chapter 13 Training for Sport OPTIMIZING TRAINING—A MODEL Planning the Periods – Major Mesocycles of Training (Matveyev) • • • • Preparatory First Transition (added later) Competition Second Transition (Active Rest) Volume NOVICE ATHLETE MACROCYC LE Intensity Technique Preparatory Phase First Transition Competition Second Transition PERIODIZED TRAINING, MACROCYCLE PERIODIZED TRAINING, MESOCYCLE PERIODIZED TRAINING, MICROCYCLE Did You Know . . . ? A person’s rate of adaptation and response to training depends on that individual. He or she cannot be forced beyond his or her body’s capacity for development. Thus, training programs must take these individual differences into account. Optimal Training Load Progressive overload involves progressive increases in training load as the body adapts. Training volume involves duration or frequency. Training intensity involves force of muscle action and stress on cardiovascular system. • Resistance training (high intensity and low volume) • Aerobic training (high volume and lower intensity) Rest periods—Without them, muscles become chronically depleted. Changes in Swimmers’ (a) Blood Lactate Concentrations and (b) Heart Rates During 25 Weeks of Training (1/d & 2/d) Did You Know . . . ? The need for long daily workouts may not be the best training method for some sports. It appears that training volume could be reduced by as much as half in some sports without reducing the training benefits and with less risk of overloading. . DETRAINING, VO2MAX, AND OXIDATIVE ENZYMES Symptoms of Overtraining Syndrome • • • • • • • • • Decline in physical performance Decreased appetite and weight loss Muscle tenderness Head colds, allergic reactions, or both Occasional nausea Sleep disturbances Elevated resting heart rate Elevated blood pressure Emotional instability Possible Causes of Overtraining • • • • Periods of excessive training or emotional stress Abnormal responses in the autonomic nervous system Disturbances in endocrine function Depressed immune function EXERCISE AND IMMUNE FUNCTION Predicting Overtraining • Increase in oxygen consumption (though impractical for coach to measure) • Heart rate response to standard bout of work • Declines in performance Treatment of Overtraining • • • • Reduce training intensity for several days. Rest completely for three to five days. Seek counseling. Prevent overtraining by alternating easy, moderate, and hard training. • Eat sufficient carbohydrate to prevent glycogen depletion. Key Points Training Demands • Excessive training refers to training with an unnecessarily high volume or intensity. • Excessive training does not lead to additional gains in performance and can lead to overtraining. • Increase the duration or frequency of training to increase training volume. (continued) Key Points (continued) Training Demands • Training intensity can determine specific adaptations to training. • High-intensity, low-volume training increases muscle strength and speed. • High-volume, low-intensity training (50% to 90% . VO2max) increases aerobic capacity. (continued) Key Points (continued) Overtraining • Overtraining leads to decreased performance capacity. • Symptoms of overtraining may occur briefly with regular training. • Overtraining may be caused by abnormal responses in the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems and suppressed immune function. • Heart rate response appears to be the most reliable warning of overtraining. • Overtraining syndrome is treated most effectively with rest and proper nutrition. A Runner’s Heart Rate Responses Before Training (UT), After Training (TR), and When Showing Symptoms of Overtraining (OT) Did You Know . . . ? Tapering for competition involves a reduction in training intensity and volume. This rest allows your body to repair itself and restore its energy reserves to prepare you for your best performance.(4-28+days) Effects of Proper Tapering • • • • Muscular strength increases. Energy reserves are restored. . No loss of VO2max occurs. Performance increases (especially in swimmers). Detraining • Cessation of regular training; may be due to inactivity or immobilization. • Loss of muscle size, strength, and power. • Decrease in muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance. • Loss of speed, agility, and flexibility. Loss of Muscular Strength • Muscle atrophy accounts for a loss in development of maximal muscle fiber tension. • Normal fiber recruitment is disrupted; some fibers are unable to be recruited. • Muscle requires minimal stimulation (training once every 10 to 14 days) to retain training gains. Loss of Muscular Endurance • Decreased performance may be related to losses in cardiorespiratory endurance. • Oxidative enzyme activity in muscle decreases. • Glycolytic enzymes remain unchanged with up to 84 days of detraining. • Muscle glycogen content (and thus storage capacity) decreases. • Acid–base balance becomes disturbed. • Muscle capillary supply and fiber type may change. Changes in Glycogen Content During Four Weeks of Detraining Loss of Cardiorespiratory Endurance • • • • • Losses are greatest in highly trained individuals. Plasma volume decreases. Stroke volume decreases. Endurance performance decreases. . VO2max decreases. Did You Know . . . ? You can prevent rapid losses in cardiorespiratory endurance with a minimum of three training . sessions per week at an intensity of at least 70% VO2max. . Changes in VO2max With 20 Days of Bed Rest Adapted, by permission, from B. Saltin et al., 1968, "Response to submaximal and maximal exercise after bed rest and training," Circulation 38(7): 75. Retraining • Recovery of conditioning after a period of activity. • Affected by fitness level and the length and extent of inactivity. • If a cast allows some range of movement, retraining time can be reduced. • Electrical stimulation of muscles can prevent muscle fiber atrophy. Key Points Detraining and Retraining • Detraining is the cessation of regular physical training. • Retraining is resuming training after a period of inactivity. • The greater the training gains achieved, the greater the losses with detraining. • Detraining results in losses of muscle size, strength, power, and endurance; speed, agility, and flexibility; and cardiorespiratory endurance. • Detraining effects can .be minimized by training three times a week at 70% VO2max.