Chpater 22

advertisement
Chapter 22:
The Respiratory System
Alexander Graham Bell – invented the
respiratory jacket in 1882. This device was the
precursor to the IRON LUNG developed by
Philip Drinker in the 1920s.
Figure 22.1: The major respiratory organs in relation to surrounding structures, p. 832.
Nasal cavity
Nostril
Oral cavity
Pharynx
Trachea
Larynx
Right main
(primary)
bronchus
Right lung
Carina of
trachea
Left main
(primary)
bronchus
Left lung
Diaphragm
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.2: The external nose, p. 833.
(a)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Epicranius, Frontal bone
frontal belly Nasal bone
Septal
Root and
cartilage
bridge
Maxillary
of nose
bone
Dorsum nasi (frontal
process)
Ala of nose Lateral
process of
septal cartilage
Minor alar
cartilages
Dense fibrous
Apex of nose connective
tissue
Philtrum
Major alar
Naris (nostril) cartilages
(b)
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.3a: The upper respiratory tract, p. 834.
Olfactory nerves
Olfactory
epithelium
Mucosa
of pharynx
Tubal
tonsil
Pharyngotympanic
(auditory)
tube
Nasopharynx
Superior nasal
concha and superior
nasal meatus
Middle nasal concha
and middle nasal
meatus
Inferior nasal concha
and inferior nasal
meatus
Hard palate
Soft palate
Uvula
(a)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.3b: The upper respiratory tract, p. 834.
Sphenoidal sinus
Nasal meatuses
(superior, middle,
and inferior)
Pharyngeal tonsil
Opening of
pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tube
Nasopharynx
Posterior nasal
aperture
Uvula
Palatine tonsil
Isthmus of the
fauces
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx
Vestibular fold
Vocal fold
Frontal sinus
Cribriform plate
of ethmoid bone
Nasal conchae
(superior, middle
and inferior)
Nasal vestibule
Nostril
Hard palate
Soft palate
Tongue
Lingual tonsil
Epiglottis
Hyoid bone
Thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage
Laryngeal
cartilages
Esophagus
Thyroid gland
Trachea
(b)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.4a-b: The larynx, p. 836.
Epiglottis
Thyrohyoid
membrane
Cuneiform
cartilage
Corniculate
cartilage
Arytenoid
cartilage
Arytenoid
muscles
Cricoid cartilage
Body of
hyoid bone
Thyroid
cartilage
Laryngeal
prominence
(Adam’s apple)
Cricothyroid
ligament
Cricotracheal
ligament
Body of
hyoid bone
Thyrohyoid
membrane
Fatty pad
Vestibular fold
(false vocal cord)
Thyroid cartilage
Vocal fold
(true vocal cord)
Cricothyroid
ligament
Cricotracheal
ligament
Tracheal
cartilages
(a)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
(b)
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.5: Movements of the vocal cords, p. 837.
Base of tongue
Epiglottis
False vocal cord
True vocal cord
(a)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Glottis
Inner lining of trachea
Corniculate
cartilage
(b)
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.6: Tissue composition of the tracheal wall, p. 839.
Posterior
Pseudostratified
ciliated columnar
epithelium
Esophagus
Trachealis
muscle
Mucous membrane
Submucosa
Adventitia
Lumen of
trachea
Seromucous
glands in
submucosa
Hyaline cartilage
Anterior
(a)
(b)
(c)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.7: Conducting zone passages, p. 840.
Trachea
Superior lobe
of right lung
Superior lobe
of left lung
Right main
(primary)
bronchus
Lobar (secondary)
bronchus
Middle lobe
of right lung
Inferior lobe
of right lung
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Segmental (tertiary)
bronchus
Inferior lobe
of left lung
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.8: Respiratory zone structures, p. 841.
Alveolar duct
Alveoli
Alveolar duct
Respiratory bronchioles
Terminal
bronchiole
Alveolar
sac
(a)
Respiratory
bronchiole
Alveolar
pores
Alveolar
duct
Alveoli
(b)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Alveolar
sac
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.9a-b: The respiratory membrane, p. 843.
Capillaries
Smooth
muscle
Alveolus
(a)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Elastic
fibers
(b)
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.9c-d: The respiratory membrane, p. 843.
Type II (surfactantsecreting) cell
Type I cell
of alveolar wall
Red blood cell
Epithelial cell nucleus
Capillary
Endothelial cell
nucleus
Capillary
O2
CO2
Alveolus
Macrophage
Respiratory
membrane
Alveoli (gas-filled
air spaces)
Red blood cell
in capillary
Alveolar pores
Alveolus
(d)
Alveolar epithelium
Fused basement membranes
of the alveolar epithelium
and the capillary endothelium
Nucleus of
type I
(squamous
epithelial)
cell
Capillary endothelium
(c)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.10a: Anatomical relationships of organs in the thoracic cavity, p. 844.
Parietal pleura
Apex of lung
Rib
Trachea
Thymus
Right superior lobe
Horizontal fissure
Right middle lobe
Oblique fissure
Right inferior lobe
Heart
(in mediastinum)
Diaphragm
Base of lung
(a)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Lung
Pleural
cavity
Intercostal muscle
Visceral pleura
Left
superior lobe
Cardiac notch
Oblique
fissure
Left inferior
lobe
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.16a: Respiratory volumes and capacities, p. 852.
6000
Milliliters (ml)
5000
4000
Inspiratory
reserve volume
3100 ml
Inspiratory capacity
3600 ml
3000
Tidal volume 500 ml
2000
1000
Expiratory
reserve volume
1200 ml
Residual volume
1200 ml
Vital capacity
4800 ml
Total
lung
capacity
6000 ml
Functional
