FIRST AID IS….

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Part 1
Dr.S.Nishan Silva
(MBBS)
What is FIRST AID ?
FIRST AID IS….
A matter of Common Sense
Application of mind
Swift Response
DEFINITION
First AID is the help given to a person in case of SUDDEN
INJURY or SICKNESS so that the INJURY/SICKNESS does
not AGGRAVATE FURTHER and due to swift action further
DETERIORATION is checked, same condition is maintained
& recovery promoted till the arrival of Medical Help.
SCOPE OF FIRST AID
From the definition four things are apparent :
PREVENT further deterioration
PRESERVE in the same condition
PROMOTE recovery
To arrange for regular Medical AID
The Decisions to take…
• Hospitalize or Not???
• If NOT then your
intervention???
• Allow to do normal work or
not???
Settings..
•
•
•
•
•
Home and related environment.
Road
Sports field
Other field settings
Other Environments???
• Water related.
• Forests
METHOD OF FIRST AID
Diagnosis
Treatment
Disposal
DIAGNOSIS BASED ON
Circumstantial Evidence
Signs
(you observe)
Symptoms (Patient tells)
First Aid Box - Contents
First aid Kit
• For Injuries
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bandages, Adhesive plaster
Sterile dressing, Gauze
Cotton
Antiseptic
Surgical spirit – (Isopropyl Alcohol 90%)
Gloves
Hydrogen peroxide
• Instruments
–
–
–
–
Scissors
Tweezers
Artery forceps
Torch
• Drugs
– Paracetamol, Aspirin, Clophenamine (Piriton)
– NSAID cream/gel
– Betadine
Home Environment
• Adults
• Children
• Limited facilities
• Remember….
– ? Whether to hospitalize or not?
– ? Whether to rest or not?
Burns…. Immediate…
•
•
•
•
Remove the patient from further harm
Remove yourself from harm
Call for help if needed
Assess
– Degree of burn
• Decide
• Act
First degree
Second Degree
Third degree
What to do???
• Cool down with running water
• Decide..
– 3rd degree – Hospitalize (even small)
– Average 2nd degree – Hospitalize
– Extensive 1st degree - Hospitalize
• Cover loosely before hospitalizing (With
gauze)
• Paracetamol for the time being
Home management
• Clean thoroughly with water,
cotton and surgical spirit if
necessary
• Apply betadine (or any other
special antiseptic – SSD
– silver sulphur diazine)
• Dress with gauze and bandage
• More pain killers
• Repeatedly dress every other
day till recovery
How to clean a wound?
• Equipment
• Method
• Sterility
• Dressing
Do NOTs in burns..
• No butter, oil or cream
• Don’t remove clothes
• No indigenous medicines
• No Ice
Choking
• Choking can result in unconsciousness
and cardiopulmonary arrest. It is often
caused by food or other foreign body
lodged in the throat (airway).
Step 1
Lean the person forward and give 5 back blows with the heel of
your hand.
Step 2
Give 5 quick, upward abdominal thrusts. (Heimlich Maneuver)
Step 3
Continue back blows and abdominal thrusts until• object is forced out
• person can breathe or cough forcefully
• person becomes unconscious - Hospitalize
Heimlich Maneuver
1. Stand behind victim.
2. Wrap arms around victim’s waist and not
around the ribs.
3. Make a fist and place the thumb side of
your fist just slightly above the navel.
4. Grab your fist with your other hand.
Heimlich Maneuver
5. Press into the victim’s stomach with five
quick upward thrusts. Each thrust should
have a pause in between.
6. After every five thrusts, recheck the
victim. Repeat until the object has been
dislodged of until the victim loses
consciousness.
Choking – Adult - video
Choking – Child - video
Dog Bites
What to do???
• Ensure safety
• Wear gloves – protect yourself
• Assess wound - ? Heavy bleeding
etc
– Heavy bleeding – Local pressure (exwith gauze)
– Cannot control bleeding – don’t use
tourniquet ; take to hospital
– Worth washing before pressure
• If no bleeding or bleeding
controlled – wash with soap –
wash thoroughly; even inside the
wound.
Next..
• Go to the doctor in all Dog bites – Rabies
can kill!!
• Take any vaccination records of the Dog if
available
• As the patient may need
– Suturing
– Rabies immunoglobulin injection
– Tetanus toxoid
– Antibiotics for wound
Same for…
•
•
•
•
Even your own Dog
Cats
Animal scratches
Other animal bites or scratches
– Pets –Rabits, Squirrels etc
– Wild animals
Human Bites
•
•
•
•
No need or special injections
But can get infected
So do the basic first aid
Dress the wound with
betadine
• No need of medical care
initially
– Unless bleeding
– Or at risk of infection
Assignment….
Make First Aid kits for IIHS
-To be used in the
premises
-To be used in the field
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