Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Cancer Darin Gopaul MD FRCPC Grand River Regional Cancer Centre Introduction POISONED! -- as They Chatted Merrily at Their Work Painting the Luminous Numbers on Watches, the Radium Accumulated in Their Bodies, and Without Warning Began to Bombard and Destroy Teeth, Jaws and Finger Bones. Marking Fifty Young Factory Girls for Painful, Lingering, But Inevitable Death" Marie Curie (1867 – 1934) Born in Poland University of Paris age 24 Discovered Radium 1898 t1/2 = 1602 years Intracavitary Brachytherapy Fletcher-Suit applicator Interstitial Brachytherapy Radium Needles Prostate Brachytherapy Prostate Brachytherapy Iodine 125 t ½ = 60 days Gamma emitter Energy 35 kV Free-hand implant technique Prostate Brachytherapy Prostate Brachytherapy Adverse effects • Urinary symptoms common • Dysuria, frequency, urgency, nocturia • Acute urinary retention 1-14% • Urinary incontinence 5- 6% • Proctitis 1-3% But… • Sexual potency preserved 86 -96% • At 2 – 3 years Prostate Brachytherapy Results: Gleason 2-4 Gleason 5-6 86% 63% PSA < 4 PSA 4 -10 93-100% 70-86% T1c T2a 90-94% 70-74% 5 year actuarial biochemical freedom from failure Prostate Brachytherapy Patient Selection • PSA < 10 • Gleason score 2 – 6 • T1c – T2a Prostate Brachytherapy • Advantages over standard EBRT: – – – – Does not require 6 - 7 weeks of daily fractionated treatments Less long-term toxicity due to radiation of adjacent organs Lower incidence of erectile dysfunction Day surgery procedure requiring only a single visit • Disadvantages compared to EBRT: – More susceptible to dosimetry errors in delivery of radiation – Requires a general / spinal anesthetic for implant – Higher incidence of voiding dysfunction at time and after treatment – Requires precautions regarding radiation exposure to family and friends – Only proven for low-stage and low-grade disease External Beam Radiotherapy 1951 – First Cobalt machine • Saskatoon, Saskatchewan • London, Ontario • Co 60 – t ½ = 5.26 years – Gamma emitter – Energy 1.25 MV Cobalt- 60 Definition Gray: A unit of absorbed radiation equal to the dose of one joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of matter, or 100 rads. Typical doses Palliative therapy 8 Gy in 1 fraction 20 Gy in 5 fractions Adjuvant therapy 42.5 Gy in 16 50 Gy in 25 Radical Doses 60 Gy in 30 78 Gy in 39 Palliative Radiotherapy Palliative radiotherapy • Relief of symptoms (bone met) • Prevention of symptoms or morbidity • Improve survival duration (brain mets) Case 1 – Palliative Radiotherapy 58 yo female with a history of metastatic breast ca. Has had increasing back pain for 6 months. Bone scan showed uptake (metastasis) at T5. No evidence of visceral mets. Pain not well controlled with narcotics (limited by side effects) Pain reproduced on palpation of T5 Case 1 – Palliative Radiotherapy Treated with palliative radiotherapy from T3 – T7 inclusive with 30Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Possible side effects: - skin dryness - skin erythema - odynophagia (radiation esophagitis) Case 1 – Palliative Radiotherapy Treated with palliative radiotherapy from T3 – T7 inclusive with 30Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Possible side effects: - skin dryness - skin erythema - odynophagia (radiation esophagitis) Pain relief within 3-4 weeks Prevention of spinal cord compression? Skin Care Recommendations Prevention - Wash daily with mild, non-scented pH balanced soap - Use of hand for washing the area, pat dry - No new creams or oils in the treatment area Treatment - Asymptomatic erythema : no treatment - Dry / itchy skin: aqueous cream (glaxal base, biafine) - Red/ burning skin: 1% hydrocotisone cream - Moist desquamation : Flamazine Cream +/- dressing Case 2 – Palliative Radiotherapy 59 yo male smoker presenting with SOB, cough and chest discomfort. No hemoptysis. Anorexia, fatigue and a 30 lb weight loss. CT Chest/abdomen, CT Brain, Bone scan demonstrate 14cm lung mass invading into the mediastinum (unresectable) but no mets. PFTs demonstrate FEV1 0.8L and DLCO 36% Palliative Radiotherapy – Lung Ca • Stage III : Not a candidate for radical radiotherapy – Poor PS – Significant weight loss – Large tumor > 7cm – Inadequate pulmonary reserve for radical radiotherapy • Stage IV : metastatic Palliative Radiotherapy – Lung Ca Goals • Symptom Control – Cough – Hemoptysis – Chest Pain • Delay intrathoracic progression – Prevent lung collapse – Prevent SVC Aim is Quality of life not Quantity of life Case 3 – Palliative Radiotherapy • 42 yo female T2N1 NSCLCa, treated with surgery. 