residual capacity
2400 ml
0
(a) Spirographic record for a male
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.16b: Respiratory volumes and capacities, p. 852.
Inspiratory reserve
volume (IRV)
Expiratory reserve
volume (ERV)
Adult male Adult female
average
average
Description
value
value
Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting
500 ml
500 ml
conditions
Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal
3100 ml
1900 ml
volume inhalation
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal
1200 ml
700 ml
volume exhalation
Residual volume (RV)
1200 ml
1100 ml
Total lung capacity (TLC) 6000 ml
4200 ml
Vital capacity (VC)
4800 ml
3100 ml
Inspiratory capacity (IC) 3600 ml
2400 ml
Functional residual
capacity (FRC)
1800 ml
Respiratory capacities
Respiratory volumes
Measurement
Tidal volume (TV)
2400 ml
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation
Maximum amount of air contained in lungs after a maximum
inspiratory effort: TLC = TV + IRV + ERV + RV
Maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum
inspiratory effort: VC = TV + IRV + ERV (should be 80% TLC)
Maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal
expiration: IC = TV + IRV
Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume
expiration: FRC = ERV + RV
(b) Summary of respiratory volumes and capacities for males and females
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.17: Partial pressure gradients promoting gas movements in the body, p. 856.
Inspired air:
PO2 160 mm Hg
PCO2 0.3 mm Hg
O2 CO2
External
respiration
Blood entering
alveolar capillaries:
PO2 40 mm Hg
PCO2 45 mm Hg
Alveoli of lungs:
PO2 104 mm Hg
PCO2 40 mm Hg
O2 CO2
O2 CO2
Blood leaving
alveolar capillaries:
PO2 104 mm Hg
PCO2 40 mm Hg
O2 CO2
Pulmonary
veins (PO2
100 mm Hg)
O2 CO2
Pulmonary
arteries
Systemic
veins
Blood leaving
tissue capillaries:
PO2 40 mm Hg
PCO2 45 mm Hg
Heart
O2 CO2
Internal
respiration
Expired air:
PO2 120 mm Hg
PCO2 27 mm Hg
Systemic
arteries
Blood entering
tissue capillaries:
PO2 100 mm Hg
PCO2 40 mm Hg
O2 CO2
Tissues:
PO2 less than 40 mm Hg
PCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg
O2 CO2
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 22.28: The pathogenesis of COPD, p. 871.
• Tobacco smoke
• Air pollution
a-1 antitrypsin
deficiency
Continual bronchial
irritation and inflammation
Breakdown of elastin in
connective tissue of lungs
Chronic bronchitis
Bronchial edema,
chronic productive cough,
bronchospasm
Emphysema
Destruction of alveolar
walls, loss of lung
elasticity, air trapping
• Airway obstruction
or air trapping
• Dyspnea
• Frequent infections
• Abnormal ventilationperfusion ratio
• Hypoxemia
• Hypoventilation
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Additional Items to Review
About the Lymphatic
System
Figure 20.1: Distribution and special structural features of lymphatic capillaries, p. 774.
Venous
system
Heart
Arterial
system
Venule
Loose connective
tissue around capillaries
Arteriole
Lymph duct
Lymph trunk
Lymph node
Lymphatic
system
Lymphatic
collecting
vessels,
with
valves
Lymphatic
capillary
Tissue fluid
Tissue cell
(a)
Blood
capillaries
Blood
Lymphatic
capillaries capillary
Filaments
anchored to
connective
tissue
Endothelial
cell
Flaplike
minivalve
Fibroblast in loose
connective tissue
(b)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 20.2a: The lymphatic system, p. 776.
Regional
lymph nodes:
Cervical
nodes
Axillary
nodes
Entrance of
right lymphatic
duct into right
subclavian vein
Internal
jugular vein
Entrance of
thoracic
duct into left
subclavian vein
Thoracic duct
Aorta
Cisterna chyli
Lymphatic
collecting
vessels
Inguinal
nodes
(a)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
• Please remember that the overall design of the lymphatic system is a slightly modified
replication of the arterial and venous systems. Namely, the lymphatic vessels include the
larger “lymphatic vessels” the “lymphatuoles” and the “lymphatic capillaries”.
• From the lymphatic system, the fluids that are collected will be transported back into circulation
via the veins in the blood vascular system. One specific entry point is the subclavian vein.
• Peyer’s patches are significantly involved with aspects of immune response associated with
the digestive system and last during our entire lifetime.
• The way in which the lymphatic capillaries draws fluid into them is via the movment of the slitlike flaps through their attachment with filaments to the sidewalls of other tissues.
• Lymphatic vessels have valves like seen in veins.
• The cisterna chyli is a dialated part of the thorascic duct in the lymphatic system.
Figure 20.4: Lymph node, p. 778.
Afferent
lymphatic
vessels
Cortex:
• Lymphoid follicle
• Germinal center
• Subcapsular sinus
Efferent
lymphatic
vessels
Follicles
Trabecula
Subcapsular
sinus
(a)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Capsule
Hilum
Medulla: Capsule
• Medullary
cord
• Medullary
sinus Medullary
cords
Medullary
Trabeculae sinuses
(b)
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Figure 20.5: Lymphoid organs, p. 779.
Tonsils (in
pharyngeal
region)
Thymus (in
thorax; most
active during
youth)
Spleen (curves
around left side
of stomach)
Peyer’s patches
(in intestine)
Appendix
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Download
Related flashcards

Blood cells

15 cards

Respiratory system

21 cards

Lymphatic system

25 cards

Animal anatomy

36 cards

Create Flashcards