meningocele
Q: Baby Mark is diagnosed with spina bifida cystica that
involves the protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord. This
diagnosis is charted as (meningocele, meningomyelocele,
myelocele).
A: meningomyelocele
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Medical Vocabulary
• angioma
• anorexia
• aphasia
• cognition
• craniotomy
• dementia
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Medical Vocabulary
(continued)
• dysphasia
• epilepsy
• hydrocephalus
• neurolysis
• neurosis
• oxytocin
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Medical Vocabulary
(continued)
• neurotransmitter
• palsy
• parapleglia
• psychosis
• quadriplegia
• shingles
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Diagnostic Procedures
• Cerebrospinal fluid
(CSF) analysis
• Lumbar puncture
• Sample of CSF is
withdrawn for
laboratory analysis
as shown in the
illustration.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Word Building Exercise
Q: Pertaining to the cerebrum and spine:
A: cerebrospinal
Q: Incision of the cranium (skull):
A: craniotomy
Q: Crushing a nerve:
A: neurotripsy
Q: Hernia of meninges and spinal cord:
A: meningomyelocele
Q: Inflammation of gray matter of spinal cord:
A: poliomyelitis
Q: Paralysis of four (limbs):
A: quadriplegia
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Medical and Surgical Procedures
• Craniotomy
• Thalamotomy
• Tractotomy
• Vagotomy
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Clinically Related Exercise
Q: Susan is diagnosed with ulcers in the stomach and duodenum that do not
respond to medication or changes in diet. Dr. S. recommends a surgical
procedure of the vagus nerve to relieve her peptic ulcer disease. This is
known as a (thalamotomy, tractotomy, vagotomy).
A: vagotomy
Q: John suffers from chronic pain caused by an injury to his back from an
auto accident 10 years ago. The doctor performs a partial destruction of
the thalamus to treat his chronic pain. This is charted in the medical
record as a __________________.
A: thalamotomy
Q: Zia is having surgery to remove a brain tumor. The surgeon needs to
create an opening in the skull to gain access to the tumor. This surgery is
known as a (craniotomy, thalamotomy, tractotomy).
A: craniotomy
Q: The neurosurgeon performs a transection of a nerve tract in the spinal
cord to resolve the patient’s chronic pain. This surgical procedure is
charted as a (craniotomy, thalamotomy, tractotomy).
A: tractotomy
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Pharmacology
• Anesthetics
• general
• local
• Anticonvulsants
• Antiparkinsonian agents
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
Clinically Related Exercise
Q: To control Parkinsonian tremors, the physician prescribes an
(anticonvulsant agent, antibiotic agent, antiparkinsonian agent).
A: antiparkinsonian agent
Q: Pat is scheduled for a craniotomy. The anesthesiologist informs
her that she will be unconscious during the procedure and a
(general, central, local, ___________ anesthetic will be
administered.
A: general
Q: To control seizures, the physician prescribes an (anesthetic,
anticonvulsant, antiparkinsonian)
A: anticonvulsant
Q: Mrs. C is informed that she will be under local anesthesia for her
minor procedure and asks if she will be unconscious.
A: The nurse explains that anesthetics that produce loss of feeling
only affect a local area; there is no loss of consciousness.
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