8 months later presented with a seziure, CT scan demonstrates multiple (4 brain mets) • Treated with Whole Brain Radiotherapy with clinical/radiologic response Case 3 – Palliative Radiotherapy • 8 months post Whole Brain XRT, presents with clinical/ radiologic progression. Options? - Steroids (no response) - Surgery (not for multiple lesions) - Radiotherapy (already treated) - Radiosurgery Co 60 Radiosurgery – “Gamma Knife” “Co 60 Radiosurgery – “Gamma Knife” • Invented 1950’s • 201 Cobalt sources • Precision mounted • 4mm – 4cm target • Rigid Immobilization Gamma Knife Linear Accelerator Linear Accelerator • X-rays • Higher energy (4 - 18Mv) – compared to Gamma rays (1.25 Mv) • Higher energy means – More penetrating beam – Treat deeper tumors – Enhanced skin sparing Linac Radiosurgery – “X Knife” • High energy beam • 1 moving source • 5mm – 4cm target Linac Radiosurgery – “X Knife” Advantages • Allows multiple fractions • More widely available • Linac has other uses Cranial Radiosurgery Indications • Solitary Brain Met on MRI • < 4 cm maximal dimension • 1- 3 Recurrent post Whole Brain Rads • Good Performance Status (KPS > 70%) • Limited or Controlled Extracranial Disease Adjuvant Radiotherapy Definition Adjuvant Therapy: Post-operative treatment in the absence of demonstrable residual disease, to reduce the possibility of recurrence. Adjuvant radiotherapy – Breast cancer • Breast conservation • Post mastectomy (loco-regional) Breast Conservation • No difference in OS • LR uncommon post adjuvant XRT • LR can be salvaged with further surgery BCS + Radiotherapy = Mastectomy Breast Tangents Computer assisted radiation planning Adjuvant radiotherapy – Breast cancer Reducing treatment duration (OCOG study) • 42.5 Gy in 16 vs • No difference in LR control • No difference in cosmesis 50 Gy in 25 Adjuvant radiotherapy – Breast cancer 42.5 Gy in 16 fractions now standard • Not for very large Breast volumes • 3-5 “boost” treatments to the tumor bed • Close or focal positive margins • Premenopausal status Postmastectomy Radiotherapy Standard for High Risk disease • Tumor > 5cm (T3) • Tumor involves skin or chest wall (T4) • 4 or more lymph nodes – LRR 25-30% postmastectomy – LRR 5- 10% post Locoregional radiotherapy – OS improves 5% Postmastectomy Radiotherapy Intermediate Risk disease – T2 tumor with multiple adverse features – High grade, LVI+, ER- – 1-3 lymph nodes – Age < 45 years – LRR 10 -18% postmastectomy – LRR 5% post Locoregional radiotherapy 3D Conformal Radiotherapy 3D Conformal Radiotherapy • Acquire 3D spacial data • Radiation Planning in 3D • Deliver Radiation in 3D CT Simulator Couch MRI-CT Fusion (Co-Registration) MRI Excellent soft tissue contrast allows better differentiation between normal tissues and many tumors Disadvantages: Susceptible to spatial distortions Treatment Planning Beam Placement Multileaf Collimator (MLC) No more lead blocks! Prostate Radiotherapy Prostate 3D Planning Shaping the beam with MLC - prostate AP View Lateral View Beam’s Eye View (BEV) Verification - EPID images Increasing Conformality Advantages • Enhanced Normal Tissue Sparing • Reduces side effects • Dose Escalation Improves Cure Rate • Higher Dose per Fraction • Reduce Number of fractions • Reduce Treatment Duration The Future Targeting System X-ray sources Manipulator Synchrony™ camera Linear accelerator Robotic Delivery System Image detectors Thank-you!